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Vol. VII. Jan. — Dec, 189S 






Boston, Mass Wheelwright & Haven 

Chicago, 111 .Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. 

New York City. Israels & Harder 

Washington, D. C Edward W. Donn, Jr 

Wernersville, Pa Rankin & Kellogg 

Pittsburgh, Pa Alden & Harlow . 

St. Paul, Minn Cass Gilbert 


Fall River, Mass Cram, Wentworth & Ferguson . . . 

Hartford, Conn '. . ,, ^r if .1 ... [ Associated 

' George .M. Bartlett ) 

Philadelphia, Pa Baily & Truscott 

Sing Sing, N. Y Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen . . . . 

CLUB HOUSES Princeton, N. J ... Cope & Stewardson. 

New York City J. A. Schweinfurth. . 



Boston, Mass Wheelwright &. Haven 

Cambridge, Mass A. W. Longfellow, Jr 

New York City N. Le Brun & Sons 

Philadelphia, Pa Frank Miles Day & Brother. 

Philadelphia, Pa Rankin & Kellogg 

Philadelphia, Pa James H. Windrim 

ENGINE HOUSES New York City Edward Pierce Casey. 

.Cope & Stewardson. 

GYMNASIUMS Glen Mills, Pa 

HOSPITALS See Asylums. 

HOUSES,— Boston, Mass R. Clipston Sturgis 

RESIDENCES Chicago, 111 Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge . . 

Lawrence, L. I., N. Y T. Henry Randall 

Lenox, Mass Carrere & Hastings 

Llewellyn Park, .\. J Algernon S. Bell 

New York City Carrere & Hastings 

New York City McKim, Mead & White 

New York City McKim, Mead & White 

New York City Little & Brown 

New York City Howard & Cauldwell 

Pittsburgh, Pa .Vlden & Harlow 

Pittsburgh, Pa Peabody & Stearns 

Princeton, N. J Cope & Stewardson 

St. Louis, Mo Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen. 

LIBRARIES Annapolis, Md T. Henry Randall. 

Erie, Pa Alden & Harlow , . 


New York City R. W. Gibson 

POST OFFICES Pottsville, Pa James Kno.\ Taylor. 

TOWN HALLS East Orange, N.J Boring & Tilton. . . . 









1 1 





1 1 





I 1 





68, 69, 70, 71. 72 

9. 'o 

78, 79. 80 


• ■ • 57, 58, S9> 60 

. 45, 46, 47- 48 

•89, 90, 91,92 
. 21, 22, 23, 24 


39, 40 

• 33 

. .. 14, IS, 16 


81,82,83, 84 


65, 66 

75, 76 

... 85, 86 
53, 54, 5S 


. .. II, 12, 13 


17, 18, 19, 20 

93. 94 


■ ■ • 27, 28, 29, 30 
25, 26 



95. 96 


35. 36, 37 

• 87 



49. 50, 51, 52 


Upper Portion of 

Tower of Monastery 
Church at Chiaravalle. 

Harwood House, 

.Annapolis, Md 


Drawn Ity- 


C. H. Alden. Jr. 

C. H. Alden. Jr. 




73, 74 


This list does not include illustrations made in connection with articles, nor those of terra-cotta details. 

Title and Location. Architect. Page. 

BACHELOR Apartment, New York City Franklin D. Pagan 46 

Bayard Building, New York City ^°"'f "„'^""'''f" I Associated 127 

■^ ° ■' Lyndon P. Smith ) 

Board of Education Building, St. Louis, Mo Isaac S. Taylor 21 

Boston Athletic Club, Boston, Mass Sturgis & Cabot '9 

Brick Cornices, Siena, Italy James P. Jamieson, Del 164 

Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, N. Y George Cary 242 

Burt's Theater, Toledo, Ohio George S. Mills 220 

Vol. VII. Jan. — Dec, 1898 


Title and Location. Architect. Page. 

Business Block, Philadelphia, Pa Hales & Ballinger 88 

Business Block, Philadelphia, Pa Cope & Stewardson 240 

CARNEGIE Library, Lawrenceville Branch, Pittsburgh, Pa Alden & Harlow 130 

Catlin Block, Hartford, Conn W. C. Brocklesby 151 

Chemical Building, St. Louis, Mo 194 

Church, Southport, Conn Hobart A. Walker 265 

Cloister, St. Christopher's Mission House, New York City Barney & Chapman 151 

Converse Building, Boston, Mass Winslow & Wetherell 1 50 

DAIRY Company's Building, St. Louis, Mo W. Albert Swasey .'. .21 

HAMILTON Club House, Paterson, N. J Charles Edwards 2 

Harwood House, Annapolis, Md H. F. Briscoe, Del 12 

House, Boston, Mass H. H. Richardson 87 

House, Boston, Mass McKim, Mead & White 243 

House, Brookline, Mass Winslow & Wetherell 66 

House, Brookline, Mass Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 265 

House, Buffalo, N. Y George Cary 221 

House, Buffalo, N. Y McKim, Mead & White 266 

House, Des Moines, Iowa Frederick Weitz 222 

House, New York City Frank Miles Day & Brother 41 

House, New York City McKim, Mead & White 65 

House, Philadelphia, Pa Cope & Stewardson 27 

House, Pittsburgh, Pa Peabody & Stearns 262 

House, J>t. Louis, Mo Barnett, Haynes & Barnett 20 

House, St. Louis, Mo Barnett, Haynes & Barnett 44 

JEFFERSON .Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa James H. Windrim 219 

LIBRARY, Erie, Pa Alden & Harlow 241 

MAIN Entrance, City Hall, Paterson, N. J Carrere & Hastings 108 

Mantel, House, Philadelphia, Pa Peabody & Stearns '. 17 

Manufacturing Building, Burlington, Vt W. R. B. Willcox 1 74 

Mellon Block, Pittsburgh, Pa Alden & Harlow 175 

Museum Building, Botanical Garden, New York City R. W. Gibson 171 

OCTAGON House, Washington, D. C 113 

Office Building, London, England R. Norman Shaw 93 

PARK Row Syndicate Building, New York City R. H. Robertson 148 

Park Theatre. Niagara P'alls, N. Y Orchard & Joralemon 221 

Planters' Hotel, St. Louis, Mo Isaac S. Taylor 19 

Plan, House at Pittsburgh, Pa Alden & Harlow 18 

Plan, House at New York City McKim, Mead & White 107 

Plan, City Hospital, Boston, Mass Wheelwright & Haven 19S 

Power House and Car Barn, Chicago, 111 Reed & Stem 22 

ROWE Departmental Store, Pittsburgh, Pa Alden & Harlow 197 

SCHOOL Building for Deaf and Dumb, Columbus, Ohio Richards & McCarty 240 

Stable, New York City Thayer & Wallace . '. 266 

St. Christopher's Mission House, New York City Barney & Chapman 42 

St. James Hall, Philadelphia, Pa Rankin & Kellogg 193 

St. Mark's School, Southboro, Mass Henry Forbes Bigelow 171 

State Asylum for Insane. Wernersville, Pa Rankin & Kellogg 172 

Store and Office Front, Toronto, Canada Arthur E. Wells 197 

Synagogue, Toronto, Canada J. W. Siddall 44 

THE Fair Building. Chicago, 111 Jenney & Mundie 149 

Town Hall, East Orange, N.J Boring & Tilton 149 

UNITED States Appraisers' Warehouse, New York City William Martin Aiken 173 

WATER Tower, Chapinville, Conn Stone, Carpenter & Willson 1 50 




(This series was begun in the November number, 1897. 

Paper III. Construction and Costs 


Agassiz Grammar, Boston, Mass. 

Brooks Grammar, Medford, Mass. 

Pierce Grammar, West Newton, Mass. 

Paper IV. Construction and Costs 


Hopedale Grammar, Hopedale, Mass. 

Longfellow Grammar, Boston, Mass. 

Margaret Fuller Grammar, Boston, Mass. 

Sewall Grammar, Brookline, Mass. 

Paper V. Construction and Costs 


Plans by William Atkinson. 

Eustis Street Primary, Boston, Mass. 

Wyman Street Primary, Boston, Mass. 

North Brighton Grammar, Boston, Mass. 



Paper VI. Construction and Costs 73 


Gilbert Stuart Grammar, Boston, Mass. 
Paul Revere Grammar, Boston, Mass. 
Cambridge High, Cambridge, Mass. 
Williams Primary, Boston, Mass. 

Paper VII. Planning of High Schools 94 


English High, Boston, Mass. 
Cambridge High, Cambridge, Mass. 

Paper VIII. Planning of High Schools 114 


High School, New Britain, Conn. 
High School, Providence, R. I. 

Paper I.X. Manual Training 135 


Manual Training School, St. Louis, Mo. 
Manual Training School, Toledo, Ohio. 
Manual Training School, Cambridge, Mass* 


Vol. VII. Jan. — Dec, 1898 


Mechanics .Arts High, Boston. Mass 155 


Mechanics Arts High, Boston. Mass. 

Plumbing, Heating, and Ventilation 1 79 


Proposed High .School. Marlboro. Mass. 

Specifications -03 


De Lancey School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brown School. Hartford, Conn. 

Specifications --S 


Pierce (".ranimar, Brookline, .Mass. 

High School, South Boston, Mass. 

Gibson Grammar, Boston, Mass, 



Paper I "6 

Paper II J39 


Paper X. 

Paper .\I. 

Paper .\II. 

Paper .\I II. 

Paper III. 



Cooperation between Architect, Engineer, and Clay- 
worker 7 

Sill Course, Panel and Balcony Construction 55 

Balcony Construction 9S 

Balcony Construction 142 

Balcony and Parapet Balustrading 1 cSf 

Terra-Cotta IJalustrading 230 

Paper 1. 

Paper 1 1 . 
Paper III. 
Paper 1\'. 
Paper V. 
Paper VI. 



The reprint of this work was begun in The Brickbuilder for 
January, 1894, and has been continued in the following numbers: — 

Volume III. Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 

Volume IV. Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 8, 9, 10. 

Volume V. No. 2. 

Volume VII. No. 2 34 

No. 5 100 

No. 8 160 

No. 10 210 



Paper I . 59 

Paper II 79 

Paper II 1 102 

Paper IV 121 

COST, $10,000. 

Paper I By Charles A. Rich 137 

Paper II By Edward B. (ireen 182 

Paper III By Alfred B. Harlow 207 

Paper I \' By Walter Cope 247 


A Bright. Clean, and Brilliant City 1 29 

Bonding of Brickwork, The 259 

Ceramic Mosaic ts. Marble Pavement 241 

Disintegration of Clay by Frost, The 1 1 

Efflorescence of Brickwork 237 

Grueby Faience, The 162 

Important Problems in Construction 252 

League Exhibit, The 27 

New Form of Enamel Tiling 45 

Notes on Terra-Cotta for Exterior Polychrome Decoration 119 

Preserving Records of Foundations 236 

Report of the Committee on Architecture and Grounds of the 

Tennessee Centennial Exposition 9 

Rulings on Questions Concerning Real Estate L'nder the War 

Revenue Law 138 

Strength of Brick Masonry 58, 77 

T Square Club Exhibit, The 28 

Test of the Crushing Strength of Brick Piers 28 

Tensile Tests of Cement 165, 187 

Use of Terra-Cotta for Interiors 68 



A Question of Ethics 223 

Boston Subway — A Lost Opportunity 133 

Cleaning of Outside Windows in Tall Buildings 92 

Colored Brick 245 

Color in Architecture 153 

Enamels on Burnt Clay 49 

Ephemeral Construction 71 

Extension of Boston Fire Limits in 

Hard Times and High Ideals 201 

Responsibility of the Architect ■ 177 

Retrospective 1 

Skeleton Construction 91 

Small Opportunities 25 



A Seventeen-Story Building Tested by Fire 

An Example of Fire-proof Church Architecture 

Cement iv. Terra-Cotta Construction 

Consensus of Opinion .Among Leading .Architects of Chicago on 

the Use of Burned Clay for Fire-proof Buildings 167, 

Failure and Efficiency in Fire-proof Construction 

Fire-proofing with Burned Clay 

How to Build Fire-proof 61 

Livingston Building Fire, The 

London Fire, The 

Recent Improvements in the Manufacture of Fire-proof 

Building .Materials from Clay 

Report on a Recent Fire-proofing Test 

Report of Fire Losses for 1 897 

Report on Home Life Building Fire, New York, Dec. 4, 1898.. . 
.Some Notes upon the Struggle for Survival between Burnt Clay 

Fire-prooling and»its .\ewly .Arisen Rivals 103, 


Cement Industry in United States 

Characteristics of Various Brands of American Natural Cement. 

Hydraulic Cements 1 24, 

Physical Tests of Portland Cement 

Proper .Manipulation of Tests of Cement 

Quality of Mortar 

Strength of Concrete 

Tests of Quick-Setting Cement 


Brick Veneer Construction 

Certain Rights of the Contractor 

Concerning the Rights of Contractors and Authority of Archi- 

Competition in Bidding 

Contractor and Referee, The 

Cracks in Plastering 

Effect of Mistake in Statement of Amount 

Electric Condition of Modern Buildings 

Enameled Brick 

Estimating Brickwork 1 69, 

Experiment in Municipal Work. An 

Exterior ScalTolding 

Laying Brick in Cold Weather 

Limestone in Concrete Injurious to Iron 

Liquidated Damage for Breach of Contract 

Material Man 

Mixing Concrete by Gravitation 

Regulating Competition Methods of Estimating 

Some Mistakes of Contractors as \'ie\ved by an .Architect. .216, 

Stable Subsoil for Foundations 

Surety Liable on Building Contract 

Walling Up 


Buffalo Letters 

Chicago Letters 18, 44, 86, 1 06, 129, 1 48, 171,218, 

Cincinnati Letters 

Columbus Letters 

New York Letters 

17, 41, 65, 86, 1 06, 127, 148, 170, 193, 217, 239, 

Memphis Letters 

Minneapolis Letters 172, 

Philadelphia Letters 42, 66, 87, 1 70, 

Pittsburgh Letters 66, 107, 149, 193, 

St. Louis Letters 43, 88, 128, I 72, 218, 

News Items. . . . 20, 45, 69, 89, 108, 130, 150, 174, 196, 220, 242, 







■ '3 


1 68 















Charles T. Harris, President. 

Henry S. Harris, Vice-President. 


WiixiAM R. Clarke, Secy, and Treas. 

Alvord B. Clarke, Superintendent. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd. t. harris, 

.Manufacturers of 

Artistic Roofing Tiles, 

(Under Babcock Patents. 

-0 ALFRED, N. Y. o 

Ficr. 1. 

Fi^. 6. 


Fief. 8. 

THE purpose of this invention is to reduce to the minimum the number of different sizes of tiles required to cover a conical roof, 
and consists of a series of interlocking tiles, wherein the units or members are laterally adjustable upon one another, to 
embrace different circumferences in the conical roof, while preserving the number of tiles included in a circle and preserving 
their individual lateral dimension for a considerable number of tiers in the order of laying. 

The feature of lateral adjustability is adapted to preserve perfect uniformity of convergence in the said lines ol relief. Owing to 
the small number of different sized patterns required, economy is effected in molding and laying the tiles by reason of uniformity and 
infrequent change of selection. 

Heretofore it has been necessary, in order to preserve the converging alignment of the tiles upon a conical roof, to manufacture 
especially therefor as many different patterns of tile as there are tiers in the entire covering. 

The herein-described invention is so adapted that whether the circular series composed of a given number of tiles have a maximum or 
a minimum circumference, the weather joints will be maintained. 

It will be obvious that what is herein stated with reference to tiling for conical roofs is applicable also to roofs having the form of 
conical segments. 

Referring to the accompanying drawings, in which similar characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in each view : Mg. i 
is a perspective elevation showing a tiled roof constructed according to this invention; Fig. 2, a horizontal section at a, a. Fig. i ; Fig. 3, 
a horizontal section at b, b. Fig. i. Fig. 4 represents a vertical section enlarged, taken at x — x, Fig. i ; Fig. 5, a face view of a single 
tile of one dimension of pattern ; Fig. 6, a face view of a single tile of another dimension of pattern ; Fig. 7, a bottom end view of Fig. 5. 
Fig 8 represents these tile as actually laid on a certain tower, and shows the uniformity of lines of convergence and perfect alignment. 
It also discloses our series of ornamental eave tile. 




Attention is called to the fact that some 5i,ooo cu. ft. of terra-cotta are used on this building and the .Kslor I'ouri Building, seen in the distance. This includes Ihe work made for the interior, on tlie ground 

and first floors. The total weight was about 2,200 tons, which is equal to 60.1 truck loads of 7,333 lbs. each. 


The New York Architectural Terra -Cotta Company, 

38 Park Row, New York City. 





(} JAN. '' 
5J 1898 

^K No. J 



6TREET ^pi 
B05T0N v|j 

~TCp— XX>r-) fWT"' 





Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3.50 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 


THE first of January has come to be associated with the turn- 
ing over of new leaves and a certain amount of retrospec- 
tion preparatory to a plunge into the hopes and fears which are 
supposed to lie before us ; and though moralizing can hardly be 
called a branch of the burnt-clay aits or industries, by a somewhat 
circuitous association of ideas we are led to some reflection. This 
is a rapid age. Rapid transit is in the air, and not only in our 
streets and in our commercial structures, but in our professional life 
as well has the necessity for haste been made to seem to be para- 
mount. Surely no one material has contributed more to the exigen- 
cies of haste, at least as regards the external finish of our buildings, 
than that which is the product of the burnt-clay industries, and the 
feeling of perpetual rush which is such a factor of our modern pro- 
fessional and mechanical life is quite as strongly felt in the particu- 
lar lines of industry and industrial art which this journal represents 
as in any other department of human production. The old story of 
the artist painter who claimed that the secret of his success was that 
he mixed brains with his pigments is applicable to every industry 
which depends for its final character upon intelligence and direct, 
concerted effort. Now, the application of brains to the arts and 
sciences means time, and a lot of it. It has come to be a trite say- 
ing that we live too fast, but the necessity for deliberate thought, 
for making haste slowly, though ever present with us, can hardly be 
emphasized too strongly. There are some natures whose genius is 
most available at high pressure, and who need the excessive voltage 
to develop their illuminating power. There are other fortunate mor- 
tals who can handle fifty different enterprises at once, make a suc- 

cess of each, and keep on a keen jump for years, finally going up 
with a shout, closing the chapter in full fighting trim. But for those 
of us who are just plain mortals, time is a very important and indis- 
pensable adjunct to the production of any really excellent work, 
though it is one which is unfortunately very often neglected. We 
permit ourselves to be rushed, we know full well that we do not give 
the cautious, deliberate thought and study to our work which we 
know it deserves, and we have no one but ourselves to thank for the 
inchoate, ill-digested aspect of so much of our current architecture. 
We know how to do things right, but we are too prone not to take 
time to do it. 

The good Book tells us that no man by taking thought can add 
to his stature. Nevertheless we know that by taking- thought we 
can add continually and indefinitely to our mental and artistic stat- 
ure. We need at times to sit down quietly by ourselves and forget 
that there is a client who is in a terrible hurry to have a building 
done on the first of the month, or a contractor who is impatiently 
calling for details, and to collect our thoughts, striving to formulate 
our ideas and turn our problems over and over in our head until we 
can feel the familiarity with them which is very likely to lead to the 
best kind of a solution. Annie Besant is quoted as saying that if 
she has a very serious problem to consider, she gathers all the facts 
before her and then goes to sleep over them. A little more of this 
same procedure would give us Ijetter buildings, more systematic plan- 
ning, and more artistic treatment of details ; would go further, in fact, 
to give us what is so often sighed for and which we are but slowly 
approximating, — a national, distinctive style of work. Our busy men 
do not give themselves time for thought. We remember a short 
time since having a very interesting interview with one of our lead- 
ing architects, who confessed to being so tired out and rushed with 
work that his digestion had been impaired, he was troubled with in- 
somnia, and he felt thoroughly used up. But the stirring necessities 
of his practise, as he viewed them, kept him at the mill, when by 
rights he ought to have been out in the woods, or fishing, or doing 
something entirely different from his daily work, to give his tired 
brain a chance; and when we recall the really excellent work which 
he was able to turn out year after year under these excessive condi- 
tions, we cannot but think how much easier the same could have 
been accomplished, to say nothing of the possibility of better results, 
had he simply refused to be hurried, and demanded time to think 
and to study. 

PROF. F. W. CHANDLER, who is at the head of the Archi- 
tectural Department of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, has recently been appointed official architectural adviser to 
the mayor of Boston. An office of this kind is not entirely new 
in municipal matters, but it has not been created and filled so often 
that there has yet been any definite precedent. Consequently, there 
is an added pleasure in noting the appointment. It is pleasant to 
think that the city of Boston has a mayor who appreciates the con- 
ditions sufficiently to admit that he does not know everything about 
architecture. The average city official is so seldom troubled with 
this kind of modesty that such an appointment is not what one 
would ordinarily expect, but the mayor has shown himself capable 
of rising above the level of the politician, and his selection is one 
that will receive the approval of all who are interested in good munic- 


ipal architecture, properly selected and properly supervised. Pro- 
fessor Chandler is an eminent architect, abundantly qualified to 
give the best sort of advice, while at the same time his connection 
with the Institute removes him from the suspicion of interested 
advice and takes him out of active competition with his brother 

Wl'^ had occasion some time since to observe the construction 
in a building which had been in place for some thirty 
years, and which presented several points of interest. The floors 
were composed of wrought-iron beams connected by brick arches, 
the brickwork being laid in Rosendale cement mortar. The building 
was an average one, subjected to the ordinary conditions, not as 
good as the best and yet not especially exposed at any point. The 
beams rested upon brick walls laid up in cement. A careful inspec- 
tion failed to show any signs of rust about any of the beams. 
Furthermore, the paint, which appeared to be red lead, was intact over 
nearly the entire surface of the iron. It is frequently asserted that 
cement acts as a preservative for iron or steel in construction. Lime 
certainly attacks the iron to a limited extent, but sufficiently so as to 
effect a marked change in the course of years ; and plaster of Paris 
likesvise attacks iron slightly, though we imagine the cause in this 
case is due rather to the extreme avidity with which plaster of Paris 
will absorb moisture from the air and then give it out to the iron; 
but whether the cement really protects the iron or not, there is every 
reason to believe that it protects the paint, and the paint in its turn 
protects the iron. Consequently if the iron beams are carefully- 
painted before being enclosed, and the brick or terra-cotta used 
therewith is thoroughly bedded in cement so the cement protects the 
paint, there is pretty good evidence that we can safely depend upon 
freedom from corrosion for an indefinite period. 


C. A. Brehmer, architect, has opened an office at 215 West 
Jefferson Street, South Bend, Ind. Catalogues and samples desired. 

Morgan M. Renxer, architect, has taken offices in the Hart- 
ford Building, Broadway and t7th Street, New York City. Cata- 
logues and samples desired. 

Edwaku J. Dougherty and F. Dickinson Shaw have formed 
a copartnership under the firm name of Dougherty & Shaw, for the 
practise of architecture, with offices at 317 Market Street, Camden, 
N. J. Catalogues and samples desired. 

Georcje Oakley Totten, Jr., chief designer in the office of 
the supervising architect at Washington, during Mr. Aiken's ad- 
ministration, has resigned that position, and formed a copartnership 
with Laussat Richter Rogers, under the firm name of Totten & 
Rogers, for the practise of architecture. The new firm has taken 
offices at 931 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

The president and officers of the T Square Club, of Philadel- 
phia, held a reception on the evening of January 24, at the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. 

The Chicago Architectural Club is having its usual lively and 
interesting midwinter season. Among the recent events were the 
Annual Christmas Celebration, on the evening of December 29, the 
first exhibition of the Proj^t Drawings, January 10, and the " Club 
Souvenir Night," December 20. Refreshments were served at each 
of these gatherings, a group of members acting as hosts for each 

The Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Society of Architects 

was held Friday, January 7, at Board of Trade Rooms, Newark) 
N. J., President Albert Beyer presided ; Mr. James H. Lindsley, as 
chairman of committee on society insignia, which was open to com- 
petition among the members, reported that the committee had se- 
lected a design which was finally adopted by the society. The 
code of ethics and professional practise, as recommended by the 
hoard of governors, was adopted as a whole and referred back to 
the committee to be incorporated in the new draft of the constitu- 
tion and by-laws. 

The election of officers and members to the board of gov- 
ernors resulted as follows: President, Albert Beyer; first vice- 
president, Paul G. Botticher; second vice-president, James H. 
Lindsley : secretary and treasurer, Cieorge W. von .Arx. Board of 
governors, vacancies to l)oard, three-year term, Herrr\an IL Kreitler 
and Rudolph W. Sailer. 

After adjournment the members were invited to partake of a 
collation provided by the newly elected officers. 


THE New York .-\rchitectural Terra-cotta Company send for 
illustration a print of the Hamilton Club, Paterson, N. J., 
designed by and executed under the superintendence of Mr. Charles 
Edwards, of that city. 

Number seven of the series of brick and terracotta fireplace 
mantels especially designed for Fiske, Homes & Co., is shown in 

Charles Edwards, Architect. 

their advertisement on page vii, J. A. Schweinfurth being the de- 

A tympanum panel executed in terra-cotta for the public school 
building at Port Richmond, Staten Island, I. W. Moulton, architect, 
is shown in the advertisement of the New Jersey Terra-cotta Com- 
pany, on page viii. 

The Harbison & Walker Company illustrate in their advertise- 
ment, on page xiii, the Bank of McKeesport building, at McKees- 
port, Pa., Longfellow, Alden & Harlow, architects. 

Number three of the descriptive series of the roofing tiles made 
by the Celadon Terra-cotta Company, Charles T. Harris, lessee, is 
given in the company's advertisement, page xxvii. 

Examples of bond, showing blocks of the Gilbreth Seam-Face 
Granite laid up in two styles of bond, is illustrated in the company's 
advertisement, page xxxiv. 


The American Schoolhouse. III. 


IN considering the costs of the Brighton and Brookline high schools 
I neglected to state in my last paper that the Brighton school is 
but a part of the building which eventually will be built, and that it 
was planned with reference to its ready junction to the future con- 
struction; it therefore has features which are adequate for the en- 
larged structure, and the cost per cubic foot is sorhewhat greater than 
it would have been had it been constructed of the size that it will be 
in the future. 

To continue the consideration of the cost of schoolhouses, that 
of those of the grammar grade will now be considered, and inci- 
dentally certain different features of plans and construction will be 
pointed out. 

The Pierce Grammar School, at West Newton, Mass., may fairly 
be considered as a fourteen-room building with assembly hall, or as 
having accommodation equivalent to sixteen schoolrooms. The build- 
ing is of brick for two stories in height, and has an assembly hall in 
the roof. The schoolrooms have a stud of 12 ft. The wardrobes 
are in part separate rooms, shut off from the main corridor and with 
outside light, and in part are wire netting enclosures in the corridors. 
The brick walls of first and second stories are 16 ins. thick. The in- 
terior partitions are of wood studding, fire stopped and wire lathed. 
The blackboards are of slate. The schoolroom windows, except on 
one long side, the south, have double run of sash. 

The ground area of this building is 11,536 sq. ft. The cubical 
area is 611,408 cu. ft. About one third of the attic is left unfin- 
ished, as it is space which cannot advantageously be utilized for 
schoolhouse purposes. The cost of this building, not including grad- 
ing, fencing, and paving of the yard, and deducting architect's com- 
mission, was $70,102, or II cts. per cubic foot. Reckoning the as- 
sembly hall as two schoolrooms, the cost per schoolroom was $4,125. 

The Agassiz Grammar School was built for the city of Boston 
before the passage of the building law of 1892, which materially in- 
creased the cost of building schoolhouses, as will be shown here- 
after. This school has fourteen schoolrooms and an assembly hall 
in the third story. The stud of the schoolrooms is 13 ft. 6 ins. and 
in third story 16 ft., the assembly having a stud of 20 ft. The black- 
boards are of slate. The minor partitions, where not of brick, are 
of terra-cotta lumber. In short, the building is constructed in the 
main as is recommended in my earlier papers on this subject. 

The ground area of this building is 9,618 sq. ft. The cubical 
area is 605,934 cu. ft. The cost was $9 1 ,783 or 1 5 cts. per cubic foot, 
and $5,736 per schoolroom. 

An analysis of the reason for the differences in cost of these two 
schools leads to interesting conclusions. 

As will be seen by the perspective sketches here given, the 
Agassiz School is of a more elaborate design than is the Newton 
school, and further, the former school has exterior walls of Perth 
Amboy terra-cotta brick with terra-cotta trimmings, while the latter 
school has exterior lining of selected Eastern water-struck brick with 
free-stone trimmings. 

Calculations of the proportionate increase expense of school- 
houses when of architectural design, and of like buildings with the 
exterior features of a well-constructed factory, lead me to the opinion 
that the excess of cost of the architectural features of the Newton 
school is about $3,000 above that of a wholly utilitarian' structure 
serving the same ends, while that of the Agassiz School is about 
$7,000. Therefore if the design had been stripped of all architec- 
tural features, and brought to the condition of a factory building, 
being otherwise unchanged in its several features, it is probable that 
the Newton school could have been built for about $67,000. Under 
the same conditions the Agassiz School could have been built for 
about $85,000. 

This difference of cost, $18,000, can be almost wholly accounted 
for by the consideration of the difference in cost of foundations and 

brickwork, together with the difference in the construction of the 
interior partitions and heat and vent shafts. The external walls of 
the Agassiz School are 19 ft. higher and 4 ins. thicker throughout 
than are those of the Newton school. The interior partitions of the 
Newton school are of spruce studding, wire lathed. The interior 
partitions of the Agassiz School are for the most part 12 in. brick 
walls, and where not of brick are of terra-cotta lumber. All the heat 
and vent shafts of the Agassiz School are of brick, while two of the 
large shafts of the Newton school have galvanized iron vents en- 
closed by stud partitions. 

A survey of ([uantities of this brickwork, the cost of the I'erth 
Amboy brick being left out of the calculation, and the exterior sur- 
face being considered as of the same material as in the Newton 
school, shows that these features in the Agassiz School are worth 
between $15,000 and $16,000. 

Further calculation of cost of certain features of the Agassiz 
School in excess of features performing like functions in the Newton 
school account for between $2,000 and $3,000 of the difference of 
cost of the two buildings. These features may be noted in part as 

In the Agassiz School the basement floor was of asphalt, that of 
the Newton school of concrete. The Agassiz .School had double run 
of sash in all schoolrooms, the Newton school had single run of sash 
upon the south side ; while the former school had seven windows at 
least for all corner schoolrooms, the Newton school had but six. 

The Agassiz School had Keene's cement door and window 
finish and hospital base, the customary ash finish being used in the 
Newton school. 

We thus see that with the evidently greater cost of the external 
treatment left out of calculation, the difference in cost of the two 
buildings can be closely accounted for, and that the excess of cost of 
the Agassiz School is due to features which better the construction 
and improve the lighting of the building. It should be said, how- 
ever, that $5,000 or $6,000 of the expense might have been saved if 
the Agassiz School had been built in Newton instead of Boston, as 
the Newton building laws would have allowed, with perfect safety, a 
less heavily constructed building than those of Boston permitted. 

If built under the Newton building laws, and if of no more 
elaborate external design than that of the Newton school, but other- 
wise unchanged in its requirements, the Agassiz School would have 
probably cost not more than $83,000; and taking into consideration 
the general greater cost of building in Boston than in the cities and 
towns immediately adjoining, we may fix the probable cost of a school 
of the construction and type here contemplated at about $80,000. 
Hence a fourteen-room and assembly hall grammar school, three full 
stories in height, constructed as was the Agassiz .School, but having 
r6 in. instead of 20 in. external walls and general exterior design and 
materials no more expensive than that of the Newton school, can 
probably be built, where the cost of building is the same as in New- 
ton, for $5,000 per schoolroom. 

It will be interesting to compare the cost of another grammar 
school of nearly the same accommodations with that of the Pierce 
and the Agassiz Schools. To this end the plans of the Brooks 
School at Medford are here given. 

The building has a ground area of 11,333 sq.ft. and contains 
600,649 cu. ft. Upon the same basis considered above, this building 
cost $60,304, z. e., 10^ cts. per cubic foot and $4,285 per schoolroom. 
The Brooks School is a two-story brick building with assembly hall 
in the roof and with twelve schoolrooms. The cost per schoolroom 
of the Brooks School is $i6o greater than that of the Newton School. 
It is to be expected that the larger the building of a given type the 
less will be the relative cost. We might suppose that this probable 
decrease in cost, about 4 per cent., or $165, would account for the 
greater relative cost per schoolroom of the Medford school, but other 
varying conditions of the two buildings must be considered to satis- 
factorily understand this difference of cost. The Brooks School is 
of a sufficiently simpler design than the Newton school to amount to 
about $50 per schoolroom of the difference. 



The Brooks School has single run of sash, while the Newton 
school has double run on the north, east, and west sides ; but the 
Newton school has but six windows in a corner schoolroom, while 
the Medford school has in such 
rooms seven windows. The Med- 
ford school has schoolrooms of 
the maximum dimensions for the 
grammar grade 28 by 32 ft., while 
those of the Newton school are 
26 by 32 ft. The Newton school, 
however, devotes a greater propor- 
tionate area to wardrobes, since 
they are placed in this building as 
adjuncts of the schoolrooms, but 
enclosed by solid partitions and 
each having two doors, — the ar- 
rangement of wardrobes generally 
required in our graded schools. 

In the Medford school two 
large wardrobes serve on each 

Edmund M. Wheelwright, Gty Architect. 

floor six schoolrooms. The wardrobes are practically a part of the 
corridor, but are arranged with more ample vent ducts than are 
usually provided for corridor wardrobes. The schoolrooms in the 

Medford school have a stud of 13 
ft., and the stud of the school- 
rooms in the Newton school is 
but 12 ft. There is, however, 
about the same amount, relative 
to the size, of foundations and ex- 
terior brickwork in each building. 
The Medford school has wooden- 
lathed ceilings above basement, 
and the Newton school has wire- 
lathed ceilings throughout. 

From the foregoing compari- 
son of costs we may credit the 
Newton school with about 5210 
per schoolroom ; but as we have 
debited it with $165 on account 
of its size, we have yet to discover 



seco.s;d ruooR pi..\m 


riB-sT pi.rvR n..v-J 




the reason for the difference of cost of the two schools. Examina- 
tion of the plans of the Medford school will show, however, that there 
are elements of cost which more than account for this apparent dis- 
crepancy. In both schools the basement partitions are brick, but 
the bearing interior partitions in the Brooks School are also all of 
brick or steel columns 
and beams, while those 
of the Newton school 
are spruce studding ; 
and in the Brooks 
School all the heat 
and vent shafts are 
brick, but in the 
Newton school two of 
these shafts are of 
galvanized iron cased 
in stud partitions. It 
is evident, by the suffi- 
ciently accurate calcu- 
lation of the relative 
cost of these different 
forms of construction, 
that the greater ex- 
pense per schoolroom pierce grammar school, 

of the Brooks School Stickney & Austin, 


embodied in the structure. As the partitions and floors of the New- 
ton school are fully protected by fire stops and wire lathing, and as 
all the basement partitions, as in the Medford school, are of brick, 
the chief practical disadvantage in having the bearing partitions 
of studding is the probability of trouble from [shrinkage. In cases 

where interior brick 
walls involve too great 
expense the light steel 
bearing partitions cov- 
ered with wire lathing 
and cement, which 
have lately come into 
use, while somewhat 
more expensive, are 
certainly to be pre- 
ferred to partitions of 
wood studding, even 
when they are wire 
lathed and fire- 
stopped. Certainly in a 
schoolhouse no bear- 
ing partition should be 
constructed without 
fire-stops. We have 
fixed at" $80,000, or 


Second Floop Plaa 

THtDD Fut'oR. PuAys 

rmST ri,»OB PUAM 



is caused by the interior brickwork which the Newton school lacks. 
The Brooks School, as a result of the consideration of all these factors 
of cost, presents a relative advantage of economy over the Newton 
school of about $50 per schoolroom, which may in part be ascribed to 
the possibly less general cost of building in Medford than in Newton. 
The architects of the Newton school would have preferred to 
have used the more solid construction adopted in the Medford build- 
ing, but the necessity of meeting within a limited appropriation the 
fixed requirements of the buildings precluded the possibility of this 
construction if other and possibly more essential features were to be 

$Sfi°o per schoolroom, the normal cost of a building of the type of the 
Agassiz School, when given no richer external treatment and no thicker 
brick walls than the Newton. Why is it, then, that the Brooks School, 
a smaller building, and hence, other things being equal, normally 
more expensive per schoolroom, costs but #4,285 per schoolroom ? 

Of this difference in cost of $71 J per schoolroom we can account 
for about $150, by taking into consideration the more expensive ex- 
ternal treatment predicted for the Agassiz School, together with cer- 
tain features noted earlier in this paper, which, while desirable, are 
more costly than the substitutes used in the Brooks School. Further, 


the Agassiz School 
has 19 ft. greater 
height from basement 
floor to top of exterior 
brick walls. The in- 
terior partitions are 
brick or terra-cotta 
lumber, while in the 
Brooks School the 
carrying partitions 
only are of brick and 
the others are of ordi- 
nary wood studding. 
The arrangement of 
separate wardrobes 
adjacent to school- 
rooms given in the 
Agassiz School in- 
creases the amount of 
partitions and the 
number of doors, as 
well as adding to the 
proportionate area of 
the building. The 
Agassiz School has 


Wales & Holt, Architects. 

cost due to the larger 
size of the Aga.ssiz 
School. This is, as 
noted above, about 4 
per cent, for each 
additional pair of 
schoolrooms, amount- 
ing in this case to 
$190 per schoolroom. 
There stands, then, to 
the credit of economy 
of construction of the 
Brooks School above 
that of a building of 
the type of the 
Agassiz School, con- 
structed under the as- 
sumed conditions, 
$ I 5 5 per schoolroom ; 
/.<r.,the Brooks School 
would appear to have 
been 3 yi per cent, less 
expensive than the 
hypotlietical building 
with which we have 




double run of sash in all schoolrooms, while the Brooks School has 
single run only ; the former school has first floor of mill construction 
and wire lathed in the upper stories. The Brooks School has wood- 
lathed ceilings, except in basement, where the ceiling is wire lathed. 

An estimate of the difference of cost due to these differences in 
construction shows that the Agassiz School cost $600 more per 
schoolroom on account of these features. 

Adding these to the difference of cost found above, we find that 
there is to the credit of the hypothetical Agassiz .School now under 
consideration, $35 per schoolroom. 

We have not yet taken into account the percentage of lessened 

compared its cost, while giving credit for value to be received in the 
school of the .Agassiz type, as above considered, from the features 
of plan, construction, and detail, which will he recognized as desira- 
ble when they can be afforded. 

It might be possible by closer comparative survey of quantities 
and closer study of other conditions to account satisfactorily for this 
slight difference of cost. This appears, however, to be unnecessary. 
The result attained, taken with the preceding analysis, sufficiently 
demonstrates that the cost of schoolhouses, where designed by skilled 
architects, depends upon the demands of the clients in regard to plan 
and construction. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 



IN that branch of the main subject on which we have recently been 
engaged, the use of steel as an auxiliary support has received 
some attention. It has, of course, been viewed chiefly from the 
standpoint of the terra-cotta manufacturer, but without prejudice to 
the allied interests involved. An effort has been made to facilitate 
the whole process of execution by avoiding cumbersome or need- 
lessly complicated methods of construction. It is by adopting simple 
expedients, and by using the most readily obtained or easily made 
appliances, that we get a maximum 
stability at a minimum cost. We 
shall endeavor to illustrate this gen- 
eral proposition in greater detail, as 
heretofore, by the help of typical 
examples taken from current prac- 
tise. The connection between steel 
and terra-cotta in its widest sense, 
however, may now be reviewed as a 
useful preliminary to a purely tech- 
nical discussion of the several 
branches of our subject. 

While the introduction of the 
steel frame gave an undoubted im- 
petus to the use of terra-cotta, it did 
not in anywise tend to lessen the 
numerous exigencies already in- 
cident to its manufacture. With an 
increased demand, and a very allur- 
ing vista of possibilities, there came 
peremptory calls for unfamiliar, if 
not impossible, shapes and sizes. 
Coupled with these came new- 
fangled notions of attaching them 
to the skeleton, which, when not 
altogether visionary, were often 
rather perplexing. Methods and 
maxims which had withstood earlier 
vicissitudes, and whose existence 
hitherto was obviously a survival of 
the fittest, were soon at a discount. 
The ways and means that had been 
sufficient in a modest, self-support- 
ing class of work were no longer 
adequate under new and more ex- 
acting conditions. In fact, the busi- 
ness that followed was to some 
extent a new one ; and, being greatly 
increased in volume, the ranks of 
those engaged in it became filled 
with men of necessarily limited ex- 
perience. This also, for a time, 
placed the terra-cotta manufacturer 
at an additional disadvantage. Hitherto he had been able to discuss 
and determine all questions with the architect ; who, in view of the 
points involved, would usually agree to any well-considered alternative 
that might be proposed in jointing or otherwise. With the advent of 
an independent skeleton, he soon found that a new terror had been 
added to his already onerous existence. The architectural engineer 
— a veritable man of iron — had now to be reckoned with. 

This last-named gentleman was also a new, but very necessary, 
element, though at first — and we think with great injustice — con- 
sidered one of doubtful import. He has been called an intruder, a 
Philistine, and, cruelest cut of all. a man " incapable of esthetic emo- 

FIG. 48. 

tions." During the early years of his existence he received scant 
recognition, more especially from such as could not brook a rival 
near the throne. The first of these allegations has been abundantly 
disproved, and for the other two, he seems to have allowed judgment 
to go by default, as he could well afford to do. In reality he is but 
a product of altered conditions, possibly a little forced as to time, 
but withal a perfectly natural growth. There was a place for him ; 
and, perhaps, owing to his training in that regard, he managed to 
find it without undue effort on his own part. Whether acting in a 
purely professional capacity, or in the dual role of contracting en- 
gineer, we have, in the course of business, had many opportunities 
of detecting flaws in his armor. There have been differences of 
opinion, arising chiefly from the different points of view, but on no 
occasion has there been reason to question his credentials, or regard 

him as other than a friend and a 
brother. We shall have to take 
issue with him presently on certain 
points wherein he has at times shown 
a lack of consideration for men and 
things other than himself and his 
belongings. This, however, will be 
done in good faith, and with the re- 
spect due to a coworker. 

A basis of agreement between 
architect, engineer, and terracotta 
manufacturer, on which mutual help 
may be rendered, is suggested by 
the interdependence of the two ma- 
terials called into service in every 
operation on which they happen to 
be conjointly engaged. While each 
of them is serviceable, and, to some 
extent, necessary, neither of them is 
absolutely indispensable. They 
have widely different duties, it is 
true, but their several performances 
are part of a complete whole ; the 
more perfect when performed in 
conjunction rather than isolation, in 
agreement rather than discord. 
Thus, if terracotta has in some cases 
to be re-enforced by iron, so, also, 
and to a much greater extent, is the 
skeleton dependent upon the cloth- 
ing with which it is made presenta- 
ble. Deprived of this protection, its 
existence would be imperiled by at- 
mospheric action. Hy such protec- 
tion, and by it above all others, if 
not by it alone, may the structure be 
rendered invulnerable when attacked 
by fire. The analogy holds good, 
and applies with ecjual force to the 
relationship existing between men 
whose business is to make the best 
composite use of these increasingly 
popular materials. 
The advantages of consultation and cooperation such as that on 
which we are about to insist must be apparent : yet we are not sure 
that the importance of that line of procedure is so generally recog- 
nized and acted upon as it ought to be. The need for a common 
understanding is, we believe, conceded on all sides as an abstract 
proposition ; but its application in every-day practise is too frequently 
overlooked, and if not altogether forgotten, is sometimes resorted to 
as an afterthought, in the hope of surmounting consequent exigencies 
that need not have arisen. Theoretically, our proposal is not a new 
one, but we would give it a new reading, encourage its development, 
and make it more of a tangible reality than heretofore. 

Harding & Gooch, Arcliilects. 



So far as this plan has been tried the results have been reassur- 
ing, and encourage the belief that it is the logical outcome of existing 
conditions. Cumulative and confirmatory evidence as to this could 
be adduced by citing the favorable opinion of leading architects in 
support of it ; but it is hardly necessary to add such indorsement to 
that which is not likely to be seriously contested. 

It may be opportune to note at this juncture that the examples 
of steel and terra-cotta construction selected for illustration in Tin-; 
BRICKBUILDER during the past year were the result of consultation, 
concession, and mutual agreement. They do not, for instance, repre- 
sent the individual opinion of any one man, but may be considered 
the embodiment of the best possible advice made by, or accepted by 
a number of men, each one something of a specialist in his own partic- 
ular line. It is to this fact, no less than to the actual test of service, 
that thev owe whatever of interest or value they may be said to possess. 

the flange of a cast-iron lintel in the manner shown in section at 
A, Fig. 49. The terra-cotta voussoirs were of sufficient depth to 
be self-supporting, and were not obliged to depend on these iron 
lintels. Had that not been so, however, the insertion of this flange 
at the point indicated would have been a doubtful expedient. It is 
placed too high, and enters so far into the block as to become a 
source of weakness. The voussoirs, being deficient in tensile strength, 
would have had a tendency to crack from chance knocks or unequal 
pressure at this, their weakest point ; in which case the portion sus- 
pended below and not resting on the flange would have had no support 
whatever. This objection having been pointed out to the architects' 
representative the cast-iron lintels were at once modified to the extent 
shown at />, Fig. 49. This apparently unimportant change was an 
undoubted gain in the strength and security of the terra-cotta arches, 
with rather less expense on the part of the iron contractor. On the 


i-ic 49 

At Fig. 48 we have an advanced type of the steel frame with 
terra-cotta and brick walling in process of erection. Here, too, the 
several interests referred to have contributed something towards the 
sum total of its maturity, as it emerges from below the sidewalk, 
rising rapidly into space. At the date of writing it is nearing com- 
pletion, the very substa:ntial envelope of terra-cotta having proved a 
remarkably good fit for its anatomy of riveted steel. The skeleton 
had reached its full height before any of the terracotta had been set, 
and similarly, the manufacture of the latter was being advanced 
while most of the former existed only on paper. This made it in- 
cumbent on all sides that the points of contact between the two 
materials should be predetermined with the greatest accuracy, and 
adhered to in the execution of each from start to finish. The 
methods of attaching them had not been settled beyond recall when 
the contracts were closed, but were ultimately — within reasonable 
limits — based on the advice or concurrence of who were 
responsible for the due performance of that duty. 

We know of a building in which it had been proposed to insert 

whole, we think there has been no reason, here or elsewhere, to regret 
the introduction of the principle for which we are contending. 

In the practical application of this process of adjustment an 
occasional hitch may occur on small questions of precedence and 
priority, etc., but a little time and patience will bring about the need- 
ful assimilation, and the force of circumstances can be relied on to 
regulate conflicting ideas, where other influences appear inadequate. 
If the parties concerned are actuated by an honest desire to obtain 
the best possible solution of a given problem, they will not throw 
away time or thought upon trifles, but welcome the wisest suggestion 
to that end, without much regard to its parentage or antecedents. 
Good ideas may be, and, indeed, have been damned by faint praise : 
they may suffer a temporary eclipse at the hands of those who do 
not understand, or are prejudiced against them ; but if sound and 
practicable, whatever their origin, they usually command a respect- 
ful hearing, and in the end cannot fail of adoption. Meanwhile, few 
will deny the validity of the words attributed to the wisest of men : 
•' In a multitude of council there is safety." 



THE report of the Committee on Architecture and Grounds of 
the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, a portion of which is 
herewith presented through the courtesy of Mr. Ernest Flagg, a 
member of the committee, is of interest to those who have visited 
Nashville as well as to those who know of the buildings only in a 
general way. Intelligent criticism of architectural work is seldom 
obtainable, and honest expression of educated judgment, free from 
either lavish condemnation or indiscriminate praise, should always be 
welcomed. The report considers the buildings and the grounds in a 
perfectly impartial light, and the conclusions are logical, and based 
upon sound principles of architectural taste. If our public buildings 
were more often criticized in this same way the profession would be 
a vast gainer thereby. 


In all great expositions the chief exhibits are the buildings and 
grounds. These are more in evidence, more seen and commented on 
than all the rest besides, and upon their success or failure in ful- 
filling their functions must hang, to a great extent, the fortunes of 
the enterprise. These functions are twofold, esthetic and practical. 
Their beauty should attract multitudes to see them, and they should 
tend to elevate and improve public taste. They should be arranged 
so as to display the exhibits to the best advantage, and as far as the 
means will permit, the buildings should themselves be an exhibition 
of modern methods of building of the most advanced type as regards 
construction, materials, and design. 

The grounds should be laid out with a view both to convenience 
and beauty. They should be planned to preserve the natural ad- 
vantages of the site, if any, to serve as a setting for the buildings, 
and to facilitate communication between them. 

The buildings and grounds are necessarily so closely connected 
that one cannot be intelligently planned independently of the other. 
They each form a part of a general ensemble, the plan of which 
should be laid out and controlled by one mind. 

In judging of the present exposition, it is necessary to take into 
account the financial limitations and the other difficulties encoun- 
tered in carrying out the work. It is not always possible to realize 
the ideal, however distinctly conceived, with unlimited means at com- 
mand. It is still more difficult, if not impossible, to do so when, 
through inexperience, no correct ideal exists in the minds of those in 
charge of the work, and the means are limited. In the present case 
it was extremely unfortunate that no competent supervising archi- 
tect was employed as director of the general scheme of the buildings 
and grounds, and it was unfortunate that the plan which was 
adopted should have been interfered with and injured by the de- 
mands of certain of the exhibitors and by local interests. 

While candor compels one to admit that the general effect of the 
exposition might have been greatly improved by a more skilful dis- 
position of the parts (as will be indicated hereafter), yet the plan was 
so far successful as to give generals atisfaction to the majority of 

The site is a fine one on the high land to the southwest of the 
town, toward which it slopes, so that from all parts of it there is a 
fine view of the city. Any view of Nashville is interesting, and from 
no place more so than from the exposition grounds. The capital 
city is dominated by the Capitol Building, which stands upon an 
eminence in its very heart, its base being well elevated above the 
roofs of the surrounding buildings. The central axis of tlie exposi- 
tion was made to coincide with the main transverse axis of this build- 
ing. It was a very happy thought to place the chief building of the 
exposition upon this axis. The other buildings of the group were, 
in general, placed about it so as to enclose an irregular cjuadrangle, 
having a broad opening in the center of the side toward the town. 
This opening was occupied in part by an artificial lake of irregular 

outline, spanned at its narrowest point by a bridge, an imitation of 
the Rialto at Venice, also located on the main axis. Here, evidently, 
was the place for the main approach, and here it appears to have 
been placed in the original plan. If this plan had been carried out, 
nothing in tUe way of an approach could well have been finer; but 
local interests interfered, and the scheme was abandoned. Nor was 
this the only detrimental change in the original plans. Buildings 
were allowed to encroach upon the quadrangle in such a way as to 
almost completely destroy its effect. Thus, instead of a grand 
entrance, as originally intended, by a broad avenue connecting the 
exposition and the town, located on the main axis of both, the ap- 
proach was relegated to a corner of the grounds, and the quadrangle 
was cut up and disfigured by buildings, generally the poorest of the 
group, placed without regard to the others ; so that upon entering 
the grounds one would never suspect that there had been any pre- 
conceived general plan, but rather would suppose that the buildings 
had been placed about at haphazard. So completely was the first 
plan damaged by these unfortunate changes, that it was only from 
the bridge that one could understand what the effect might have 

If we consider the general appearance of the buildings them- 
selves in relation to one another, one cannot but regret the difference 
in scale between them, and the irregularity of their placing. If the 
simple expedient adopted at Chicago, of keeping their main cornices 
at the same level, had been used here, the general effect would have 
been far more harmonious, and if the lines of the great quadrangle 
had l)een laid out with regularity so that its sides were parallel, and 
the buildings in line, there would have been a decided gain in 
dignity, and in the simplicity which always accompanies it. The 
effect of the group might also have been improved if the Parthenon 
had been placed farther back, that is to say, to the southwest, 
which would have given it greater importance, as there would have 
been more space in front, and a finer approach. Moreover, the very 
inharmonious effect of the Commerce Building as a background would 
have been avoided. 

The chief feature of the exposition, and the one which will 
make it memorable, was the full-size restored model of the Parthenon 
at Athens, just referred to; a copy in plaster of the exterior of the 
greatest work of art the world has ever seen ; a monument which will 
doubtless ever stand as the highest achievement of the handiwork 
and taste of man. Though in the nature of things this model was 
scarcely more than a scenic reproduction of the glorious Athenian 
temple, it served better than a description or drawing could to give 
the beholder an idea of the original appearance of its exterior. 
Though constructed of flimsy material, of imperfect workmanship, 
and in the midst of uncouth and inharmonious surroundings, this 
model was beautiful beyond the power of words to express. Who, 
-that saw this poor shadow of the original building, has not asked 
himself. What must the building itself have been, when it stood 
in its perfection the shrine of the goddess, with its incomparable 
setting on the Acropolis of Athens, surrounded by masterpieces of 
Grecian art, constructed of the great blocks of purest Pentelic marble, 
filled together with a perfection of workmanship surpassing the skill 
of modern times to imitate, alive with statuary of such exquisite 
beauty that the very battered fragments which have come down 
to us serve as the criterion of plastic art? What has the world not 
lost in the destruction of this pile? 

Having seen the exterior, one could not help wishing that an 
attempt had been made to complete the model by restoring the 
interior also. This might have been accomplished with little loss, 
for as an art gallery (for which it was used) it served the pur[)ose only 
fairly well. It did not lend itself happily to such usage. The light 
was too feeble and too high, and the wall surface of limited extent, 
so that many of the pictures were skyed for lack of space. 

Although comparisons are odious, one may say, without injuring 
the feelings of the most sensitive, that this model of the Parthenon, 
imperfect though it was, was immeasurably superior to any of the 
other i)uildings of the group. Its simple myesty and masculine 



beauty dwarfed them into insignificance, but their presence was an- 
noying ; one could not help wishing for a view of this extraordinary 
structure without their disturbing intiuence, and it is much to be 
hoped that the model may be preserved for a time, at least, after the 
other buildings are removed, so that it can be seen by itself. 

As a lesson in art it ought to serve a very precious purpose. 
Who can look at it and not blush for the art of the nineteenth cen- 
tury? Who can look at it and not wish that we Americans might 
emulate the ancient Greeks and produce an art of our own, and a 
national style that might vie with theirs? 

It is believed that the prototype of the Grecian Doric order is 
to be found in Egypt, and doubtless this is true. An architectural 
style cannot be created offhand, it is invariably the result of evolu- 
tion, depending for a basis upon what went before, and developed by 
countless minds working in unison through the ages, rising or falling 
in artistic excellence with the taste of the times. We have no na- 

based on common sense ; where they may receive instructions from 
the foremost men in the profession, just as the architectural students 
in the great French School of Fine Arts receive their instructions 
from the foremost practising architects of France. 

An excellent illustration of what has been said is furnished by 
the building represented by the Parthenon model and the Auditorium 
Huilding of this exposition. The Parthenon model represents a 
building built twenty-five hundred years ago, which, at the time it 
was built, was the very personification of reason, and the highest 
development of the modern art of the times ; every feature tells its 
story, every detail is fashioned in such a logical way to .serve the 
purpose for which it was designed, that any one can see its use, and 
follow the beautiful working of the mind that designed it. With 
such simplicity are the parts assembled that a little child can under- 
stand their meaning, yet with such skill that the most impassive soul 
must be moved to awe and reverence as he beholds its sublime beauty. 

This illustration is made from a lithographic print, issued by the management, and is intended cmly to give a general idea of the grounds and buildings. 

tional style, we copy whatever suits our fancy, and make little prog- 
ress in art, for we are working at cross purposes. 

The lesson which the Parthenon teaches, if we understand it 
aright, is this : That good art must be modern art. No work has 
ever retained a lasting reputation as a masterpiece of art which was 
not modern, and in the style at the time it was made. And no such 
masterpiece has ever been created which did not belong to a great 
art epoch. Masterpieces are not isolated productions. They can 
only be created when the whole artistic feeling of a race has been 
elevated to a high plane. If art is to reach a high plane here, the 
growth must be along healthy and natural lines. We will not reach 
it by copying the works of others, even though they be the Greeks. 
Our art must be based on reason, that is, it must call into play the 
highest faculties with which we have been endowed by the Almighty. 
We must think. The forms must be adapted to the materials used, 
the purpose for which they are used, and to the mechanical methods 
used. The Greeks worked in this way, and so have all other people 
who have achieved distinction in art. In architecture, our crying 
need now is for a national school, where our young men may be 
taught how to think, and to understand that good design must be 

its calm dignity and perfect repose. On the other hand, let us in 
all kindness examine the Auditorium Building. Is there anything 
about its exterior to express the purpose for which it was intended, 
the method of its construction, or the nature of its plan ? From the 
outside it appears to be a rectangular temple with a square tower 
piercing its center. Inside it is an oval apartment, and the tower 
has disappeared. Outside it indicated stone construction, for the 
forms of the moldings and other details are adapted to stone con- 
struction. Inside we find it is built of wood. Outside it appears to 
be a building of the debased art of the sixteenth century ; inside it 
appears that it is a temporary wooden building of the nineteenth 
century. Is this logical? Could the Parthenon ever have been pro- 
duced among people who employed such methods ? Can good art 
ever proceed from falsehood? If we have an auditorium to build in 
wood for an exposition of the nineteenth century, why should it 
not appear to be what it is ? Why do we not use the material at 
hand in a natural way, adapt the forms to the materials, and make 
the outside tell the story of the inside, letting it frankly appear as a 
building of the present day ? What is there to be ashamed of? To 
expect a good result with the methods of design and construction 



used here would be as senseless as it would have been for the builders 
of the Parthenon (supposing they could have done so) to have de- 
signed the Parthenon to represent an auditorium for a fair of the 
nineteenth century, and then expect it to be successful as a temple 
to an Athenian goddess. The same thing is true to a greater or 
lesser degree of all the buildings of the exposition. The designers 
are not so much at fault as the taste of the times. They did the best 
they could according to their lights, and did they not have the illus- 
trious example of the Chicago Fair before their eyes to lead them 
astray ? 

Let us hope that a new epoch will dawn, that the time will come 
when we may design our expositions in the light of reason and com- 
mon sense ; when, profiting by the example of the French, we may 
seek to make the buildings mean something, as illustrating modern 
methods of construction, and the use of the new materials which are 
being almost daily placed at the disposal of the architect by modern 
science, and also illustrating modern design suited to the present re- 

When that time comes, we shall be on the high road to a na- 
tional style, a style adapted to modern wants, and we shall be on the 
high road to good art, the same road trod by the ancient Greeks, 
which made the Parthenon possible, and the Greek name a synonym 
for art. 


Considering the buildings, then, not as structures which speak 
their function in the character of the exterior, but as examples of 
composition along classic lines, it is interesting to refer to a few de- 

Many of the designs show schemes of composition that would, 
with study, produce excellent results. The Government Building is 
probably the best on the grounds, after the Parthenon, and it is to 
be regretted that its effect was marred by its surroundings. Its gen- 
eral proportions were pleasing, and its details simple and good ; the 
segmental ends terminated the building gracefully, and were in har- 
mony with the central dome. The dome, however, may be criticized 
for its heaviness and dry outlines, and it is not easily understood why 
such awkward pedestals should have flanked the main entrance. 

In the Commerce Building, especially, has a noble scheme been 
poorly carried out. While its general grouping was one of the best, 
the central motif was confused, the first story flat, and the pediment 
sculptures inadequate. The dome with glass enclosures produces a 
flimsy effect, and the corner pavilions were badly cut horizontally. 

The Hygiene Building had an excellent porch, but the doors be- 
hind the columns were too contracted and the sculpture masses 
against the sky too slight. This is better than the Commerce Build- 
ing, however, in that it is less pretentious. 

Again, in the mass the Negro Building, the Machinery Building, 
and the Agricultural Building were pleasing, the first perhaps the 
best of the three and most festive, although the central entrance 
was too diminutive, and the cross-bar filling to the openings over- 
done. The second was small in scale, but the high-up windows 
afforded excellent wall space for exhibits. Of the third, the lack of 
simplicity is the chief criticism ; at one and a half the size the parts 
would not be so crowded. Many of its individual parts are excellent, 
and the exterior conforms to the arrangement of the plan. 

The History Building and the Children's Building were smaller 
than the others, and very attractive. In the former, the portico, 
which we suppose is a copy of the Erectheum, was gracefully com- 
prehended, and in the latter the composition was very well expressed, 
although the ornament was of an inferior character. 

The Auditorium, already mentioned, was, with perhaps one ex- 
ception, the least attractive of the buildings ; its lack of harmony in 
plan and exterior, and the absurdity of the tower over the center of 
the assembly room are in keeping with the awkwardly arranged 
corners and the unstudied details. 

The exception referred to is the Women's Building. It scarcely 
seems possible that columns could be so clumsily designed, that they 
could be made to support so ridiculous a cornice, and that any one 

should think of crowning such a building with a temple, the 
absurdity of whose scale is only equaled by its function as a roof 

The Minerals and Forestry Building, the Horticultural and 
Transportation Buildings scarcely call for mention. 

It is a pity that the Memphis Building should have had so im- 
portant a place ; its color, form, and details did not in anywise 
warrant it. 

It was a happy thought that provided so much green lawn, and 
it was a kindly summer that kept it green. Great credit is due to 
the gardeners who laid out the trellises and the flower beds. The 
radial design at the end of the Forestry Building, and the hanging 
vines in the basin of the Water Nymph Fountain were most charm- 


THERE are many experiments to prove that water expands in 
the act of passing into ice. It may be useful to briefly de- 
scribe one of these ; then, when we come to the application of the 
principle to the disintegration of clay, it will be plain sailing. An 
experiment, which might be termed classical, was performed by 
Major Williams at Quebec. He took a 12 in. shell and filled it with 
water, closing the orifice with a wooden plug. He then exposed it to 
the open air, the temperature of which was, at the time of the ex- 
periment, 18. degs. below zero (Fahrenheit). The consequence was, 
that when the water froze the plug was driven to a distance of about 
100 yds., and through the orifice there immediately came an icicle 
8 ins. in length. The bulk of this icicle, of course, represented the 
amount of expansion. In another case the shell itself was rent, and 
a sheet of ice came through the crack. This evidently settles the 
case of the bursting of the water-pipes. Indeed, the very fact that 
ice will float on water shows that water expands in freezing. It may 
be mentioned, by the way, that all liquids do not behave like water in 
solidifying; for while on the one hand we have ice, bismuth, and 
cast iron contracting as they pass into a liquid, on the other hand we 
have mercury, phosphorus, paraffin, and spermaceti contracting as 
they pass into a solid. 

The effect of freezing water on rocks may be seen in quarries, 
in the weathering of cliffs, and in the production of landslips. If 
the rocks are not very porous, plenty of water will still find its way 
through them by means of cracks, and on the freezing, and conse- 
quent expansion, of this water there will be a dislodging of blocks of 
rocks, sometimes of great size. This disruption of the rock by frost 
is, of course, of great utility sometimes, and is accordingly taken 
advantage of by the quarrymen. In very porous rocks, however, the 
tendency of frost is to crumble and disintegrate them. When, for 
example, a stone full of its " quarry water " is exposed to intense 
frost, it will often fall to pieces. 

There can be no question that the exposing of the clay to the 
open air, and its consequent weathering for some months, is of 
distinct benefit to the clay. Some brickmakers, however, seem to 
think that it is hardly worth while to let the clay ripen in this way, 
and accordingly they use it freshly dug, contending that " the weather- 
ing of clay is of no real benefit to the finished article, but will only 
lessen the labor and expense of mixing and preparing the clay before 
use." With this statement we cannot agree at all, for the exposure 
of the clay to the weather has a twofold effect, both tending to im- 
prove the quality of the clay, and thus to benefit "the finished 
article." — British Clayworker. 

The first half of the last century was rather remarkable for the 
development of the brick and tile industry. At Mount Vernon, for 
example, which was built in 1734, a curious variety of plain and 
molded bricks, paving tiles, and copings is still to be seen, and ex- 
amples of molded brick water-tables and of floor-tiles, both square 
and octagonal, dating from the same period, are still quite numerous 
in the Eastern States. — Atnericaii A,rclulcct. 






MR. HOWARD CONSTABLE, in a recent address before the 
Boston Society of Architects, made the statement that he 
believed he could with cement construct a fire-proof floor which would 
be equal to the best terra cotta construction, and, on the other hand, 
he could with terra-cotta make a floor fully equal to the best con- 
struction of concrete. We would not carry the comparison quite as 
far as Mr. Constable, or even hardly to the extent of admitting that 
either proposition represents entirely our personal belief, as we have 
yet to be convinced that any material has as yet been suggested and 
put on the market which can hold its own, after fair, impartial tests 
with terracotta ; but we interpret his statement as implying that in 
the present state of the market and of the science, the value of fire- 
proof constructions lies very largely in the details, and that the success 
of any application in this direction is measured not unfairly by the 
ease with which it can be adapted to practical exigencies and made 
readily available in the hands of the ordinary workman. We have 
repeatedly emphasized the necessity for increased attention to details. 
Terra-cotta undoubtedly has the large lead over anything else at pres- 
ent offered for the protection of steel in a building, and its efficacy 
has been tested in the very best manner, that is to say, in constant 
daily practise, but it will not do for our manufacturers of fire-proofing 
material to feel that the last word has been even suggested. The 
principle involved in the use of terra-cotta is admittedly a correct 
one, but in order to insure the best results we need not only the 
proper material, but its proper application, a proper variation of its 
employment for specific cases, while beyond this there must be a 
constant attention to matters of pure arrangement and plan. It is 
not fair to build a structure in such a way that a slight conflagration 
can develop the heat of a blast furnace, and then complain if the fire- 
proof material yields. We would admit at the very start that under 
certain conditions nothing is absolutely fire-proof. Therefore, if we 
wish to have fire-proof buildings, we must have not only the fire-proof 
material, must not only use it in the best and most advantageous way, 
but must so plan our structures that the inertia of conflagration, 
which is a very large element of danger, can be checked at the very 
start; and though the chief reliance can be upon the protection of 
the steel skeleton, the building as a whole must present decided 
obstacles to the spread of a fire, even through its contents. It is safe 
to say that in no building where these principles were fairly considered 
has the terra-cotta ever been found wanting. The cases where it has 
failed to give efficient protection are those wherein the details were 
either improperly considered in manufacture or were not thoroughly 
carried out in execution. A workman laying terra-cotta skew-backs 
along a built girder, for instance, is quite as likely as not to disregard 
any inequality in the metal, such as splice plates, stiffening angles, etc., 
and make up for that irregularity by such cutting and so called fitting 
of the blocks as would weaken them and cause them to fail at a criti- 
cal time. We have known an instance of terra-cotta arches between 
steel beams which were put in place in such condition that upon the 
application of a certain amount of heat the lower flange revealed a 
crack, allowing the material to drop and admitting fire into the inte- 
rior of the rod to such an extent that the steel tie-rod was melted 
entirely off. Manifestly, such condition was no fault of the material, 
but was chargeable to poor construction, and we have no doubt that 
there are many points in the fire-proofing of our large buildings 
which would fail in an excessive test and would apparently give 
ground for the condemnation of the particular style of construction, 
whereas the fault would be chargeable entirely to the lack of proper 
supervision of the work and the carelessness in which the details had 
been carried out. We are rapidly developing our building operations 
into a condition of exact science. When we take the same care with 
our protecting envelope of terra-cotta that we do with the steel skele- 
ton itself, and are equally rigid in inspection, tests, and supervision, 
the chances of failure to fulfil all the conditions of fire-proofing will 
be greatly lessened. 


FIRE-PROOF construction can be fairly claimed as an American 
development. We say this without any forgetfulness of the 
very valuable work which has been done in France and Germany, 
especially in the former country, where a species of fire proofing, 
which has answered a certain purpose, has been in constant use for 
indefinite generations. The fire-proofing which meets the require- 
ments of French construction would not, however, answer for us, and 
it surely does not operate in France to prevent pretty disastrous re- 
sults at times. We doubt if any modern fire-proof buildings of this 
country have ever passed through a more disastrous conflagration 
than that which destroyed the large Magazins du Printemps, in Paris, 
a number of years ago, a structure which, according to French stand- 
ards, was strictly fire-proof, was certainly planned better than the 
Pittsburgh buildings to resist fire, but which was totally wrecked, 
far less of its construction surviving the fire than was the case in the 
Pittsburgh fire. The fact that there are so comparatively few fires 
in France is very largely due to the methods of construction, which, 
though by no means fire-proof to the extent that we expect in our first- 
class buildings, are certainly much more capable of resisting a con- 
flagration than the average structure in this country. Besides this, 
the French go about heating their buildings in a manner far different 
from our own, and one of our most fruitful sources of fires, defective 
flues, are by no means as dangerous there as they are with us. We 
have been obliged from necessity to develop our fire-proof construc- 
tions, be'-ause the majority of our buildings are so ill adapted for 
resistance, or to put it perhaps more truly, are so admirably planned 
to facihtate the spread of fire, and in order to secure any reliable 
protection we must carry our systems much further than is necessary 
abroad, and they are materially modified by contingencies which are 
not thought of elsewhere. It still remains a fact, however, that, /tv 
se, the foreign fire-proofing methods are, as compared with our own, 
unscientific and unreliable when tested in extreme cases. The recent 
conflagration in London affords an illustration of what has not 
been done abroad, and we notice by reports in technical journals 
that the official inquiry which has been undertaken to determine the 
causes of the fire and to investigate the possibilities for prevention 
for the future has developed the fact that in the opinion of the prop- 
erty owners the expense of making the reconstruction of this district 
of a thoroughly fire-proof character was such as, in their judgment, 
to be prohibitory, though the Goldsmiths' Company, which owns the 
land upon which the building stood, is perfectly willing to agree to 
a subdivision of the various structures in such a way as to check 
the spread of fire. We haven't a great deal of confidence in official 
investigations, especially when directed towards the premises of a 
wealthy and powerful corporation, and we are almost inclined to 
doubt whether such an investigation as will result from the London 
fire can be anything more than one-sided. That is to say, what is 
considered good fire-proofing practise abroad is not up to the standard 
which we should expect, and we can hardly expect the investigators 
to appreciate the necessities which are considered so paramount with 
us. We believe that the theory of fire-proofing as developed by us 
is scientifically perfect, our failures being due to lack of attention to 
detail, or to our not carrying our own systems to a logical and per- 
fectly natural conclusion ; whereas, the English systems- of construc- 
tion, if considered as means of preventing the occurrence of a large 
fire, are radically wrong, though many of the details of construction, 
such as stairways, arrangement of flues, subdivisions of premises, are 
better than are usually enforced in our large cities. London has had 
abundant occasion to learn her lessons in fire-proofing, but, large as 
that metropolis is, the fire losses there are so much less than the value 
of what is destroyed annually in our larger cities, that we can quite 
understand the reluctance of the Goldsmiths' Compai y to enter upon 
expensive and radical change in methods of construction. The 
Englishman is nothing if not conservative, and the fact that such 
systems have stood or given satisfaction for generations can easily 
be alleged as reason for reluctance in making the change. 



Mortar and Concrete. 



Pennsylvania Magnesian Cements. Some magnesian cements 
are, or have been, made in Pennsylvania at Milroy, and a few other 
places, and classed as Rosendales. These have not proved of the 
highest quality. The hydraulic limestones either contain an excess 
of magnesia or a deficiency of silicates, and as with some others from 
the same State, free from magnesia, do not seem to be suited to the 
production of a high-grade natural cement. This part of the country 
is, in consequence, devoting itself more and more to the development 
of the Portland cement industry, for which its limestones, free from 
magnesia, seem entirely suitable. 

Cements of the Middle West. The vast quantity of natural 
cement in use from the Gulf to the Lakes, and from Ohio to the 
Rocky Mountains, is supplied chiefly by brands made near Milwaukee, 
Wis., Louisville, Ky., and Utica, 111., with smaller amounts made at 
Fort Scott, Kan., and Mankato, Minn., and a few other less impor- 
tant works. These cements are all magnesian, but vary very con- 
siderably in their composition, and consequently in their character. 

Analyses of samples of these cements have already been given, 
but the physical tests recorded have been more or less incomplete. 
For the purpose of comparison among themselves, the results of tests 
made at .Minneapolis, to which reference has been made already, will 
serve, although they are much lower than would be the case were the 
test pieces made to yield the best results with dry mortar and the 
proper compression. 

Average Results of Cement Tests for a Series of Years 

FROM 1888 TO 1895. 

Tensile Strain per Square Inch. 
































3 S3 


























































I Sand. 




Utica . .... 



















I Cement. 2 Sand. 

L'tica . . 
Buffalo . 
Akron . 




























1 2b 


































Milwaukee Cement. This cement, as at present made, carries 
a large amount of magnesia, over 20 per cent., and has all the 
properties which are to be expected of a cement of that kind. The 
alumina and iron are not high, and a considerable part of the sili- 
cates are not decomposed and combined with the alkaline earths, 
owing to its being lightly burned. The result is that it gains strength 
more slowly than some other brands, but at a considerable age is 
quite equal to them in strength and toughness, and is often stronger in 
mortar and concrete, as can be seen by reference to the tests made 
at Minneapolis and from the examination of concrete in which it has 
been employed. The slow way in which it at times acquires strength 

necessitates care in using it during cold weather. It requires a 
medium quantity of water to make a mortar, and it will also be 
found to hardsn better in air than when immersed in water or 
allowed to remain in damp surroundings. It makes a smooth mor- 
tar, trowels well, and works easily in concrete. At its best no Western 
cement has given more satisfactory results. Vast quantities of work 
have been satisfactorily done with it, but, like all natural cements, 
there are variations in the quality, and it is reported to have been 
better some years ago than to day. In general it is free from exces- 
sive e.xpansion like the Western New York cements, but it resembles 
them in its composition very closely, and has now and then caused 
ridges in concrete. 

The color of Milwaukee cement is a gray with a brownish tinge, 
more nearly like Portland cement than any of the Western brands 
except that made at Mankato. 

Utica Cement. The natural cement made in La Salle County, 
Illinois, near Utica, is derived from a rock carrying a large amount 
of magnesia. To produce a satisfactory cement, it is now burned so 
that but a relatively small part of the silicates of the stone are decom- 
posed and combined with lime, as compared with many other brands, 
and all the carbonic acid is not expelled. It has the usual charac- 
teristics of cements high in magnesia, and resembles the Western 
New York and Milwaukee cements in certain respects; but it is even 
more distinctively a magnesian cement than these, as it contains, in the 
specimen analyzed, but about 9 to 10 per cent, of combined silica, 
less than 5 per cent, of alumina and iron oxides, and as much as 1 7 
per cent, of sand and silicates remaining undecomposed. On this 
account much of its hydraulic properties and strength must be at- 
tributed to the magnesia which is uncombined with silica, and in this 
respect it is probably unique in this country. 

It is the lightest colored natural cement made, being a little 
more than off white, is very plastic, making a clay-like mortar with a 
medium amount of water, which has considerable covering powers, 
and trowels well. As made to-day, at its best, it has a high initial 
strength both neat and with sand, and continues to gain for long 

Louis'i'tlle Cement. Louisville cement is put upon the market 
by a large number of different mills, and is made from rock obtained 
at various quarries, although all from the same formation. It is con- 
sequently a more or less variable article. As a whole, this cement 
has much less magnesia than either the Milwaukee or Utica brands, 
and in this respect is more like that made at Fort Scott, Kan., and 
Mankato, Minn. It is, like the latter, more thoroughly burned than 
those cements containing more magnesia, such as LUica cement, a small 
proportion of the silicates and silica only being left undecomposed. 
It requires more water to make a mortar than the lighter-burned 
cements, being quick setting as a rule, and it acquires its strength 
more rapidly. In time, however, no better results are obtained in 
sand mortar than with many other cements. Some of it is very 
quick. As a whole it requires to be used with care, and, as there are 
several different brands of Louisville cement, there may be as much 
variation in the supply as is the case with the Rosendales. Concrete 
constructed with Louisville cement has proved as satisfactory, in the 
opinion of those who have used it, as that made with any of the 
Western natural cements. 

Fort Scott Cement. This cement is a pretty thoroughly burned 
product from a stone having about 12 per cent, of magnesia and not 
very rich in silicates to afford alumina. Being so well burned, it sets 
very fast if not previously hydrated. It varies in strength according 
to the care given in burning it, and high or low results may be ob- 
tained with different brands, in which respect it differs not more than 
many other kinds of cements. It eventually seems to give a strong 
mortar even when initially weak. It works smoothly, but requires 
more water in making a mortar than any of the natural cements, 
being quite peculiar in its action when first mixed, a preliminary 
reaction seeming to take place with the absorption of much of the 
water. Mortar made with it should be worked for some time and 
not made too dry. 



Its color is characteristic, being quite a bright yellowish brown. 

Matikato Cement. This cement is well burned, and similar to 
the Fort Scott and Louisville in composition, being, like them, some- 
what deficient in alumina. It requires a medium amount of water, 
and gives good returns in strength soon after use. The mortar is not 
quite as plastic as that of the more magnesian brands. The writer 
has had no extended experience with this cement, but the Minne- 
apolis tests, however, show that in ordinary sand mortar it continues 
to increase in strength for a long time, and compares favorably with 
the other Western natural cements, while in street work in that city 
it has been tried most severely and successfully by being exposed to 
travel for some time in concrete before being covered with an asphalt 
surface. Its color is similar to that of Milwaukee cement, a dull 
brownish gray. 

Maryland Lime Cements. Of the same nature as the Round 
Top, which was selected as a type of these cements, are several 
other brands in use to a considerable extent in the markets of Wash- 
ington, Baltimore, and the country adjacent to the places of manu- 
facture, which are located along the Potomac in Western Maryland. 
Some recent tests of these cements have been published in the re- 
port of Mr. A. W. Dow, Inspector of Asphalt and Cements, of the 
Engineer Department of the District of Columbia, which are as 
follows : — 

T, , Round , . 1 1 J Cumberland Cedar 

B'-^id. Top. Cumberland. ^nd Potomac. Cliff. 

Tensile strength : — 

Neat, I day .... 81 169 146 88 

7 days .... 203 218 204 185 

2 parts quartz, 7 days .122 156 188 85 

I month . 255 297 225 195 

3 months 342 356 403 255 

6 „ 387 3SO 397 299 

I year .515 438 436 364 

Per cent, of water, neat 32. 32. 32. 32. 

quartz 14. 15. 15. 15. 

These lime cements set very quickly and acquire strength very 
rapidly, especially in sand mortar. It has been found, also, that they 
are not as much affected at early stages by the use of and excess of 
water as the magnesian cements. They have often a tendency to set 
too rapidly, heating strongly on mixing with water. This, however, 
it has been shown, can be avoided by proper sprinkling of the burned 
stone before grinding. Owing to the rapidity with which strength is 
acquired, these cements are peculiarly suited for arch work where it 
is convenient to draw centers soon after the completion of the work. 
In masonry work they are not as attractive, as the mortar often sets 
too quickly and does not trowel as well as that made with the mag- 
nesian cements. Especially in the form of neat mortar some of these 
lime cements become at times more or less brittle with age, owing to 
crystallization, but this is not as apparent in concrete, although with 
some brands the concrete has a greater relative tensile strength than 
toughness, fracturing more readily under a blow than concrete of 
magnesian cement. 

Lime Cements of the Lehigh Valley. A cement is made along 
the Lehigh River, at Copley and other places, which is similar in 
some respects to the lime cements of the Potomac Valley. It is 
quite free from magnesia, sets with great rapidity, and is, as a rule, 
fiery. It gives a great initial strength, but in other respects cannot 
equal the Potomac cements. It is more often, since the establish- 
ment of the Portland cement industry in the same locality where it is 
made, mixed with a certain proportion of the second grade of this 
cement and sold as an " improved " natural. Much of it in its origi- 
nal form is very inferior. It is made from a rock which is now largely 
devoted to the manufacture of Portland cement when mixed with a 
purer limestone. 

Other Cements. There are a number of other cements upon 
the market which are not as important commercially, and with which 
the writer is not personally acquainted. Their quality has not war- 
ranted, as a rule, their manufacture on a large scale, and they are 
employed only locally. 

From the examination and comparison which has been made of 

the several kinds of natural cements which are made in the United 
States, it appears that there are such decided differences in their 
character that they may be classified as follows : — 

I. Lime cement, containing only 2 or 3 per cent, of magnesia, 
13 to IS per cent, of oxides of iron and alumina, and about 20 per 
cent, of combined silica. 

II. Lime cements with as little magnesia but with less silicates 
than class I., and consequently less satisfactory and more fiery. 

III. Magnesian cements, with, at their best, about 15 percent, 
of magnesia and the same amount of oxides of alumina and iron, with 
15 to 20 percent, of combined silica and considerable uncombined 
silicates, being not thoroughly burned. 

IV. Magnesian cements with a large amount of magnesia, over 
20 per cent., less alumina and iron, and less undecomposed silicates 
than in the preceding class. 

V. Magnesian cements deficient in alumina and iron oxides and 
in combined silica, being lightly burned, but high in magnesia. 

VI. Magnesian cements thoroughly burned, made from rock 
having a smaller amount of silicates than those of class IV., with 
only a medium per cent, of magnesia and little uncombined silicates. 

Cements of the first class set and acquire strength rapidly, and 
increase in this direction for long periods. The final result is a more 
brittle mortar than is obtained with the magnesian brands. 

The lime cements of the Potomac Valley are included in this 

The second class has not as favorable a relation of silicates to 
lime, and consequently the cements are apt to be fiery and not as 
satisfactory. They are generally subjected to improvement by the 
addition of Portland cement, and are then used successfully. They 
are found in the Lehigh Valley. 

The third class is represented by the best Rosendale brands, 
which set and acquire strength slowly, but which continue to develop 
it for long intervals and are eventually very strong and tough. 

The fourth class includes cements like those of Western New 
York, which have been, while containing an unusually large amount 
of magnesia, burned so hard that little of the silicates have remained 
undecomposed and uncombined with the lime and magnesia, and in 
consequence are apt to expand a long time after use unless carefully 
hydrated before grinding. 

The fifth class is one in which the cement is essentially a light- 
burned, highly magnesian material, in the preparation of which the 
heat has not been sufficiently high or prolonged to bring the greater 
portion of the silica into combination with lime and magnesia, in this 
respect being in contrast with the preceding class. The hydraulic 
properties and strength are due, therefore, largely to the magnesia 
and carbonates rather than to the silicates and aluminates. The 
cements of La Salle County, Illinois, represent it. 

The last class contains the Louisville and Fort Scott cements, 
in which there is much less magnesia than in the two preceding, and 
less alumina and iron oxides than in the cements of the third class, 
although they are burnt so thoroughly that there is but a small per 
cent, of silicates and silica uncombined. 

Notwithstanding all this variation in the character of the natural 
cements of the United States in practical use, they will all of them, 
when properly burned and carefully handled, give results which are 
only in the most exceptional cases failures. The writer is unaware 
that there has ever been an actual failure in masonry due to the natu- 
ral cement used in its construction, although some important and 
extensive bridge work has been laid with it, and although it has fre- 
quently been used in the most careless way, being retempered after 
its original set or employed in the form of a very sloppy mortar. In 
concrete, inferior results are now and then obtained, especially in cold 
weather, or when the cement has been of some brand that has not been 
most carefully burned and put into the work. As a rule, with suffi- 
cient time, a natural cement mortar will acquire a satisfactory strength, 
even if originally weak, or unfavorably influenced by the conditions 
under which it has been used and the environment to which it is sub- 



The Masons' Department. 



THERE is a species of construction in which a facing of 4 ins. 
of hricicwork is applied to the outside of a wooden frame, 
giving the simulation of a solid brick structure. This device is 
seldom met with in the East, but is quite common in the North and 
the West and in the Canadas ; and though owing its origin to con- 
ditions of a time when framing lumber was cheap and bricks were 
expensive and not easily obtained, it has persisted in spite of its 
manifest sham, and has ascribed to it virtues which are hardly offset 
by its illogical character. Most people who desire to use this con- 
struction have the impression that a frame house veneered with 
bricks will cost considerably less than would a similar house if the 
walls were solid and of the usual thickness. In an experience of 
many years I have seldom been able to persuade a client to substi- 
tute a solid brick-walled house for the intended veneered sham ; and 
yet the difference in the cost is in favor of the solid wall, if the 
veneering is figured as being properly done, and the woodwork for 
the skeleton built in a thorough and substantial manner. 

The foundation walls required to sustain a veneered house must 
of necessity be as costly as those for a brick superstructure of corre- 
sponding dimensions; consequently there can be no saving in the 
foundation work. All bricks used in veneering must be good facing 
bricks of good quality, and, as the veneering is but 4 ins. in thick- 
ness, all the brickwork, excepting quoins, must be formed of stretch- 
ers, no "bats" being permitted; consequently the bricks will cost 
from 25 to 40 per cent, more than would bricks required for a solid 
wall, while the labor of laying a 4 in. brick course, including tying 
or bonding the bricks to the woodwork, is nearly double that of lay- 
ing bricks in a solid wall. Then, the brick veneer must be laid from 
an outside scaffold, an expense not always necessary in the building 
of a solid wall ; and iron, japanned, tarred, or galvanized ties or 
anchors to hold the bricks in position must be employed, at the rate 
of three to every hundred bricks laid in the wall, and these ties must 
be fastened to the woodwork on the frame and the projecting ends 
built in the brickwork. This is another expense which does not ob- 
tain with a solid wall. 

As a rule, wooden window sills are used in veneered houses, 
the use of stone being almost prohibited because of the shallowness 
of the reveal. If stone sills are used, it is quite evident the cost of 
sills and setting them will exceed the cost of the same sills if used 
in a solid wall. The window and door frames required for a 
veneered house will cost just as much, and, in most cases, a trifle 
more than will corresponding frames for a solid wall, and the 
chances of a tighter connection to the wall are greatly in favor of the 

The opportunities for fashioning ornamental brickwork on a 
veneered building are so few and expensive that they are rarely 
embraced, unless the ornamentation is of the crudest and most primi- 
tive sort, conditions that do not obtain in solid brick walls. The 
arching over windows and doors in veneered work is of the flim- 
siest kind, and the least disturbance in the building is sure to make 
itself felt in these weak spots by cracking or displacing joints, as 
it is impossible to properly bond or tie the work at these points. 

Inside the brick veneer there is erected a frame-studded skele- 
ton. On the studding is nailed i in. pine or hemlock square-edged 
boards. .Sometimes the stuff is dressed and matched, which adds to 
the cost; at other times it is nailed on the studding diagonally, with 
a view of giving strength to the structure. When this is done and 
the frame is boarded in both sides, the boards are so nailed that the 
joints cross each other, thus forming a double bracing. In the North- 
ern, Northwestern, and Western States and the Canadas the outside 
boarding is covered with felt or building paper before the brickwork 

is commenced ; and some builders also line up the inside of the 
house with suitable paper under the lathing. This, when carefully 
done, makes a warm wall, but it takes a great deal of time and care 
to paper around the openings and well in between the joists, and in 
contract work it is next to impossible to get workmen to make wind- 
tight joints with the paper at these points. 

It is easy to see that the labor and materials used in the con- 
struction of the necessary frame ready to be veneered would cost 
very much more than the extra bricks and labor required to make the 
wall a solid one, and the walls of a veneered house, built as they 
ought to be, cost from 15 to 25 per cent, more than would good solid 
y in. walls. 

Now, then, let us see .some of the defects of a veneered house, 
and what is likely to result from these defects. Everybody knows 
that wood expands and contracts with every change of atmospheric 
conditions, thus causing a quiet but sure tearing away of the bonding 
connecting the two materials together, a condition that in the end 
must bring ruin to the building. It is almost impossible to fit bricks 
around window and door frames sufficiently tight to keep out wind 
when the wall is only 4 ins. thick. If, however, in veneering, care is 
taken and labor expended in having the joints between the frames 
and boarding properly covered with paper, well tacked on, it is pos- 
sible to make the joints fairly tight, and they will remam so until the 
paper becomes broken, or falls away from the brick from decay or 
other causes. This expenditure of labor and time, however, adds 
materially to the cost of the veneering. That brick veneering is a 
sham goes without saying, for the experienced eye knows as soon as 
it looks at the building that it is veneered. A wall showing nothing 
hut stretchers cannot deceive even the apprentice boy, and if, as I 
have known in several instances, an attempt is made to cheat the 
eye by making every sixth course of bricks appear as headers, by 
using "bats," a glance at the reveals and at the ornamental work will 
convince the experienced in a moment as to the true character of 
the walls. 

After a careful consideration of the whole matter, and from facts 
gleaned from actual observation and experience, I have arrived at 
the conclusion that there is nothing to be gained, but considerable 
lost, both in economy and in efficiency, from building brick-veneered 
houses instead of houses with solid brick walls. 


HASTE is one of the drawbacks to good construction, and the 
results of hurry manifest themselves in nearly every depart- 
ment of building. The cracking of plaster cannot be blamed en- 
tirely to the shrinkage of wood or settlement of the foundations, for 
a certain kind of cracking in all lime mortar is due solely to haste 
in preparing the material. Lime mortar hardens by a species of 
absorption and a drying process quite distinct from the action of 
hydraulic cement. In order that the drying shall be uniform through- 
out the mass of lime mortar, it is essential not only that the lime be 
slaked for a long period before it is mixed with the sand, but also 
that the mortar should be mixed a considerable time before it is to 
be used, and that it be thoroughly manipulated, so that the particles 
of lime are evenly distributed, and the mixture perfectly homogeneous. 
Of course this is on the assumption that the lime is good to start with, 
which, unfortunately, is not always the case. Plasterers pay little 
attention to preparing mortar: this is usually left to the cheapest 
kind of labor, and if any one watches the average mechanic mixing 
mortar, it is evident that such a thing as a careful proportioning of 
materials received very little thought. We often find mortar which 
has stood for generations and is thoroughly hard, comparing very 
favorably with cement, but this is in the old buildings, and is a result 
of the care which was at times expended upon such work. It was 
formerly the custom to not only mix tlie mortar and sand together in 
the bed. but also to work it over carefully on a stone slab, thoroughly 
kneading it and mixing it before applying to the wall, securing 
thereby a perfect uniformity of composition which would insure a 
gradual drying of the plastering. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities, and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — With the dawn of the new year comes the 
realization of our prophecies and dreams as to our great 
city, now Greater New York indeed, the second city in the world in 

population, and equaled by 
none in area. The event was 
ushered in amid scenes of great 
rejoicing, music, firing of can- 
non, and singing. The build- 
ings surrounding City Hall Park 
were gaily decorated and bril- 
liantly lighted. Of course there 
is still more or less confusion 
resulting from such a radical 
change of government, espec- 
ially in the smaller boroughs, 
and it will be some time before 
everything will run smoothly. 

Mr. Thomas J. Brady has 
been placed in charge of the 
Building Department, with two 
deputy commissioners. It is 
expected that some changes in 
the existing building laws will 
result, in which case they will 
be fully noted in these letters. 

The Thirteenth Annual 
Exhibition of the Architectural 
League will be held in the 
Vanderbilt Gallery, Fine Arts 
Society Building, 21 5 West 57th 
Street, during February. The 
dates of the important events 
are as follows : — 

Press View, Thursday, 
February 10, 10 A. M. to 4 p. m. 
Annual Dinner, Thursday, 
February 10, 7.30 P. m. 

League Reception, Friday, 
February 11, S p. m. 

Public Exhibition from 
Saturday, February 12, to Sat- 
urday, March 5, inclusive. 
Hours, 9 A. M. to 6.30 p. M. ; S p. m. to 10.30 P. m. ; Sundays, 10 A. M. 
to 6 p. M. 

Public Lectures, Wednesdays, February 16, 23, and March 2. 
Smokers, Saturdays, February 19, 26, and March 5. 
These exhibitions have been eminently successful in the past, 
and have been a tremend- 
ous factor towards the 
advancement of architect- 
ural taste and criticism. 
The League will collect 
and return, free of charge 
to exhibitors in Greater 
New York, Philadelphia. 
and Boston, all exhibits 
that have been entered. 

At the monthly din- 
ners of the League re- 
cently, the subjects 

discussed have been of vital interest, not only to architects, but to 
the general public. The subject at the January dinner was 
" Bridges," and the matter was thoroughly and intelligently dis- 



Winslow & Wetherell, .Architects. 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta 



Peabody & Steams, Architects. 
Terra-Cotta executed by tlie Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 


Executed by the Norlhwcstern Terra-Cotta Company. 

cussed by the members. There was a strong sentiment in favor of 
more monumental bridges, enriched by sculpture, etc., than are now 
being built. With one notable exception, — the Brooklyn Bridge, — 
our bridges are not particularly ornamental structures. 

At a previous dinner the subject was " Small Parks and Gym- 
nasiums in the Crowded Districts." 'Phis subject was also intensely 
interesting, and was made more so by a score of clever plans pre- 
pared by different members and explained by them. 

Among important competitions recently decided are : The Ellis 
Island immigration stations, for which the plans of Messrs. Boring & 
Tilton have been accepted. There will be five buildings, to be built 
of brick, stone, and iron, thoroughly fire-proof; cost, #570,000. 
Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn, a brick and stone building to 
cost $400,000, in which the successful architects were Messrs. Glover 
& Carrel. The College of the City of New York, Morningside 
Heights, for which the plans of Mr. George B. Post have been ac- 

These buildings are 
in the Collegiate Gothic 
style and will form a 
handsome group. The 
site could not be excelled. 
The cost will be about 
$\ ,000,000. 

Plans are being pre- 
pared by Bruce Price for 
a large hotel to be built 
on Madison Avenue, 
corner of 42d Street, 






Alden & Harluw, Architects. 
Elevation sliown on Plate 8. 

McKim, Mead & White are preparing plans for the new Union 
Club House, to be erected on 54th Street and Fifth Avenue, at a 
cost of about $ 1 ,000,000. 

CHICA(iO. — Chicago had an epidemic of fires about Christmas 
week. One of the losses was the Quadrangle Club Building, 
the club headquarters of the professors of the University of Chicago. 
This building, previously referred to in The Brickbuilder, was de- 
signed by the late C. B. Atvvood. It was colonial in design, and was 
executed in rough, red sandmold brick, with large white mortar joints, 
and laid with Flemish bond. The cornice and broad white frieze 
were of wood, and the roof was of green slate. In rebuilding, the 
same design will be used, but with a wing for a necessary enlargement 
of the building. Architect Howard Shaw is working on the drawings. 
Another building burned was a gymnasium. This was con- 

nected with the academic department of tlie university, and was located 
in Morgan Park, a suburb. 

The most serious fire loss was that of the " Coliseum," which 
was used for general exposition purposes, from a horse show to a 
bicycle race or a football game. This building, which was erected 
since the World's Fair, and near the site of same, gained notoriety 
from its collapse and almost total destruction during construction, 
when the great steel arches were, about half of them, in place and 
covered with an expanse of wood plank roof. 

Building news reporters say that architects are smiling over 
projects, although the amount of work actually going ahead is not 
great. A certain amount of activity in real estate, however, gives 
some promise for the spring season. Mr. Fhipps, of Pittsburgh, has 
bought ground on Monroe Street, and commissioned Jenney & Mun- 
die to design an addition to the New York Life Building. 

Studebaker Brothers are having S. S. Beman design a new 
building, and also add a tenth story to their Michigan Avenue struc- 

.Several transfers of property inthe business center seem to hold 

Extculed by Gladding, McBean & Co.. San Francisco, Cal. 


Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 
Executed by the Conkling, Armstrong Terra-C'itta Company. 

promise of new buildings of a commercial character. A recent loan 
of so small an amount as 512,000 at 4j^ per cent, on property not in 
the central district is taken as an important example, showing the 
tendency toward lower interest rates, and possibly a corresponding 
increase in building operations. Curiously enough, it is 
said that the largest proportion of building the past year 
has occurred in the World's Fair district, which was 
thought to have been most seriously overbuilt. 

The Union Mutual Life Insurance Company (D. G. 
Hamilton, resident director) has had contracts let for the 
erection, at Cottage Grove and 34th Streets, of thirty- 
two houses to cost about $228,000. They expect to 
build fifty more as soon as these are finished. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge are designing a group 
of buildings for the Chicago Orphan Asylum at Grand 
and 51st Street Boulevards. The exteriors will be 
colonial in style, with brick facing, terra-cotta trimmings, 
and slate roof. 

The brick business in Chicago during the past year 
certainly has been far from satisfactory. Common brick 
have ijeen delivered at buildings from $3.20 to $4.00 per 
thousand ; since October, however, the price has risen to 
56.00. The Chicago Hydraulic Brick Company say 
that 33 per cent, less pressed brick were sold during 
1897 than in 1896, and that the price was 20 per cent. 





MR. HENRY E. MACK, for many years the general manager 
of the Eastern Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, has been 
called to St. Louis to assume the general 
management of the Hydraulic-Press Brick 
Company's immense business. Mr. Mack's 
achievements in developing the substantial 
success of the Eastern Hydraulic-Press 
Brick Company's business have long been 
recognized in the burnt-clay market of the 
East ; it is therefore natural that the St. 
Louis Company, the parent of all other 
hydraulic companies in the country, should 
desire to have the direct association of his 
astute abilities in the management of its 
vast enterprises. 

tion on the calendar is a half-tone reproduction of Wirkner's famous 
painting, " Diana and the Fawn." 

Samuel H. Frenxh & Co., of Philadelphia, manufacturers of 


F. B. GiLBRETH, 85 Water St., Boston, 
has again issued his novel and interesting 
calendar, which is intended as an advertise- 
ment for his system of waterproofing cellars 
It is attractively gotten up, and made espe. 
cially interesting to seaboard people, from 
the fact that the hours of tides serving are 
given for each day of the year. 

We are in receipt of a very handsome 
calendar for the coming year from A. Miller 
& Son, of Bradford, Pa., manufacturers and 
dealers in fine pressed brick. The illustra- 


I. S. Taylor, Architect. 

riontibrick'furnislied by thelHydraulic-Press Brick'Conipany. 

Sturgis & Cabot, Architects. 

Peerless Mortar Colors, send their New Year's greetings in the 
form of a very attractive and useful calendar of the memo- 
randum pad style, each leaf of which is divided into the seven 
days of the week, with liberal space opposite each date for 

A VERY attractive calendar for 1898 has been issued by 
Jas. A. Davis & Co., 92 State Street, Boston, New England 
agents for the Alpha Portland Cement. Particular interest is 
attached to the illustration of this calendar, namely, two 
thoroughbred Boston bulldogs, from the fact that they were 
raised and are owned by Mr. Davis. 

R. GuASTAViNO Co., fire-proof construction, Boston and 
New York, have issued the first of their bi-monthly calendars, 
the illustration of same being a three-part view of the roof 
over St. Anthony's Chapel, St. Matthew's Church, Washington, 
D. C. ; Heins & LaFarge, architects. It is the intention of 
this company to send out a new calendar bi-monthly through- 
out the year, each having as a subject some illustration of their 
method of construction as employed on some prominent build- 

F. W. SiLKMAN, 231 Pearl Street, New York, importer of 
minerals, clays, chemicals, and colors, has sent us one of his 
very attractive hanging calendars, at the top of which is a 
striking picture in colors of two fine specimens of Gordon 

The Correspondence School at Scranton, Pa., has issued 
a booklet the contents of which is a substantial endorsement 
of the architectural courses conducted by them, eighty stu- 
dents I^earing testimony to the value of these courses. 

We are in receipt of a new catalogue just issued by the 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Company, illustrating and 



describing their "standard colors, sizes, and special shapes of en- 
ameled and patent interlocking enameled wall tile." 

A valuable feature of the catalogue is the practical description 
given of the details 
required for arch brick 
(enameled ) in Eng- 
lish, American, Ro- 
man, or Norman sizes. 
These details are ac- 
companied by explan- 
atory diagrams. Par- 
ticular attention has 
also been given to the 
illustration of some 
ninety-five different 
shapes of molded brick 
which the company 
manufacture, and also 
to the variety of colors 
which they make. In 
order to facilitate se- 
lection in these there 
has been incorporated 
in the catalogue a 
colored chart showing 
fifteen different shades 
of brick. 

The closing pages 
of the book are de- 
voted to the descrip- 
tion of a patent inter- 
locking tile owned and 





Harnett, Haynes & 
Tcrra-Cotta executed by tlie Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 

tion among architects and builders throughout the country, excellence 
of manufacture and price giving them preference in the market; 
Samuel H. French & Co. are the handlers for Philadelphia, and 

Meeker, Carter & 
Booraem for New 

The D a g u s 
Clay Ma\ufacti;r- 
ixG Company has 
closed a contract to 
supply 1 70,000 brick 
for a new factory 
building at .Straights, 

Charles Bacon, 
3 Hamilton Place, 
Boston, has been ap- 
pointed agent for the 
Celadon Roofing 

PisKE, Homes & 
Co. have just com- 
pleted the building of 
twenty-four brick and 
terra-cotta fireplaces 
for the Rau 1 e i g h 
Chambers on Mount- 
ford St., Boston. 


Barnett, .Architects. 

Front Brick furnislied by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

manufactured exclusively by this company. These tiles are espe- 
cially designed for the facing of walls, or for use in floors or ceilings. 
They are described as "an economizing brick or bonded tile for 

We can heartily recommend to our readers a perusal of this 
little volume as being a 
work which contains con- 
siderable information on 
enameled brick. 


Chaklics Bacon, 
Boston, representative of 
Sayre & Fisher Company, 
has been awarded the 
contract for enameled 
brick for the new South- 
ern Terminal Station, 

.\tlas Portland 
Ce.ment is being used 
on foundations for new 
building on India Street, 
Boston ; W. T. Sears, ar- 

detail of entrance, 

Barnett. Haynes & 

The Grueby Fai- 
ence Company is sup- 
plying the enameled tiles for the Subway Station, Haymarket Square, 

The patent Cleveland Steel Wall Ties made by the Cleveland 
Wire Spring Company, Cleveland, Ohio, have found a ready recogni- 

R. Guastavino Company propose this present year to devote 
especial attention to fire-proof staircase construction, of which they 
have always done more or less. 

The Dagus Clay Manufacturing Company, of Dagus- 

cahonda. Pa., are putting 
a fine line of Pompeian 
brick on the market in 
standard and Roman 

The R I u g w a y 
Press Brick Company, 
through their Pittsburgh 
agent, James R. Pitcairn, 
are furnishing the mottled 
gray Roman bricks for a 
new office building, and a 
residence at Pittsburgh. 

Wm. Wirt, Clark 
& Sons, Baltimore, Md.. 
agents for the Union 
Akron Cement, report 
that this cement is now 
being used by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Com- 
pany at Sunbury, Pa., 
and by the West Mary- 
land Railroad Company 
at Hagerstown, Md. 

, house at ST, 
Harnett, Architects. 


There will be a large amount of architectural terra-cotta used in 
the new building for Jordan, Marsh & Co., Chauncy and Bedford 
Streets and Avon Place, Boston. This contract has been awarded 
to Waldo Brothers, agents for the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Com- 



Barnett, Haynes & Barnett, Architects. 

The Navy Department has adopted the iMason Safety Tread 
for use in vessels, after the favorable report of an examining board, 
and requisitions have been made for the material for application to 
stair treads and other places on half a dozen battleships and cruisers. 

On the thirty-story Syndicate Building, Park Row, New York, 
the " Brooklyn Bridge Brand " Rosendale Cement is being used ex- 
clusively. Sixty-five thousand barrels of this cement were used on 
the New York Croton Aqueduct in 1897. 

Sayre & Fisher Company front bricks will be used in the 
new residence for Mr. Fay on Commonwealth Avenue, Boston ; J. T. 
Kelly, architect ; also for the Jordan Building, Boston ; Winslow & 
Wetherell, architects. 

The Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, through their Boston 
agent, Charles Bacon, will supply the architectural terra-cotta for the 
Spalding house at Pride's Crossing, Mass. ; Little & Brown, archi- 
tects ; also for the Wood, Pollard & Co. Building, Boston ; Shepley, 
Rutan & Coolidge, architects. 

The Grueby Faience Company, Boston, have executed a 

frieze, 125 ft. in length, of painted tiles in Delft blue, representing a 
panoramic landscape in Holland, for the grill room in the new addi- 
tion to the Reynolds House, Boston ; Arthur Vinal, architect. 

The Ridgway Press Brick Company, through O. D. Person, 
their New York agent, will supply 150,000 mottled and 4,000 orna- 
mental brick for the new high school building at Newark, N. J. Also 
120,000 stiff mud buff and gray bricks for the new school building 
at Newtown, L. I. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company is building the new 180 
ft. drawbridge over the South .Shrewsbury River, N. J. ; also rebuild- 

st. LOUIS dairy company's iiun,i)iN(;. 

W. Albert Swasey, Architect, 


I. S. Taylor, Architect. 
Front brick furnislied by Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

ing the boiler house for the Riverside Worsted Mills at Providence, 
R. I. This building is to be made fire-proof, the walls are of brick, 
the roof being of tile with metal supports. 

The Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany will supply terracotta on the following new contracts: 
residence 3Sth and Ludlow Sts., Philadelphia, A. S. Wade, 
architect; stable at Caldwell, N. J., Jeans & Taylor, archi- 
tects; and a new building at Philadelphia, for which H. E. 
Flower is the architect. 

The Celadon Roofing Tile Company, Charles T. 
Harris, Lessee, have closed contracts for roofing tile for two 
houses for Sanford P. Ross, Newark, N. J., H. E. Reeve, 
architect; 8 in. Conosera. Engine House, New York City 
Fire Department, Percy Cuffin, architect; close shingle. Cor- 
respondence School at Scranton, W. Scott Collins, architect; 8 
in. and 2 in. Conosera in combination. 

W. T. Birch, Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C, 
writes as follows in regard to his use of Cabot's Creosote 
Shingle Stains on bricks : " I used them in two instances on 
old and discolored press-brick fronts, and with most gratifying 



results. The brickwork now, after several months' exposure to sun 
and rain, looks quite as well as new." 

Thk C. p. Merwix Brick Comi'A.w, Berlin, Conn., established 
in 1880, has withdrawn from the Central New England Brick E.\- 
change Company. Theirs is one of the largest and best equipped 
brickmaking plants in New England, if not in the whole country. 
Their product is a superior quality of pallet face, building, sewer, 
paving, molded, and hollow brick. The plant is located on the main 
line of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. 

The Coi.umhus Brick a.\d Terr.a-Cotta Company are 
supplying their front brick on the following new contracts: Dark- 
gray Romans for three dwellings at Newark, N. J. ; B. F. Hurd, 
architect; dark-buff standards for public school. No. 19, at Jersey 
City, N. J.; C. F. Long, architect; light-gray Romans for residence 
at Cincinnati, Ohio; M. H. Burton, architect; light-buff Romans for 
Journal Building, Dayton, Ohio: Williams & Andrews, architects; 
light-gray Standards and Romans for residence at Germantown, Pa.; 
George F. Pearson, architect. 

Ok new contracts the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company has 
lately received : School, West New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y. 
John A. Hamilton, architect: school, No. 26, Jersey City, N. J. 
H. & W. Newman, architects; grammar school, New Rochelle, N. Y. 
George H. Pierce, architect. 

This company is now working on the terra-cotta contracts for 
St. Patrick's Church, Whitinsville, Mass. ; Chas. D. Maginnis, archi- 
tect ; apartment houses, 138th and 139th Streets and Brooks Avenue, 
New York City; Schickel & Ditmars, architects; residence, Sea- 
bright, N. J. ; DeLemos & Cordes, architects : residence, Hillhouse 
Avenue, .New Haven, Conn.: L. W. Robinson, architect. 

A PROJECT is on foot to build a hotel, somewhat after the idea 
of the Mills hotel in New York, on the corner of Gainsboro and 
Parker Streets, Boston. The scheme is to erect a seven-story build- 
ing, where comfortable quarters will be provided for young men at a 
moderate rate. 

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The Columbus***. 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Co*, 


Manufacturers of 

Plain, Molded, 

and Ornamental 




Buff, Gray, and Terra-Cotta Colors. 



Works at Union Furnace, Ohio» 



A. B. COIT, 


Preiideat and Qeaeral Manaeer. 

Secretary and Treasurer. 


Telegraph and 



180,000 Brick 
Per Day. 

C. p. /Herwin Brick Co., 


Pallet Face, Building:, Sewer, Paving, and Molded 

Also a Superior Quality of HOLLOW BUILDING BRICK. 






W. S. RAVENSCROFT, President. 

J. J. HOBLETZELL, Vice-President. 

M. S. KLINE, Secretary and Treasurer. 


Successors to 


Telegraph Office, Ridgway, Pa. DAGUSCAHONDA. PA. 




BUKK, GRAY, RED, Etc., Etc. 

New York Agents, 


14 East 23d Street. 

Boston Agents, 


178 Devonshire Street. 

W. H. OSTERHOUT, Pres't. 

W. H. HYDE, ViM-Preg't. 

E. n. CAMPBELL, Sec'j and Trees. 

Ridgway Press=Brick Company, 

The Ridgfway 

Ridgway, Pa. 

Manufacturers ot 


GRAY fe 


New England Agents : 

G. R. Twichell & Co., 

19 Federal Street, 


IJm' - II 


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New York Agent : 

Orrin D. Person, 

160 Fifth Avenue, 

CHURCH AT NEWTON, MASS., Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue, Architects. 

The Gray Bricks used in this church were furnished by the Rideway Press-Brick Co. 




Made by Mud Process, Hand Pressed, Fire Flashed. ^^^ °°LI' ^'^ CHOCOLATE-BROWN COLORS. 

" PoMPEiAN " brick made by this Company sur- 
pass all others in keeping bright and clean in Pitts- 
burgh or any other atmosphere, as the following 
extracts from letters received will show: 

Pittsburgh, May 9, 1896. 
. . . Ten years ago I built a residence here, using your 
" PoMPEiAN " brick. These brick are to-day as bright and 
clean as when laid. They are impervious to water, and a 
driving rain clears the wall from dust and soot, instead of 
soaking the dirt into them, as it will with porous material. 

' Pittsburgh, Jan. 14, 1896. 
It is five years since my house was completed. So far as 
can be .seen, the brickwork is as clean as on the day the build- 
ing was finished. 

Cleveland, O. 
Your " PoMPEiAN " brick stands the Cleveland climate 
better than any other brick I have observed, retaining their 
bright, clear appearance. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
The brick to-day look brighter, cleaner, and more attractive 
than they did when the building was first erected, and every 
rain storm seems to freshen them. 

Send for descriptive pamphlet showing photo- 
graphs of buildings and mantels in which our brick 
have been used. 





For Exterior and Interior Facing, Mantels, Floors, etc., 
in any size, shape, or color desired, is 

Ik Shawnee Brick, 



The Ohio Mining: and Manufacturing Company, 




Secretary and Treasurer. 



W. D. RICHARDSON, Superintendent. 

These brick can be seen and purchased at the following places : 

NEW YORK, The Powhatan Clay Mfg. Co., 1121 Broadway. BUFFALO, Brush Bros., 2 Builders' Exchange. 

CINCINNATI, Mendenhall & Neff, 237 West Fourth St. INDIANAPOLIS, Consolidated Coal & Lime Co., 13 Virginia Ave. 

PHILADELPHIA, Rufus E. Eggleston, 575 Mutual Life Building. CHICAGO, Geo. B. Engle, Jr., 808 Chamber of Commerce. 





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S^ SfV^ SPV^ Sf^ c^P^ c^fV 


Enameled Brick 

nanufacturers of a Superior Quality of 





Used in over 300 of the best Buildings in New York and other large cities. 


p. O. Address, 

Oaks, Pa. 

Address all Correspondence 
to Main Office. 

Main Office: 

25th Street and Broadway, 

Townsend Building, 

New York City. 

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Orrin D. Person, 

i6o Fifth Ave., 

New York City. 

Orrin 1). Person, 

308 Puilders' Kxchange, 

Philadelpliia, Pa. 

Orrin 1). Person, 

Builders' Exchange, 

Newark, N. J. 

John H. Black, 

Erie Co. Savings Bank Building, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

PiTTSHURG Mortar & Si'i'Pi.y Co., 
339 Fifth Ave., 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Co., 

Chamber of Commerce Building, 
Richmond, Va. 

R. L. Watson, 

Mithoff Building, 

Columbus, O. 

The Midland Brick & Supply Co., 
226 The Arcade, 

Cleveland, O. 

B. T. Hazen, 

3 Builders' Exchange, 
Cincinnati, O. 

Holmes, Strachan & Co., 

195 East Atwater St., 
Detroit, Mich. 




General Offices : 



Kind & Kuhlmann Builders' Sup. Co., \t 

153 South St. Clair St., y 

Toledo, O. S 

Illinois Supply & Const. Co., w 

Century Building, ^ 

St. Louis, Mo. ^ 

William J. Watkins & Co., ^ 

N. E. Cor. Fourth & Main Sts., g 

Louisville, Ky. 

Twin City Brick Co., 

Minneapolis and St. Paul. 


710 Palladio Building, 
Duluth, Minn. 

Clarence C. Cuff, 

10 Arcade, Yonge St., 
Toronto, Can. 

W. S. Nelson, 

Hall Building, 

Kansas City, Mo. 

B. S. Lewis, 

428 Church St., 

Nashville, Tenn. 

W. L. Dearborn, 

Hennen Building, 

New Orleans, La. 








84 University Place, 

New York City. 






Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

The Only System 
Awarded a 
Medal and 



Our Patenteil TransyersB System of Floor ircli Constncnoo Made U 9, 1 0. 1 2 and 1 5 incli deptlis. 

At the 




Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 


For Fire-proofing Buildings. 

R. C. PENHELD, Prcs't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. J. A. GREEN, Treas. 




Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 4J CORTLANDT ST. 





Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 

HOI I 0\A/ RI Or^k'Q For Flat, Elliptical, MdSegmen- 
liWLLW VV D L-Wv^IXO, tal Arches of every Description. 

Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roofing. 




1 56 FIFTH AVE., i> t W I UK JV. 

Work«, LORILLARD (Keyport P. O.), N. J. 




New York Office, 

\ \ East 59th St. 


Boston Office, 

444 Albany St. 





All in Burnt Clay. 

Boston Fire-Proofing Company, 

D. McINTOSH, Proprietor. 






" Porous Terra-Cotta stands lire and water." 



Fire-proofed by the Boston Fire-Proofing Co. 



.... Established 1856 .... 


Manufacturers of 

Fire=Proof Building Materials. 


Floor Arches, 





Roofing, Etc* J 



I Porous Terra-Cotta 



of all Sizes, 

Flue Linings, 

Etc», Etc* 



25 per cent. Stronger and Lighter than any other method. 

Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d STREET, 

New York. 



On C. R. R. of N. J. 

Philadelphia Office, 18 South rth Street. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 

Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 


The Only System that Provides an Absolutely Scientific Safeguard 

Against Fire. 

PROBATE COURT BUILDING, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Olin W. Cutter, Architect; Thomas H. Connell, Contractor. 

The fireproofing and steel work furnished by 


Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
A. J. COFFIN, 412 Presbyterian Building, Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



Charles T. Harris, President. 

Henry S. Harris, Vice-President. 


WiLUAM R. Clarke, Secy, and Treas. 

Alvord B. Clarke, Superintendent. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd. charles t. harris, l™. 

.Manufacturers of 

Artistic Roofing Tiles. 

New York Office, 
1 1 23 Presbyterian Building, 

156 Fifth Avenue. 


(Under Babcock Patents.) 

Chicago Office, 

looi Marquette Building, 

204 Dearborn Street. 


ON this page are shown Improvements in Roofing and Sheathing Tiles, 
of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the 
accompan3-ing drawings, in which — 

Fig. I is a plan view of several tiles embodying the invention, arranged as 
they would lie upon a roof; Fig. 2, a vertical section taken on the line x x, 
Fig. 3, showing the tiles combined as in Fig. i ; and Fig. 3, a face view of 
a single tile, represented on an enlarged scale. 

This improvement relates to clay or other tiles which are rectangular, or 
nearly so, in form, and abut at the sides in continuous rows lengthwise of the 
roof, being laid so as to "break" joints (shingle fashion) between consecu- 
tive rows. 
Ity consists in applying to this character of tile a downturned fiange at its lower 
-eal," giving a high relief to the same, and conforming the adjacent portion of the 
e with an upward bend or wave near its middle, which fits the downturned fiange 
of the overlying tile so as to bring every part of the adjacent lapping surfaces closely together 
and efiect the sealing of the abutting joints. An upturned flange is also provided to the upper- 
most edge of the tile, which flange interlocks with and beneath the adjacent upward bend or 
wave of the o\'erlying tiles to prevent penetration of wind, rain, or dust between the part of the 
abutting joints that intersect said upward bend or wave of the overlying tiles. 

The upper and lower portions A and B of the tile lie in distinct planes, joined by the offset 
or wave portion a. When the tiles are combined a double thickness of the material is formed 
throughout the roof, thereby closing the space beneath the abutting joints between the plain 
edges b at every part. 

c c represent the downward flanges, terminating the exposed surfaces of the tiles, and d the 
upward flanges, terminating the underly- 

ing ends thereof. 

The tiles may be lightened by cutting 
ofl^ portions of the upper half, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 3, 
without interfering with their tightness. 

The tiles may be secured to the substructure by any suitable 
mode or device. We have illustrated that of providing ears e, hav- 
ing perforations for the reception of nails. 

By the interlocking of the flanges at the ends with the wave in 
the center, the tiles are rendered mutually supporting, so that 
should the fastening of any one become loosened it cannot fall and 
endanger persons below, as is the case with common shingle-tile and 

The accompanying cut of the Lithgow Memorial Library, 
Augusta, Me., shows a building covered with these tiles. 





Attention is called to the fact that some 61,000 cu. ft. of terra-cotu are used on this building and the AstoT Court Building, seen in theldistance. This includes the work made for the interior, on the ground 

and first floors. The total weight was about 2,200 tons, which is equal to 600 truck loads of 7.333 lbs. each. 


The New York Architectural Terra -Cotta Company, 

38 Park Row, New York City. 


(} FEB. 
^^ J 898 
^^ No. 2 








Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... J2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3-S° P^"" year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 


A CRITICISM, which is often quoted against the species of 
architectural training which is afforded by the Ecole des 
Heaux Arts in Paris, is that the problems treated therein are not 
practical ones ; that the large, monumental style of design which 
finds favor with the school traditions is not of the sort by which we 
Americans can most truly profit, and that a young man who follows 
such a course of training views architecture through the wrong end 
of the opera glass. Such a criticism springs from a misconception of 
architecture as a fine art. The difference in the results of American 
and foreign architecture, and the causes of much of the deficiencies 
which we cannot but admit and regret in our national civic archi- 
tecture are due very largely to the bias which we seem to have in- 
herited from our Engliih artistic parentage, of viewing architecture 
as a development from the individual house to the palace, rather 
than considering it to be the art of the palace which may be applied 
to the small house. In other words, architecture, when at its best, is 
a development of wealth and power; and if we have artistic homes, 
if our small buildings are successful in an artistic sense, it is because 
of the opportunities which wealth and power have placed within the 
reach of the profession, whereby opportunities for study in the large 
have been afforded. It is only in proportion as we disregard expense, 
per se, disregard the so-called practical conditions, that we are able 
to produce work which will stand in the artistic sense. We would 
not be understood by this as saying that practical conditions should 
not be considered at all ; but viewing architecture as a fine art, which 
it undoubtedly can be and is in the hands of our best practitioners, 
the practical elements should be considered only in as far as they are 

essential to a proper artistic treatment of the whole, for, however 
practicable a building may be, if it is not artistic it is not architecture. 

Now, every one does not have the opportunity to build palaces, 
in this country especially, and most of us have to content ourselves 
with]what crumbs of artistic possibilities may fall to our table. Such 
a limitation need not imply, however, a lack of appreciation of possi- 
bilities for the larger development, if we will bear in mind that art is 
more than steel construction or foundations, and when we are obliged 
to delve in the humbler lines of design, will keep our minds ready 
and trained for the study of the larger solutions. We believe that 
growth is well-nigh impossible for an architect whose practise is 
limited to ordinary buildings, if he confines his attention simply to 
the structures which come to his hand. He must reach out beyond, 
and undertake in moments of leisure study to grapple* with the great 
problems to test his strength on the broader type, otherwise even his 
small buildings will deteriorate in quality, and he will find it hard to 
keep what power he has. No one can afford to know it all nowa- 
days ; we must keep studying, keep reaching out, searching for the 
larger opportunities. A story is told of an architect in Belgium who 
for twenty years, without any encouragement, spent all his spare 
time in seriously studying the plans and possible designs for a monu- 
mental structure ; and when after years of study he was elected, a 
man almost unknown, to design the new law courts in Brussels, he 
was able to bring out his previous studies and show how for twenty 
years he had been elaborating the very scheme. The result of his 
continued thought shows in the building, which is unique in many 
ways, and ranks among the best of its kind. Now, that is what we 
need to do if we would not let our weapons get rusty. The throttling 
effects of limited opportunities is a factor which every architect 
appreciates who has the artistic success of his profession at heart, 
and it is a matter of necessity in these days, when the manifestations 
of art are spreading so fast, and its possibilities are so much enlarged, 
that we should be ready when the time comes to meet the higher 

But even if it never comes, even if one all his life is to be hound 
down to the petty, small problems, the spirit which will prompt him 
to study the large opportunities will manifest itself in the small ones, 
and his work will be so much the better for it. Architecture is pre- 
eminently the art which depends upon size for its effect, and yet the 
large feeling which is manifest in such works as the Temple of Kar- 
nac or the south front of the Louvre finds its expression sometimes 
in even so simple a thing as a library interior in a five thousand dol- 
lar house or the treatment of a brick gable. Limited opportunities 
belittle if treated in a petty spirit, but when viewed with a larger 
scope, when the opera glass is turned the other way and we approach 
our architecture from the monumental side, the small opportunities 
can be magnified into great successes. 

Wli resume in this number the republication of Street's " Brick 
and Marble Architecture in Italy," which was interrupted 
two years ago on account of the pressure of other matter ; and we 
are sure our readers will be glad that the completion of our republi- 
cation can now be continued witliout further interruption. The book 
is of value not only because it still remains, perhaps, the i)est account 
in English of the architecture of which it treats, but it has the 
farther interest, in the insight it gives into the point of view of one of 



the foremost of the architects who led the Gothic revival in England 
in the middle of the century. Traveling in Italy was in those days 
by no means so common, even among architects, as it has since be- 
come, and these notes of journeyings in Italy have an added zest if 
one reads them remembering that they were written as an account of 
explorations in comparatively unknown regions; for the architecture 
of which it treats had hitherto been overlooked by most, even, of 
those who traveled in Italy. 

We shall, as before, illustrate the subjects in each successive in- 
stalment of the republication, by reproductions from photographs. 
This will give us the opportunity of offering to our readers a large 
amount of material from the best of Italy's brick and marble archi- 
tecture. We shall illustrate especially the brickwork on the build- 
ings in which brick and marble is combined; but occasionally, as in 
the present number, which treats of St. Mark's at Venice, our text will 
lead us to show subjects in which brickwork does not appear, though 
at St. Mark's the structure is of brick, and, indeed, originally the 
brickwork was displayed, and was not encased with marble as it 
came to be .soon after its construction. 

THE American Architect and Building News Company has pub- 
lished a work of considerable interest in the shape of a series 
of plates illustrating the (jeorgian or colonial period of American 
architecture, reproduced from drawings by many of our best-known 
illustrators, including such names as Gregg, Wallis, Bragdon, and 
many others. The first part includes thirty-three well-selected plates, 
the subjects of which, while not altogether unfamiliar to the archi- 
tectural public, are such as to make the collection of very tangible 
value. Part II., which is now in course of preparation, is to contain 
not less than forty-eight plates of measured drawings, many of which 
have never before been published, together with a number of gelatine 
prints of details from domestic and public buildings in the New Eng- 
land, Middle, and Southern States. The work is issued at prices of 
$4.00 and $6.00 for the respective parts. It forms a welcome addi- 
tion to the available illustrative publications upon the subject. 

The Georgian Period : being measured drawings of colonial 
work in the United States. Boston : .American Architect and Build- 
ing News Company. 


Georgk H. Ingraham, architect, Boston, has taken offices in 
the Tremont Building. 

H. C. Rutherford, architect, Scranton, Pa., has removed his 
offices to the Burr Building. Samples and catalogues desired. 

Hf.nry Loomis Curtis has opened an office for the of 
architecture at 11 20 Harrison Building, Philadelphia. 

Westi^ake & Howard have opened an office for the practise 
of architecture in the Johnson Building, Muncie, Ind. .Samples and 
catalogues desired. 

Mr. George W. Gouinlock, architect, has removed his offices 
from 53 King Street, East, to the seventh floor, Temple Building, 
corner of Bay and Richmond Streets, Toronto. 

Long & Kees, architects, Minneapolis, Minn., have dissolved 
partnership. Mr. F. B. Long has formed a copartnership with his 
son, Louis L. Long, under the firm name of V . li. Long & L. L. 
Long, with offices in the Kasota Building. 

Shank & Wetherell, architects, Observatory Building, Peo- 
ria, 111., have dissolved partnership, .Mr. Shank retaining the old 
office, and Mr. Wetherell associating himself with Richardson & 
Hotchkiss. Dime Savings Bank Building, under the firm name of 
Richard.son, Wetherell & Hotchkiss. 

Mr. S. Frost, formerly at 604 Pullman Building, 
Chicago, and Mr. Alfred H. Granger, of Cleveland, Ohio, have 
formed a partnership under the firm name of Frost & Granger, ar- 
chitects, and after Feb. i, 189S, will be located at 806 The Temple, 
southwest corner of La .Salle and Monroe Streets, Chicago. 

A REGULAR meeting of the T Square Club was held on Wednes- 
day evening, January 19, the subject for competition being, '• A 
Club House for a Country Club." 

Mr. Walter Cope led the criticism on the ten designs submitted. 

First mention was awarded to Mr. A. M. Githens; second men- 
tion, to Mr. W. P. Trout; and third mention, to Mr. George G. 

Chicago Architectural Club happenings of recent date are 
as follows : — 

Mr. P. B. Wight, secretary of the Illinois Board of Examiners 
for Architects, delivered a lecture at the club rooms, Monday evening, 
January 24, on the new law governing the practise of architecture in 
the State of Illinois, and its benefits. 

On Monday evening, February 7, the members of the club were 
requested to come to the club rooms prepared with pencils, sketch 
blocks, and bright ideas, to participate in a competition for the design 
of a building, the governing conditions of which were announced on 
that evening. 

A time limit of one half hour was set for the preparation of 
sketches, and a general criticism and discussion of the problem fol- 

The second and third exhibitions of Projet Drawings took place 
on the evenings of January 31 and February 14 respectively. Differ- 
ent squads of members dispensed the hospitality of the club on each 


0.\ page vii, in the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., num- 
ber eight of the series of brick and terracotta fireplace 
mantels is shown. 

A new residence at Pittsburgh, Pa., is illustrated in the adver- 
tisement of Harbison & Walker Company, on page xiii. 

Number four of the descriptive series of the roofing tiles made 




H. J. Hardenbergh, Architect. 

Executed by tlie New York Architectural Terra-l'otta Company. 

by the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Charles T. Harris, lessee, is 
given in the company's advertisement, page xxvii. 

Examples of bond, showing blocks of the Gilbreth Seam-Face 
Granite laid up in two styles of bond, is illustrated in the company's 
advertisement, page xxxiv. 




THE Annual Exhibition of the Architectural League of New 
York has come to be one of the artistic features of the year, 
both on account of the manner in which it has been managed and 
for what it represents. It is true that the public, properly so styled, 
gives the exhibition but scanty support, and even the profession in 
New York does not put itself in evidence either by attendance or by 
a specially manifested interest, but that it has a very positive influence 
and a recognized value can 
hardly be questioned by !~ 
any one who has had the 
good fortune to attend dur- 
ing successive years. In I 
the present exhibition 
there are fewer small sub- 
jects than last year, less 
merely pretty architectural 
picture making, but there 
seems to be a more evident 
sympathy for monumental 
Architecture, and more and 
better attempts than in any 
previous year to large and 
broad treatment. 

A very fascinating set 
of drawings, and in some 
respects one of the most 
interesting in the exhibi- 
tion, is that exhibited by 
Cope & Stewardson, show- 
ing the building for the 
Pennsylvania Institution 
for the Instruction of the 
Blind, a structure recalling 
the North Italian work, 
with a touch of the South- 
ern Californian Mission 
style, with red tile roofs, 
and walls presumably stuc- 
coed, forming a bright, 
sunny combination, with 
excellent proportion and 
a few carefully studied 
details, a most pleasing 
group, and one which 
would indicate a unique 
and very successful build- 
ing. The drawings them- 
selves were extremely 
clever of their kind. 

Another most excel- 
lent example of brickwork 
is shown by the design for 
the new Court House of 
Livingston County, at Gen- 

eseo, N. Y. The building itself is shown as a colonial combination of 
Flemish bonded brick, with stone quoins, and a center treatment con- 
sisting of a high two-storied colonnade with pediment presumably of 
wood, a design which, handled with less nicety of proportion and 
sense of fitness, might easily become commonplace, but which is a 
charming bit of composition, and is ably presented by the drawing. 
The perspective is in black and white, and shows the building set in 
a winter landscape, with a few hunters on horseback in the fore- 
ground, the coats of hunters a bright scarlet, as if at the last 
moment Mr. Bragdon, after having made the whole drawing in 
pen and ink, had felt the need of a sharp note in the foreground. 
What makes the drawing all the more interesting is that instead of 

using hard India ink, the draughtsman has employed a writing ink, 
just a slight purplish-gray black, which softens the effect wonder- 

Mr. R. Clipston Sturgis contributes a sketch for a country house, 
of brick and stone in a semi-Tudor style, with simple quiet treat- 
ment of lawn and terraces in front. This house we hope to illustrate 
in a later issue. Another very pleasing sketch is contributed by Mr. 
Frank Allison Hays, showing an arrangement of brick gable end 
with a picturesque group of chimneys, forming addition to an exist- 
ing house. 

Cope & Stewardson 
also exhibit a design for 
house for J. S. Morgan, at 
Princeton, an example of 
the kind of work the clever 
Philadelphians have been 
doing of late in combina- 
tions of brick and stone. 
Charles I. Berg has an in- 
teresting drawing, a block 
of five city houses treated 
like one continuous eigh- 
teenth century palace, with 
marked end pavilions and 
Mansard roof, the face be- 
ing carried oiit in red brick 
and white stone. The 
whole arrangement of the 
basement, the high princi- 
pal story, and the group- 
ing of the roofs is quite in 
the style of the French 

Mr. E. P. Casey has a 
drawing for one of the city 
engine houses, presumably 
on an isolated plot, a de- 
sign in red brick and white 
stone trimmings in the 
French style, which at 
present seems to be quite 
the fashion in New York. 
Tracy & Magonigle con- 
tribute several of Mr. Ma- 
gonigle's very strong, 
simply treated water-color 
sketch designs, especially 
one for an inn at Bernard.s- 
ville, N. J., a combina- 
tion of half timbering, 
plaster gable work, a 
green roof, and a long, 
low-lying ell running off 
towards the stable, with 
I a blank brick wall tied 
into the first story brick- 
work of the main structure ; a remarkably brilliant drawing. 

The drawing of a house at Bar Harbor, by John Calvin Stevens, 
is a surprise. It represents a brick-gabled, quiet Tudor style of 
house, with projecting wings, a pedimented entrance, a broad terrace 
with balustrades across the front, with a line of high brick wall tying 
the house and stable together; a very comfortable composition, but 
so different from Mr. Stevens's usual highly picturesque treatment that 
we looked twice at the catalogue to make sure it was his. If this is 
a new manner with Mr. Stevens, he is surely to be congratulated. 

A drawing which looks as if it were a page taken from some 
quiet, sleepy town of Holland is a design for the Wallabout Market 
Tower, Brooklyn, by W. B. Tubby, architect. The perspective 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

drawing is signed by Robert L. Adams. It shows a queer, (|uaint 
combination of gables, long, narrow slitted windows, a huge clock 
dial, and a picturesque chimney climbing up towards the top of a 
.square, solid brick tower, with quite the flavor which is hanging 
around Haarlem and Delft. We wish there were more such. 

A building which has been previously illustrated in this journal 
is shown at the League Exhibition by a carefully rendered elevation. 
In the Crozier Building, Philadelphia, Mr. Frank Miles Day has 
been able to accomplish what is so often attempted — a design of a 
tall commercial building which is architectural from grade line to 
pinnacle, with a well-defined base, a simple shaft, and elaboration 
into a crowning capital. Whether all commercial considerations will 
tolerate in other instances a high-pitched roof is a question which 
does not affect the artistic qualities of this design. It is to be 
doubted, also, whether many property owners would be willing to 
sacrifice so much space in the ground story in the shape of heavy 
piers and arches to afford an adequate and proportional support for 
the upper stories; but certainly, taken as a whole, it is one of the 
most successful designs of its kind which we have seen. If we are 
rightly informed, it is entirely of brick and terracotta above the 
ground floor. 

A lack in the exhibition is the absence of any decorative work 
in tiles or colored terra-cottas. We know there is plenty of this 
being done, and of a very high artistic quality, but somehow it does 
not seem to find its way into exhibitions. There are a few samples 
shown of underglaze on tiles, but they are too amateurish to count as 
serious work. 

An exhibition of this sort is an architectural tonic. Not all that 
is exhibited is good, by any means, and we miss the work of many 
representative architects, but the value, as a whole, is quite appre- 
ciable, even if not precisely defined. Sometimes we feel the best 
good from such an effort comes beforehand, in the months of prepa- 
ration, in anticipation, and in the .species of mental restraint which 
the knowledge that we are going to exhibit will exert over one. Not 
that the drawings have the appearance, however, of being made 
especiallv for show, rather each year there is less of this and more 
indications that the drawings represent the manner in which archi- 
tects are working out their ideas in architectural practise. One of 
the speakers at the League dinner made the witty remark that when- 
ever he went to church he was convinced that an architect not only 
built the edifice, but must have planned that part of the service which 
declares he had left undone the things he ought to have done. The 
point would apply to any exhibition ; still, the things which are done 
and done so well, and which are growing in number every year, are 
abundant testimony to at least the direction of growth which make 
this exhibition all that it is. 


WE have received the very successful illustrated catalogue of 
the architectural exhibition of the T-Square Club, Phila- 
delphia. It is interesting to compare this number with of 

some of the first years in which the club held its exhibitions and note 
how marked has been its progress. Indeed, we question whether 
any other one publication could more fittingly show the change in 
attitude of the architect than these illustrated catalogues. The club 
this year has evidently made considerable effort to interest foreign 
contributors. There are several English drawings, notably R. Norman 
Shaw's wonderfully clever drawing of the building for the Alliance 
Assurance Company, London; also some of Ernest George's equally 
charming interiors. The comparison which this catalogue affords 
between the work of our foreign brethren and that of some of the 
trained coterie who have given the T-Square Club its reputation is 
decidedly interesting and instructive, and while the English work is 
on slightly different lines, the result is, from our standpoint, by no 
means to the detriment of our home talent. The catalogue contains 
an unusual quantity of most excellent material. 

The Managing Committee of the John Steward.son Memorial 
Scholarship in Architecture announces by authority of the Trustees 
of the University of Pennsylvania, who act as trustees of the Memo- 
rial Fund, a competition for a scholarship of the value of one thousand 
dollars, the holder of which is to spend one year in travel and in the 
study of architecture in Europe under the direction of the committee. 

Candidates must be under thirty years of age, and must have 
studied or practised architecture in the .State of Pennsylvania for the 
period of at least one year immediately preceding the first day of 
March, 1898. Programs of the competition may be had by address- 
ing Mr. Frank Miles Day, Secretary of the Managing Committee, 
925 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 




THE following tests of the crushing strength of brick piers are 
interesting both as regards the absolute loads recorded, and 
also because, while with lime mortar brickwork the strength of the 
mortar determines the load which the pier can carry, this is not so 
where good Portland cement mortar is used. The tests show that 
the quality of the brick determines the pier strength, as the first and 
second brands of cement were rather superior to the third and fourth, 
as is shown by the tests of a cube of mortar from the same mixing; 
but the superior strength of the pressed brick became evident in 
spite of this. 

.Another interesting point always brought out by such tests is 
that the pier strength per square inch is considerably less than that 
of a single brick on its flat, but considerably more than cubes of mor- 
tar, /. e., beds of mortar are far stronger than cubes, and single bricks 
than built walls. 

The compressions recorded are very small, owing to the rigidity 
of the mortar, but piers laid in lime mortar give very much greater 
compressions per unit load. 

McGiLL University Laboratories, March, 1897. 



Crushing Strength, lbs. per 




Compression per foot. 

Strength of Mortar. 
3 in. X 3 in. cube. 

I fimensions of Pier. 

square inch. 



400 lbs. per 
square inch. 

800 lbs. per 
square inch. 

At ist Crack. Maximum Load. 

8. 1 ins. X S. 1 ins. 

ii.G ins. high. 
Joints, H '»• thick. 

I Canadian 
3 Sand. 

Ordinai7 well-burnt 
Flat Brick. 


1 1234 

3 Weeks. 

In the 

In the 

.001 ft. 

.0025 ft. 


8.1 ins. X 8.1 ins. 

11.6 ins. high. 
Joints, J4 in. tliick. 

I Cerman 
3 Sand. 






8.2 ins. X 8.3 ins. 

10.5 ins. high. 

Joints, y, in. thick. 

1 English 
3 Sand. 

La Prairie pressed, 
Keyed on one side. 

1 130 




.0025 ft. 

.004 ft. 

8.4 ins. X 8 ^ ins. 

10.75 '"s. high. 

Joints, Vj^ in. thick. 

1 Belgian 
3 Sand. 







.003 ft. 

.0045 ft. 


N. B.-The crushing strength of a brick similar to those in piers Nos. i and 2. laid on flat and bedded in plaster of I'aris, was 1,400 lbs. per square inch for first crack> and 2.400 lbs. per 
square inch maximum load. 



The American Schoolhouse. IV. 


IN the Hopedale and the Longfellow Grammar Schools we have an 
opportunity to compare the features and cousec|uent differences 
of cost of two schools of 
the same type, built by 
the same architect, one in 
the country and the other 
in Boston, under the re- 
quirements of the build- 
ing laws of 1892. 

The Hopedale is a 
three-story building, with 
eight schoolrooms and an 
assembly hall. The ex- 
terior walls 16 ins. of 
brickwork first story and 
12 ins. above, both walls 
with 2 in. air space, and 
are 20 ins. of brickwork 
first story and 16 ins. 
above. The walls of 
Longfellow School are 
also vaulted. The floors 
of the Hopedale school 
are calculated to carry a 

live load of 70 lbs. per square foot ; those of the Longfellow School, 
150 lbs. per square foot. The first floor of this school is mill con- 
struction, and the floors of corridors are of fire-proof construction. 

The basement floors of Hopedale school are finished in con- 
crete ; of the Boston school, as- 
phalt. Hoth schools have carrying 
partitions of brick, and minor par- 
titions of spruce studding. The 
Boston school has three coat plaster 
work and wire-lathed ceilings in 
assembly hall and boiler room : the 
other school has two-coat work 
and wood lathing throughout. The 
Boston school has double run of 
sash in schoolrooms, which are 
fitted with bookcases, and the 
walls above blackboards, and ceil- 
ings throughout are tinted with 
water color. These features are 
lacking in the Hopedale school. 

Both buildings have iron stair- 


Kdnuind M. Wheeh 

cases with rubber mats, !)oth have sheathed dadoes and plain J< in. 

The Hopedale school cost ^^27,320, or $4,553 per schoolroom. 
The Boston school cost $68,308, or $5,692 per schoolroom. 
To account for this difference in cost, the first element to be con- 
sidered is that of the greater expense of building in Boston above 

that in other places. 

This would be at least 5 

^^ per cent, of the cost in 

**^ this case. We would, 

therefore, expect to build 
at Hopedale a building 
identical in all its features 
with the Boston school 
for $5,307 per school- 

If tiie Hopedale 
school had been planned 
with separate " ward- 
robes," it would have 
cost $2,200 more, or $275 
per schoolroom, /. i\, the 
cost would have lieen 
$4,828 per schoolroom ; 
and further, if the Hope- 
dale school" had had as 
heavy brick and founda- 
tion walls, and the same 
strength of floors as the Boston school, the cost per schoolroom 
would have been increased $350, or to $5,178, and the general in- 
crease in cost of the building, if the Boston building law of 1892 had 
been followed in the construction of the Hopedale school, would 

have been $250 per schoolroom, 
or to $5,428. If the Hopedale 
school had had fire-proofing be- 
tween floors, asphalt floors instead 
of cement in basement, double in- 
stead of single run of sash in 
schoolrooms, three-coat plaster and 
wire lathing of boiler room and 
assembly hall, bookcases in 
schoolrooms, and walls and ceil- 
ings above blackboards tinted, — 
factors of increased cost existing 
in the Boston school,- the cost 
per schoolroom would have been 
increased to $5,698. 

The Hopedale school was 
heated by indirect radiation. The 


■right, City Architect. 






Boston school had a more perfected system of heating and ventila- 
tion, /. e., the heating by direct radiation, and fresh air heated to 
70 degs. supplied by a plenum fan. The cost of the heating plant 
of the Hopedale school was $2,700, or $335 per schoolroom ; the 
cost of that of the Hoston school was $7,854, or $655 per school- 

normally 4 per cent, cheaper than the Hopedale school ; we therefore 
leave unaccounted for S38S per schoolroom. It is evident that the 
Hopedale school, while less fully meeting the requirements of plan of 
the best graded schools, as it lacks separate wardrobes and has not 
certain important minor features, is more expensive in its architec- 


~ri!isj /■^-■■li i—::-~ 


room. Let us suppose that the Hopedale school had been further 
improved by a heating and ventilating system like that of the Long- 
fellow School, and we .should expect a cost per schoolroom for such 
a building, with the other elements above premised, of 56,018. 

We have seen that the expected cost of a school like the Hoston 
school, if built in Hopedale, would have been $5,307 per schoolroom. 
It would appear that there was a difference of cost in favor of the 
Boston school, if both schools are considered fairly, of $711 per 
schoolroom. The greater size of the Boston school would make it 

tural detail. This extra expense, which is mainly in cut-granite work, 
is probably not less than $175 per schoolroom. We thus see that, 
when fairly considered, that even if we credit the Hopedale school 
with its increased cost of architectural features as an advantage, 
that the Boston school is, when credited with value received in desir- 
able features, $213 less expensive per .schoolroom than the Hopedale 
school. In addition there should be credited to the Boston school 
fully $200 on account of the expense entailed by the required use of 
the " cart-wheel " form of plan. It may be said in passing that this 



form of plan, while per- 
mitting the teacher to sit 
in all cases with back 
to a narrow end of a 
schoolroom and yet keep 
the principal light on the 
left of the pupils, has the 
disadvantage of increas- 
ing the cost of construc- 
tion and of preventing a 
symmetrical external de- 
sign. The latter consid- 
eration is, of course, a 
minor one if the method 
of lighting and control of 
the schoolrooms proves 
in practise to be bettered 
by such arrangement. 

The Long fellow 
School deserves further 
credit on account of the 
fire-proof construction of 
its corridors. 

Let us compare the 
cost of the Longfellow 
School with that of another L5oston grammar school built in its neigh- .cost, for purpose of fair comparison, at 








'■■' .'■''■ 











m.— -r 






9^^' J 











^^S^iJI 1 '/ VI, 








.._ ' 




Walker & Kimball, Architects. 

borhood previous to 1892 
— the Robert Gould Shaw 
School. This is a build- 
ing two stories in height, 
of eight rooms and as- 
sembly hall, costing $54,- 
2 1 5, or $5,421 per school- 
room. We have seen the 
Longfellow School cost 
$5,692 per schoolroom. 

We would expect 
that the Longfellow 
School, being larger, 
would cost 4 per cent., 
and being built under the 
requirements of the law 
of 1892, would normally 
cost 7 percent, more, /. e., 
that in this comparison 
that the Longfellow 
School should be credited 
with 3 per cent, of its 
cost. We therefore 
credit it with $160 per 
schoolroon], setting the 
^5,532 per schoolroom. 

jS'LSC'ifiVT* /XA.V 

~nit^i riA'^iH 




The Longfellow School lacks certain desirable features existent 
in the Shaw School, /. c, terracotta lumber minor partitions, cement 
finish in place of wood, wire-lathed ceilings throughout, hospital 
instead of ordinary yi in. baseboard. These features add about $60 
to the cost per schoolroom, so that to make fair comparison with cost 
of .Shaw School, we should add this amount to the cost of the 
Longfellow .School, making its probable cost, if built under the same 
law and of the same 
number of schoolrooms, 
and under the same 
specifications as the 
Shaw School, $5,592 per 

The Longfellow 
School should be credited 
with its increased cost, 
due to the adoption of 
the " cart-wheel " plan, 
j!20o, to which should be 
added $ 1 70 per school- 
room on account of fire- 
proof hall and corridor 

given, the 

1 r-i 




this credit 


n cost be- 
tween the Longfellow and 
the .Shaw School appears 
to be $100 per school- 
room in favor of the 
former school. 

The cost of the heating and ventilation of the Shaw School was 
$564 per schoolroom, or $91 less than that of the Longfellow School. 
It is probable that the latter school had a greater amount of direct 
radiating surface, as the Shaw School relied for heat as well as fresh 
air mainly upon its plenum fan, which was supplanted in the more 
exposed rooms only by direct radiation. 

W.ilker & Kimball. Architects. 

The Shaw .School is certainly somewhat less expensive in its ex- 
ternal treatment, as but little cut stone is used. If it were profitable 
to carry the analysis further, we would probably find the net difference 
in cost between the two schools accounted for by the greater propor- 
tionate amount of foundations and external brick wall in the Shaw 
.School, which has the advantage of being two instead of three stories 
in height, and of not having its assembly hall in the roof. 

To more fully estab- 
lish the fact that where 
rec|uisite prudence and 
skill is shown by their 
designers, the cost of 
schoolhouses is due to 
the necessary cost of the 
features recjuired therein, 
we will compare the cost 
of two six-room primary 
schoolhouses , — the 
Sewall School in Brook- 
line, and the Margaret 
Fuller in Boston. 

The Fuller School 
was constructed in ac- 
cordance with the meth- 
ods recommended in an 
_- earlier paper of this 
series, and was built 
under the law which held 
in Boston previous to 
1892. The cost was 
$6,220 per schoolroom. 
The Sewall School cost $5,557 per schoolroom. 
A marked variation of the plan of the Sewall School from that 
commonly found is the adaptation of the toilet-room tower, a feature 
of some hospitals. The wardrobes are placed in the corridors en- 
closed in with screens, as in almost all Brookline schools, and as is, I 
should judge, the well-nigh general jiractise in Massachusetts outside 


PLAfW Of :;tt.UND rLOOR 

Qf fiHAf rtOOK 


Wl a afff fffffR; r^,l' 

Cabot, Everett & Mead, Arcliitects. 



of Boston. It differs from the Fuller School in the 
following points of construction : — 

The exterior walls are 12 ins. with 2 in. air space ; 
the interior bearing walls are 8 ins. instead of 12 ins., 
as in the Fuller School. The sashes are single run, 
minor partitions are of studding, except ceiling of boiler 
room, which is wire lathed ; all plastering is on 
wooden laths, the staircases are of wood, the interior 
finish is of whitewood, the dadoes are of sheathing, 
and ordinary baseboards are used. The basement 
floor is of concrete. 

If the Sewall School had been constructed as 
was the Fuller School the features used as substitutes 
for those noted above would have increased its cost 
$900 per schoolroom ; /. e., if its construction had been 
that of the Fuller School it would have cost #6,457. 


Edmund ^L Wheelwright, City Arcliitect. 

This excess of cost is probably due in part to the greater length of 
schoolrooms, — in the Sewell School, 34 ft. C ins., instead of 32 ft., — 
but more to the toilet-room tower, a feature which scarcely appears to 
be worth the increased expense, unless the space required for toilet 
rooms in the basement is needed for some other purpose, for there 
is no disadvantage in having the plumbing fixtures in the basement 
providing they are properly ventilated, as they readily may l^e, with- 
out any cost for ventilation, as will be later shown. 

The omission of the middle window in the wall immediately fac- 
ing the teacher is noteworthy in this plan. It is a method often 
found in French schools, and would appear to afford sufificient relief 
to the teacher's eyes to take away the excuse of pulling down the 
shades in the windows on this wall, as is often done, to the injury of 
the proper diffusion of light in the schoolroom. 






Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 



I HAVE already spoken of the exquisite beauty of the inlaid marble 
in St. Mark's ; nothing can he better than their effect, and 
nothing seems more wonderful than that they should not have been 
used more frequently in later buildings. 1 was, perhaps, a little 
disappointed in not finding, as I had expected, the marble arranged 
generally in geometrical patterns ; but this is quite the exception ; 
and one sees only, in a medallion here and there, the exquisite 
beauty which their arrangement in this way may produce. As a rule, 
the walls are faced with thin slabs of marble, each of the size in 
which it came to hand, sawn into as many slices as its substance 
would allow, and then riveted to the walls and held in place .securely 
by projecting thin lines of stonework built into the wall, and cut with 
indented or billet or- 
naments along their 
edges. There is, 
however, a degree of 
real as well as ap- 
parent weakness 
which is not at all 
satisfactory in this 
system of incrusta- 
tion, and 1 thought 
how much more 
noble sucli work 
might well become, 
were it to be inlaid 
only where no strong 
work was required to 
be done -- as, e. g., 
in s p a n d rels of 
arches,' or within 
arches — and not, as 
here, to the conceal- 
ment of every one of 
the necessary con- 
structional features. 
It is to be ob.served, 
however, that the 
slabs of marble are 
generally higher 
than they are -wide, 
so as at once to de- 
stroy any thought of 
their being really 

The south side of St. Mark's is, perhaps, the place above all 
others in Venice where this inlaid work may be seen to the greatest 
advantage. Some of the great arches which stand in place of gables 
are divided into four or five square-headed lights by shafts supporting 
semicircular arches, the tympana of which are filled in with delicate 
and perpetually varied filigree work in marble, whilst above them a 
succession of panels or medallions shows all the resources of the rich 
materials which were to be exhibited. In another case, just over the 
entrance from the Piazzetta to the church, the tympanum of the arch 
is filled in with large medallions, one exquisitely carved, the others 
plain ; whilst the arch of the window below the tympanum has its 
beautiful marble spandrels adorned on either side with medallions, 
which, for e.vquisite arrangement of vari-colored marbles in geomet- 
rical patterns, are perfectly admirable. There is enough, therefore, 
in the Venetian system of incrustation, though much unhappily be 
lost, to give ample food for our study and admiration: and its only 
weak point is, as I have said, its too frequent neglect or concealment 

' It was only so used in tlic Ducal Palace. 


of the constructional features of the buildings it adorns. It is easy, 
however, to cavil at particular details, and scan with a critical eye 
tlie architectural beauties of Venice ; but let it not be thought for an 
instant that all the wonderful pictures which every new turn or new 
point of view brings before the eyes are unappreciated. A few days 
spent there suffice almost to fill a lifetime with reminiscences of all 
that is novel, beautiful, and strange ; and days such as I have spent, 
year after year, rejoicing in the daytime in the full brilliancy of a 
September sun. and at night in the calm loveliness of a Venetian 
night, have been just the most delightful in every wav that could be 

We were at V'enice on the festival of the Nativity of the Blessed 
Virgin, — a great feast day, which it had been my fortune to spend 
.some two or three times before in Roman Catholic countries. I con- 
fess that here we were not edified. We came in, as we went from 
church to church, for rather more than the usual number of the </<'- 
sagrt'»iens which always seem to attend the decoration of the churches. 

and especially the 
altars, for such fes- 
tivities abroad. 
The strongest im- 
pression left on my 
mind was one of 
wonder at the paltry 
character of the 
long array of what 
b y courtesy are 
called, I, 
wreaths of flowers, 
manufactured of 
pink gauze, or some 
equally unnatural 
material. These, 
with vulgar draperies 
hung outside the 
church doors, and in 
additional C|uantity 
about the altars, with 
the most noisy and 
gladsome ringing of 
bells, completed the 
external demonstra- 
tions : all the shops 
were most .studiously 
closed, and the 
churches and open 
places were thronged 
with people. At St. 
Mark's, we heard -' 
some abominably 
light opera music, which sounded, as may be imagined, very discord- 
ant within its solemn walls. 

One morning we devoted partly to the ascent of the campanile 
in the Piazza. The ascent is entirely by inclined planes ; the outer 
walls of the tower are, in fact, double, and in the space between them 
these inclined planes are formed, and it is worth notice that to this 
day, in all buildings which we have seen in progress in this part of 
the world, inclined boards are used instead of ladders for obtaining 
access to scaffolding, and in one of the mosaics in the entrance porch 
of St. Mark's, where the building of the Tower of Babel is depicted, 
precisely the same kind of arrangement is shown. This is interest- 
ing, as showing the tenacity with which old customs are adhered to. 
The view, when the top is reached, quite repays the labor of the as- 
cent, as it gives the best possible idea of what \'enice really is. We 
get an impression of a very densely populated town, hemmed in on 
all sides by water, and looking very flat and low : in the distance 
small islands pave the way to the mainland, or shelter us from the 

2 I have heard a polka played by ilie organist in .Si. Mark's ! 




sea; these, where they are more distant, look like mere black spots 
on the smooth, unrippled expanse of water, and in the far horizon we 
see to the west the purple outline of the mountains about Vicenza ; 
and to the north of these, and rising grandly into the sky, the snowy 
peaks of the southern range of the Friulan Alps. Below and around 
are countless churches, all placed confusedly without respect to orien- 
tation — a neglect, if anywhere excusable, surely so here, where land 
is the exception and water the rule. 

The last day we spent in Venice was most enjoyable. We had 
been all day in our gondola, now stopping to sketch some (jothic 
palace, anon shooting into some narrow canal to escape the bright 
heat of the sun, winding our way now here, now there, just as the 
fancy of the moment siezed us, and realizing more than ever that 
" the longest summer's day was all too short '" for a last day in so 
fair a place. In the evening, just before sunset, we went out into 
the Lagoon, and, rowing round the small island of (jiudecca, watched 
the gradually waning light reflected on the smooth, calm water, 
which seemed too silent and too soft to be disturbed by a word from 
any of us ; and then at last, turning back and coming suddenly through 
a short canal into the main stream just opposite the Dogana, we moved 
on gently till we came abreast of the Ducal Palace. The moon was 
rising behind us in all her beauty, and in front, lamp after lamp was 
suddenly lit along the Piazetta, then along the palace front, all along 
the Riva dei Schiavoni, until at last, before we landed, the brigiit 
lights, reflected in a hundred gleaming, flashing lines, were fitfully 
dancing in long streams of light upon the bosom of the waters. 

We stepped on shore, to find ourselves led on by the sound of 
military music, and to be tempted by the luxury of ices eaten ti/ 
fesco in the Piazza; and then, when the crowd gradually disjjersed, 
we, too, among the last, found our way to our hotel, charmed so 
much with our last night in Venice that it is impossible not to recol- 
lect that evening with the deepest ])leasure. 

It is not without purpose that I have held silence with regard 
to the churches and buildings generally of the Renaissance school in 
Venice. These have had in their time many more admirers than 
have the examples of architecture which it was alike my business 
and my delight particularly to examine: and to the present day 
I doubt not that nine people out of ten, led by their valels-de-place^ 
go to see what is in point of taste, and so reap the reward of 
allowing themselves to be made to see with another's eyes, instead 
of enjoying the intense pleasure of working out and exploring for 
themselves all the treasures of this mine and storehouse of ancient 
art. It is partly because I feel the greatest repugnance to the 
buildings them.selves, and partly because I fear to make my notes, 
already lengthy, far too long for the patience of my readers, that I 
do not venture upon this additional field of study ; but not in the 
least degree because I doubt the result, for 1 believe firmly that, tried 
by the fair rules which must regulate merit in a constructive art. the 
Renaissance buildings of \'enice would be no nearer perfection than 
those of any other city. .Something perhaps there is in the gloomy 
grandeur of their vast masses, rearing their rusticated walls and 
deeply recessed windows darkly above the comparatively cheerful 
and bright-looking walls of the neighboring Gothic palaces, which 
may impress the minds of some, l)ut they must be of a somber tem- 
perament who really love them. Still more must they be of a taste- 
less temperament who can endure with patience the succession of 
eccentricities with which Palladio and his disciples have loaded 
their churches. I pretend not, however, to discuss the point. I had 
not time for everything, and preferred giving up the attempt to like 
what from my heart I have ever disliked, and what nothing that I 
saw in Venice would make me dislike at all less heartily. 

Neither do I pretend to say anything about V'enetian pictures; 
guides without number may be found of more service and more 
knowledge, and to their hands I leave their proper charge. A word 













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only u]3on one point — their adaptation, namely, to the sacred edifices 
of wliich they are the most notable ornaments. 

Now I must at once say that there is no church, so far as I 
saw, in Venice, with the single exception of St, Mark's, which is to 
be compared in this respect (in its effect, that is, as heightened by 
color) with such buildings as the Arena Chapel at Padua, or the 
church of .Sta. Anastasia at Verona — the one an example of the very 
noblest art working under strict architectural limitations : the other, 
of simple decorative painting. The fact is, that the X'enetian pic" 
tures give the impression that they might do elsewhere as well as in 
a church, and therefore entirely fail in identifying themselves with 
the walls on which they hang; whilst no one can ever think of the 
noble works of (liotto at Padua without recalling to mind the religious 
order of his works and their identification with the building which 
contains them; and at \'erona the result of the system adopted in 
the painting is marvelously to enhance the effect of the architecture 
without in any way concealing or damaging it. In Venice the case 
is quite different. The church of San Sebastiano, in which Paul 
X' is buried, and which internally is almost entirely covered 
with his paintings, is an example of what I suppose I must call the 
best Venetian treatment. This consists, however, of immense oil 
l)aintings covering entire walls, and absolutely requiring, in order 
that they may be at all properly appreciated, that the spectator 
should stand in a particular spot, — in some cases by the side of the, — and that the windows should first have blinds drawn down, 
and then, when he goes to look at another painting, have them drawn 
up again. This is all very unpleasant. But i)esides this, there is no 
very sensible advantage to the color of the buildings from these 
decorations; certainly they are far behind mere decorative paintings 
as vehicles for bringing out the architectural features : and so they 
are visited very much as pictures in a gallery, and without in any 
case being identified with the churches in which they are preserved. 
The mosaics at St. Mark's are, on the other hand, some of the very 
grandest examples of the proper mode of decorating interiors with 
representations of religious subjects, all conceived and arranged with 
some order and relation to each other. Hut of the other \'enetian 
churches there does not seem to me to be any one whose artists at 
all succeeded in equaling the example so early set them. 

I do not pretend, in these pages, to speak at all of paintings irre- 
spective of architecture, or I might find much to say upon the store 
of works of a very noble school in which this great city is so rich. 
The rooms of the Ducal Palace, covered as their walls and 
ceilings are with the works of Tintoretto, Titian, and Paul Veronese, 
cannot be forgotten, still less can the many works of Giovanni Pel- 
lini, and of other painters in the churches, and in the collection in 
the Accademia — rich among others in the works of that great and 
interesting painter, Carpaccio,— be passed over, whilst the decorated 
walls of the various Scuole are in many cases of hardly inferior in- 
terest. I am sorry that I was obliged to take the great merits of 
some of the grandesl works somewhat on faith ; it was in vain to 
think of actually studying them in a short time, and. educated as 1 
have been, to love the works of an earlier date and another school 
more heartily than these, I must confess, barbarous as the con- 
fession may appear to be, that I was not thoroughly i)leased with 
what I saw. The magnificence of the chiaroscuro and coloring of 
these great pictures scarcely atoned to me for the degree to which, 
owing generally to the immense array of figures and confusion of 
subject, I failed to carry away distinct conceptions of the story in- 
tended to be told. It may be said that this is the result of want of 
taste or education, but still the feeling is .so different when for the first 
time pictures by Fra Angelico, Giotto, Kaffaelle, Perugino, or Fran- 
cia are looked at, that it is liard to avoid believing that, though their 
power over color may have been somewhat less, their power of at- 
taining to the highest point of the true painter's art, that of leaving 
indelible impressions on the minds of all beholders, was immeasur- 
ably higher. Thus much only by way of excuse for not saying more 
about what the world in general rightly conceives to be one of the 
great glories of Venice. 

ST. makk's, \enke. thi; nakiiif..\. 





APROPOS of the recent fire in the Nassau Chambers in New 
York, Chief Bonner is quoted as saying that tliere is no such 
thing as a fire-proof building. The experience of the Livingston 
Building points to a very different conclusion. This structure was 
designed and erected by Hill & Turner, in New York, and has been 
occupied for about a year for light manufacturing purposes. The 
building is fireproof in its construction according to the most ap- 
proved types. The beams are protected by 8 in. end construction, 
hard, hollow-tile arches of spans of about 6 ft., the bottom flange of 
the beams being protected by the terra-cotta being carried under- 
neath. Each story is practically undivided, a narrow stairway being 
carried along one of the party walls adjoining the elevator, both the 
stairway and the elevator being enclosed by a solid plaster partition. 
The doors and door casings are of wood covered with asbestos and 
a surface of metal. Late in the afternoon of January i8 a fire was 
discovered in the fourth floor, which was occupied by furriers, and 
was stored full of highly combustible material, besides having a 
quantity of low wooden partition work. The outside windows on 
two streets were quite large and the glass was speedily broken so the 
flames had ample supply of air, and all the conditions were favorable 
for developing an intense heat. The fire had headway of about 
twenty minutes before the firemen were able to get at it, and there is 
abundant evidence of the extreme heat developed, as shown by the 
brass castings of some of the steam radiators which were melted 
entirely off, as well as by the fact that the steam pipes became so 
softened that they sagged out of shape. In fighting the fire, three 
or four lines of hose were carried up the stairway and jets of water 
directed from the door opening directly into the undivided room. 
Tarpaulins were banked up across the inside of the threshold to form 
a dam, which enabled the firemen to flood the whole story with water 
until it ran over outside the window sills. A water tower also threw 
a heavy stream of water in from the outside. 

The contents of the story and the wooden finish were destroyed. 
In one place on the ceiling, in such location as would indicate that it 
was a special focus for the streams from the firemen's hose, a section 
of the bottom flanges of the floor arches was broken or burned away, 
this whole section being somewhat less than 3 ft. square. The verti- 
cal webs of the terra-cotta were intact. At another position near 
one of the outside windows, a space of a few inches square was 
missing from the bottom flange of one of the floor arches. As far 
as could be ascertained, this was the only damage to the terra-cotta. 
The ceiling throughout was heavily plastered with machine-mixed 
mortar. This plastering had come off in a number of places, but 
nowhere, except at the points mentioned, was there any appearance 
of damage of any sort to the terra-cotta. None of the ironwork 
seemed to have been affected a particle. The flames lapping outside 
the building communicated to the upper story, but beyond the smoke 
and water no damage was done above the floor in which the fire 
started. Tn the story below, occupied by a tailor shop and crowded 
by material, a relatively slight amount of water came through from 
above, but not sufficient to cause any damage. The heat against the 
outside walls in places was so intense that over considerable areas of 
the brickwork, which is of hard, thoroughly well-burned red brick, the 
surface was entirely gone for a depth of from one eighth to one fourth 
of an inch. On the exterior of the building, which is finished entirely 
in brick and terra-cotta, there was some damage to the projections 
of the belts and cornices in the lower stories caused by the firemen. 
In a few places, also, the corners of the brick piers in the fourth story 
were slightly corroded by the heat, and, of course, the smoke made 
the building appear to be damaged considerably in the upper stories. 
The extent of the structural damage, however, can be appreciated by 
the fact that though the building cost over #.100,000, we are informed 
that the insurance companies have offered to settle all the fire loss 

for $5,600. The fire occurred on Wednesday afternoon. The fol- 
lowing morning the electric plant and the elevator were in operation 
and constant use, and on Friday morning manufacturing was started 
in the lower story. 

There was sufficient heat developed to have utterly destroyed 
any ordinary construction, and the lessons of this fire are particularly 
valuable as showing that it is perfectly possible to so construct a 
building with terra-cotta rightly used that no fire from within can 
any more than burn out the contents. 


WE have had occasion to make several comments upon tests of 
building materials, and though the subject is one which 
probably will never be permanently settled, and there will always be 
an irrepressible conflict between the various mediums which are used 
for the fire-proofing of building constructions, and differences of in- 
terpretations of tests, no less than the differences of measurements of 
values, will always be biased by the point of view, we feel that, in 
justice to the burnt-clay industries which we represent, it is fair to 
call attention to some points which ought to be considered in forming 
a judgment of a recent comparative test in New York. Our readers 
can draw their own conclusions as to the value of such tests and the 
importance thereof. On November 19 a fire test was made of two 
constructions, one a suspended concrete system and the other a terra- 
cotta block end construction. The terra-cotta was purchased in the 
open market, and theoretically represented the product that is put 
forward by the manufacturers; but the deductions from the results of 
the test were so at variance with recognized facts that Mr. H. M. 
Keasbey, the president of the Central Hre-proofing Company in New 
York, felt that it was desirable to investigate a little more closely the 
conditions under which the terra-cotta was tested. This investigation 
was conducted by Mr. Julius Franke, architect, who reported as 
follows : — 

"On October kj, when I made my first inspection, the hollow- 
tile arch had been built, and as no concrete had then been put on 
top of the same, I noticed that the key of the arch was not in the 
center, that tiles of different patterns, not made to be built into the 
same arch, were used, and that some of the cement mortar which I 
took off the top was very poor, the same crumbling between my 

" I found that the concrete arch, which had been built alongside 
of the tile arch as per drawing attached hereto, was so placed that if 
the space, about one fourth of an inch between the plates, marked 
' A ' on the drawing, were filled up, the expansion of the concrete 
arch, which could be caused by fire, would deflect the beams, causing 
a lateral thrust along the top of the hollow-tile arch. This would 
cause damage to the latter, particularly as its key was not in the 

" After the fire test I examined the arch again and found that 
the middle third, including the skew-backs, had fallen, and that the 
two thirds remaining had joints open at the bottom ; but that most of 
the mortfrwith which the bottom of the tiles had been plastered had 
remained on the tiles, and that the space between the plates marked 
' A ' on the drawing had some cement or mortar in the same. I also 
found that the concrete filling on top of the arch was very poor, not 
being strong enough to resist any strains. 

" The fact that the mortar remained, and also that the sides of 
the kiln or oven were damaged very little, showed that the damage 
done to the arch by fire must have been very slight. I therefore 
came to the conclusion that the arch failed because it was improp- 
erly built, having the key off the center, being constructed of different 
patterns, and the cement was not of the best ; and also 
because when the concrete arch and concrete beams formed by boxing 
the tie-rods became hot they expanded and caused a movement in 
the joints of the tile arch by a lateral thrust. This weakened the 
arch sufficiently to allow the weight which was on top to act upon 
the arch block marked ' X,' causing it to slide and break the arch. 



This could all the more readily happen as the style of arch employed 
was an end construction of a pattern that had very little bearing sur- 
face at the joints of the arch, and very little or no side bond, and also 
because the concrete filling was very poor ; so that if only one key or 
arch i)lock gave way and let down its load, the rest would follow, 
particularly with a load of cobble stones such as was on this arch." 

This report and the results of the test seem to emphasize what 
is admitted by all experts on fire-proof material, namely, that terra- 
cotta, though of itself admittedly a perfectly satisfactory medium for 
fire-proofing, must be set right in order to accomplish its purpose, and 
that no test of a material is reliable which shows failure to be caused 
by improper workmanshi]). 

Mortar and Concrete. 


UNDER the above title an article appeared a short time since 
in the so-called technical department of the Architectural 
Record which undertook to compare some existing systems of fire- 
proof construction, drawing conclusions therefrom that terra-cotta 
was a failure as a fire-protecting medium, and that the only proper 
material to use was a system of concrete construction as designed 
and applied by a particular firm. The fact that the article in ques- 
tion appeared in what would more properly be styled the advertising 
department of the Record, and that it was evidently inspired by the 
firm whose product was placed at the head, robs it of its value as a 
statement of exact conditions. It is perhaps hardly worth while to 
undertake a criticism of an advertisement except in as far as appear- 
ing in the form referred to it may have seemed authoritative. It 
takes up terra-cotta, weighs it in the balance, finds it wanting, and 
summarily disposes of it so that nothing is left; and yet, strange to 
say, the very instances which the article quotes as demonstrating the 
failure of terra-cotta are the very ones which are quoted by the 
warmest advocates of burnt clay, to support their claims in regard to 
this material as a fire protector. On the other hand, judging from 
this article, concrete is impregnable, and whether attacked by fire or 
water, no matter what the degree of exposure, it is absolutely un- 
yielding. Now a little common sense will show that this is not a 
correct statement. While our position is that terra-cotta affords all 
the needed protection for the most severe exposures to which any 
ordinary building is subjected, it is beyond question that even the 
best of terra-cotta applied in the most thorough way could be destroyed 
utterly by a sufficient degree of heat ; but long before the best kinds 
of terra-cotta would begin to melt and run down, a condition which, 
judging by the ^tr(?/v/ article, is a usual concomitant of exposure, any 
cement construction would be heated to redness if not entirely de- 
stroyed, and concrete which is red hot is not a very elificient protec- 
tion for structural steel work. The (juestion of fire-proof material is 
really a very simple one, and any one who is so disposed can make 
the most convincing sort of test by taking a small fragment of ordi- 
nary porous terra-cotta and a small fragment of the cinders concrete 
which is usually employed for concrete constructions, and holding a 
piece of each in his hands, expose the other end to the fiame of a 
blowpipe. He will drop the piece of concrete first. Some time 
afterwards he will have to drop the terra-cotta. If while hot they are 
dropped directly into a bucket of water, the most casual inspection 
will satisfy any one that what is left of the concrete is hardly the 
material that is most desired for the protection of a building. Con- 
crete is cheap, terra-cotta is not ; therein lies the secret of the pos- 
sibilities of the use of the former material. 

Another point. If terra-cotta arch blocks are set in place with 
only ordinary care, they can be depended upon to serve their purpose. 
Concrete, on the other hand, has to be mixed most carefully in order 
to secure a uniform and reliable product. As, in a large building, 
the bulk of the work is of necessity entrusted to laborers who can be 
depended upon not to think or be careful, the chances are decidedly 
against a satisfactory mixture of concrete, thereby largely increasing 
the odds in favor of terra-cotta. 

WE publish below a circular recently issued by the Committee 
of the .American Society of Civil Engineers, on the Proper 
Manipulation of Tests of Cement, and we would specially direct the 
attention of our readers to the questions contained in this circular and 
to the retjuest of the committee for information upon this important 
matter. It is well recognized that the testing of cement, unlike the 
testing of metals, rests upon a very insecure foundation, and different 
manipulators succeed in getting from the same material, results vary- 
ing sometimes by several hundred per cent. It is for the purpose of 
devising, if possible, some rules of manijjulation which will prevent 
such diversity that this committee has been appointed, and it is hoped 
that it will receive the support of those who manufacture or use 
cement. The attention ot our readers is specially directed to the 
fact that copies of the circular may be obtained from the chairman 
of the committee, who desires that this circular may reach all persons 
who would be likely to give the committee the benefit of their ex- 

Boston, Jan. 15, 189S. 

Dear Sir: — The Committee on the Proper Manipulation of Tests 
of Cement earnestly requests that you will give full and careful considera- 
tion to the following questions, and that you will, as soon as convenient, 
send to the chairman complete and explicit replies, giving the result of your 
experience and the embodiment of your views .Any additional suggestions 
or information hearing upon the subject which you may desire to communi- 
cate will be thankfully received by the committee. 

This circular has been sent to every member of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers, and to many others, but in order that it may reach 
everybody whose opinion will be of value, you are requested to mention 
the names and addresses of any persons, not members of the Society, who, 
in your opinion, should receive it, and who will be likely to assist the com- 
mittee in its work. 

You are also requested to send with your answer copies of any speci- 
fications for cement which you may have used, or any other information 
bearing upon the subject, which you think would be of interest. 

As the duties of the committee will require considerable time and 
labor, you are earnestly requested to respond as promptly as is consistent 
with a careful consideration of the questions asked. 
Yours very truly, 

Gkorc'.e F. Swain, Chairman ; 
O. M. Carter, W. H. W. Howe, Ai.freo Noble, L. C. Sabin, Geo. S. 
Webster, Herbert VV. York, Committee. 

Address: Prof. Geo. F. Swain, Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, Boston, Mass. 


1. In the works which you have carried out, how much cement have 
you been willing to accept on the results obtained with a single sample ? 

If this depends upon the kind of work or reputation of cement, please 

2. What method do you recommend for obtaining a sample from a 
package .' 

3. Do you mix cement taken from several packages to obtain a 
sample to use in testing, or are the samples from the several packages kept 
distinct .' 


4. When do you consider a chemical analysis essential or desirable? 

5. What elements or compounds should be determined ? 

6. What do you consider the best methods of determining these com- 
pounds with sufficient accuracy? 


7. Are microscopical tests of value, and, if so, when ? 

8. What power microscope is required, what observations should be 
made, and what are the indications ? 

9. What sizes of mesh should be used in testing fineness of Portland 
cement ? What for natural cement ? 



(If these questions are answered by stating the number of meshes 
per linear inch, please mention, also, the size of wire without reference to 
any wire gauge.) 

10. What should be the diameters or sizes of the screens ? 

11. How large a sample should be tested ? 

12. Should any machine for shaking be used, and if so, what form, 
and what should be its manipulation ? 

13. How long should the shaking be continued ? 

14. Should there be any difference in manipulation for fine and coarse 
screens, or for different kinds of cement ? 


15. What is your opinion of the value of this test ? 

16. What apparatus do you prefer, and how should it be used ? 
(Please state any special precautions to be observed.) 


17. What is your opinion of the value of this test .' 

18. What apparatus do you prefer, and what is the method of manip- 
ulation? (Please state any special precautions to be observed.) 


19. What kind of sand should be used in tests of mortars? Would 
you recommend a natural sand or crushed quartz ? 

20. What fineness should be specified, and what degree of variation in 
size of grain should be allowed ? 


21. Should the same method of preparation be used for each test ? 
22 How should proportions be stated ? 

23. What should be the consistency of the pastes and mortars for the 
various tests, and how may this consistency be specified and determined 
in order that similar results may be obtained by all operators ? (This 
question is intended to embrace, not only the correspondent's views as to 
what consistency should be used, but also as to devices for determining 
when the proper consistency has been obtained. It is hoped that this 
question will receive full and careful consideration.) 

24. What should be the temperature of the materials used in mixing ? 

25. What should be the temperature of the air at mixing? 

26. How should the quantity of water used in mixing be defined ? 

27. What should be the method of mixing ? 

28. Do you prefer hand or machine mixing ? If the former, please 
describe manipulation in detail. 

29. If the latter, what machine do you prefer, or what form would you 
suggest for trial ? 

30. Do you know of any machine that has given good results ? If so, 
what is the method of manipulation, and what are its advantages and 
defects ? 

31. How long should the mixing be continued? .Should this be de- 
fined by stating the length of time, or by reference to the character of the 
resulting mortar ? 


32. What do you consider the best method of determining the time of 
setting? (Please describe ajjparatus and manipulation.) 

33. How shall the beginning of the set be defined? 

34. How shall the end of the set be defined ? 

35. .Should this test be made on neat cement paste, or on mortars, and 
if the latter, what proportions of cement and sand should be used? 

36. What should be the consistency of the mortar ? (See 23.) 

37. What should be the temperature of materials and of air, quantity 
of water, and method of mixing ? (See 24, 25, 26, 27.) 

38. What should be the method of making the pats, or of filling the 
molds, if they are used ? 

39. How shall the pats or briquettes be treated during setting ? 

40. What should be the temperature of the water in which pats are 
placed ? 


41. What do you consider the best test for soundness in the case of 
Portland cement ? What in the case of natural cement ? (Please describe 

in detail the process recommended, and indicate any necessary precautions 
to be observed. If the process you prefer is too elaborate for any but a 
well-equipped laboratory, please indicate, if possible, any modifications for 
ordinary use, and give your opinion of the reliability of such simpler tests.) 


42. What proportions of cement and sand should be used in mortar 
for tests of tensile strength ? 

43. Do you advocate adhering to the American Society of Civil En- 
gineers' form of briquette in future requirements? If not, what form do 
you prefer ? 

44. Is your preference based on comparative experiments, or is it the 
result of satisfactory experience with one form ? 

45. Upon what sort of a surface should the briquette be made ? 

46. Should the briquette be finished with a trowel on both sides? 

47. What should be the consistency of the mortar ? (See 23.) 

48. What method of filling the molds do you advise ? Do you recom 
mend the use of a machine for molding, and if so, what form would you 
suggest ? 

49. Have you used the machine you suggest, and have the results been 
satisfactory ? 

50. How should the briquettes be treated during the first twenty-four 
hours after molding ? 

51. How should they be treated during the remaining time until 
tested ? 

52. If placed in water, how often should the water be renewed, and is 
it important that it should be maintained at a nearly constant. temperature ? 
What should that temperature be ? 

53. At what age should briquettes be broken for acceptance tests on 
ordinary work ? 

54. Under what conditions would you deem it essential to make 
longer time tests ? 

55. Will weighing briquettes before testing give information of value, 
and, if so, what ? 

56. What form of clip do you prefer ? 

57. What should be the distance between opposite gripping points of 
the same clip ? 

58. What should be the rate of applying the stress ? 

59. What style of testing machine do you prefer ? 

60. Can you suggest any desirable modifications to machines now in 
use ? 

61. What special precautions are necessary in breaking briquettes ? 


62. Do you advise compressive tests, and, if so, why ? 

63. What form and dimensions of test piece do you prefer ? 

64. Should the test piece be treated differently as regards manipulation 
of mortar, mixing or setting, from tensile specimens ? If so, please state 
in what particulars, and why. 

65. How should the specimen be prepared for the testing machine ? 

66. What form of testing machine do you recommend ? 

67. What should be the rate of applying the stress ? 


68. Do you advise bending tests ? If so, under what conditions and 
why ? 

69. What form and dimensions of test piece do you prefer ? What 
span ? 

70. Should the test piece be treated differently as regards manipulation 
of mortar, mixing and setting, from tensile specimens ? If so, please state 
in what particulars, and why ? 

71. What form of testing machine should be used ? 

72. What should be the rate of applying the load ? 


Under what conditions do you consider the tests indicated below 
necessary or desirable ? What should be the manipulation for the test if 
used ? 

I. — Adhesion. 

II. — Abrasion. 

III. — Resistance to freezing. 

IV. — Resistance to action of sea water. 



The Masons' Department. 


IN response to the application of Lynch & Woodward for an 
injunction against Josiah Quincy et al., Judge Richardson, of 
the Massachusetts Superior Court, has passed upon the merits of the 
case in a decision which is of unusual interest to architects, con- 
tractors, and mechanics. The facts which led up to the legal pro- 
ceedings are briefly these: Messrs. Lynch & Woodward obtained the 
contract for heating a public bath house now being built for the city 
of Boston, on Dover Street. In their contract with the city was a 
clause which has of late been inserted in all contracts for city work, 
providing that " preference shall be given to union labor." Messrs. 
Lynch & Woodward had up to the time of signing this contract run 
what is known as a non-union shop — that is to say, they did not dis- 
criminate between union and non-union labor in the employment of 
their help. When these contractors started to perform their work at 
the bath house they claim th&t they announced their willingness to 
employ members of the union to do this particular work provided 
they could obtain a sufficient number of efficient workmen of this class 
— that is to say, union men. Apparently the Steam-Fitters' Union 
thought, under the existing conditions, they had an opportunity to 
force the contractors to run a union shop, and so union men stayed 
away from the job. The contractors, after making known their 
readiness to employ union labor and finding that they could not 
obtain a sufficient number of skilled mechanics of this class, and 
having, as they thought, fulfilled the conditions of their contract as 
regards this particular condition, then proceeded to perform the 
work with non-union men. The contractors began work under the 
contract about Nov. i, 1897. On November 4, and again on Novem- 
ber 13, they were ordered to suspend work for a time; finally, on 
January 8, the mayor caused a letter, signed by the architects, but 
prepared by him, to be sent to the contractors, ordering them to 
" discontinue all further work under the contract," and caused mem- 
bers of the police force to forcibly exclude the contractors from the 
building, thereby preventing them from finishing their work, which 
was nearly completed. The decision reads, " there was no evidence 
that at any time any of the materials furnished by the plaintiffs was 
not suitable, or that their work in any respect was unworkmanlike, 
or that they employed incompetent workmen, or that members of the 
labor unions were more competent than the workmen whom the 
plaintiffs had, or that the work was not in all respects lieing properly 
done." In a letter signed by the architects, which on Jan. 6, 1898, 
the mayor caused to be sent to the contractors after referring to a 
previous notice to suspend work, is the following paragraph : — 

" You are now notified to proceed with all possible despatch to 
complete your work under said contract as if said notice of Novem- 
ber 13 had not been given; but you are further notified that if any 
non-union men are employed by you on such work you will again be 
requested to dismiss them under article 3 of said contract, and that 
you will not be allowed to proceed to finish your work with non- 
union men." 

Relative to this action the decision says (and all architects 
should take notice) : " At the hearing it was admitted that this letter was prepared in the mayor's office, and the only part which the 
architects had in it was to sign it at the mayor's request. The 
provision in said article 3, construed in view of the obvious purpose 
of it, and with other parts of the contract, did not, in my opinion, 
give the architects the power to arbitrarily order the plaintiffs to 
dismiss all their workmen and thus to effectually end the contract for 
no reason, or for the reason merely that they employed non-union 
men. The right reserved to the architect in that article 3 was to be 
exercised only for causes which pertained to the fitness or qualifica- 
tions of the workmen for the performance of their work." This 
opinion as to the architect's control of laborers on a piece of work is 

an important point for him to be familiar with and is in violation of 
many of the conditions of building contracts which, as a rule, archi- 
tects seem to consider valid. 

The decision then goes on to state that at the hearing the mayor 
claimed that he did not rely on the breach of any stipulation in the 
written contract for his right to take the work away from the plain- 
tiffs, but upon the oral promise of one of the contractors to him that 
he would employ union men only. On this point the decision says, 
" Such a, if made, had, in my opinion, no validity, and if it 
was given and not kept, the plaintiffs' failure to keep it was, upon the 
evidence, more the fault of the defendants than the plaintiffs." Refer- 
ence is then made to the fact that the plaintiffs were evidently ready 
to carry out the spirit of the contract if they had not been prevented 
from doing so by conspiracy (this referring to the refusal of union 
men to work on the job, with the hope of forcing the contractors to 
employ union men exclusively on all their work). The decision then 
says: "This interference by the members of the labor unions with 
the plaintiffs' work to force the plaintiffs to employ union men only 
by the means above stated, and by the use of the police to exclude 
the plaintiffs from the building in which their contract work was to 
be done, was an unlawful interference with the plaintiffs' rights, and 
if permitted and continued would, in the language of the Supreme 
Court in the discussion of a similar question, ' tend to establish a 
tyranny of irresponsible persons over labor and mechanical business 
which would be extremely injurious to both.' There is no authority 
in law for any officer of the government, State, or municipality to force 
such a discrimination as was attempted in this case between work- 
men in respect to the privilege of labor on public work paid for by 
taxes levied upon all, for no reason except that some workmen be- 
long to a certain party, society, or class, and others do not, thus giv- 
ing labor and the benefit of it to one class and denying it to another 
regardless of their rights, needs, qualifications, or merits, or the pub- 
lic welfare. Such discrimination in the employment of labor is not 
in accord with our ideas of equal rights, and seems not to be con- 
sistent with an impartial administering of public business, and any 
agreement that such discrimination shall be made is contrary to 
public policy, and is, in my opinion, void. The Constitution of 
Massachusetts declares that ' .No man, nor corporation, nor association 
of men have any other title to obtain advantages or particular or ex- 
clusive privileges distinct from those of the community than what 
arises from the consideration of service rendered to the public " 
also that ' Government is instituted for the common good . . . not 
for the profit, honor, or private interest of any one man, family, or 
class of men.' The right of every man to labor, and the benefit of 
his labor according to his ability, opportunity, and desire, should not 
be abridged. The corresponding right of an employer to procure 
labor suitable for his business, subject only to such general laws as 
the health, safety, morality, and welfare of the community may re- 
quire, should be allowed." The remainder of the decision is mainly 
taken up with a discussion as to the liability for damages, and the 
ground is taken that as the acts by which the plaintiffs were deprived 
of their rights were unlawful, they can recover from the defendants 
as individuals but not as officials. .And as a matter of fact, prelimi- 
nary steps have already been taken to bring suit against the mayor, 
the architects, and the superintendent of buildings ; all of whom 
were concerned in the controversy. The facts in this particular case 
are so clearly defined, and the language of the court in the decision 
granting the injunction is so clear, that little comment is necessary. 
Probably the decision presents few, if any, new points of law, but it 
certainly defines with unusual clearness the merits of the case, and 
a careful reading of the full text of the decision, which was pub 
lished in most of the daily papers of January 26, should leave little 
doubt as to the opinion of the Massachusetts courts, at least on the 
matter of undue or unlawful interference with legitimate business 
by labor organizations or unions; and also with regard to the right 
of an architect to say whom a contractor shall or shall not employ, so 
long as his work is in accordance with the contract and specifica- 


Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities, and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — The architects of this city have been busier 
for the past month putting their best work in shape for pres- 
entation at the thirteenth annual exhibition of the Architectural 
League than in work upon actual building undertakings, and perhaps 
it is just as well that the exhibition occurs during the midwinter 
month, when building operations are hibernating. It is very gratify- 
ing that so much interest is taken in this exhibition, not only by 
architects and devotees of the allied arts, but by the general public, 
and every member of the league feels that it is greatly to his advan- 
tage to be represented there by his very best work. 

A discussion has been begun as to the advisability of holding a 
great exposition in New York in 1901. Assuming that an exposition 
would benefit New York, we agree with the Herald in that the date 
mentioned is too soon after the Paris Exposition ; and merchants who 
spend considerable money in making a creditable showing in Paris 
will scarcely be willing to repeat this expenditure during the year 
following. If an exposition be held at all, it should be several years 
later. It is a question whether the New York public will care to 
consider an undertaking of this magnitude, when the after effects of 
the Columbian Exposition upon the city of Chicago are borne in 
mind. The suggestion of ex- Mayor Wurster, of Brooklyn, that the 
exposition be confined to exhibitors in the city alone, making it 
strictly a New York exposition, and commensurate with the size and 
importance of the great city, seems very sensible. 

Not only New Yorkers and their immediate neighbors, but all 
public-spirited Americans should interest themselves in the disgrace- 


Krank Miles Day & Hro., Arcliitects. 


Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 

Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co. 

ful destruction of the Palisades, whose noble cliffs have sheltered the 
American Rhine since the days of Henry Hudson. In spite of 
the vigorous protests of the press, no prohibitory legislation can be 
secured, and day after day the destruction continues, thus bearing 
out the oft-repeated expression that Americans sacrifi-ce everything 
for money. This month's Cosmopolitan contains an interesting 
article on the subject, with illustrations showing what a charge of 
three tons of dynamite effected upon one of the most beautiful spots 
in our fair land. 

Another instance of the power of great corporations is shown in 
the ease with which the trolley companies of Brooklyn gained the 
right to run their cars over the bridge, taking up most of the space 
formerly used for vehicles, and crowding the bicyclists off almost en- 
tirely, although this means of locomotion to and from business has 
been rapidly growing in favor. 

To the dissatisfaction of many, the new mayor has expressed 
himself as against the underground rapid transit system, and it now 
seems further off than ever, in spite of the unsightly appearance of 
the elevated roads and their accompanying nuisances and dangers. 

Among new building projects are : — • 

A fourteen-story fire-proof building for the Tide Water Building 
Company, in which the Astors are interested. The building will 
contain offices and stores, and will cost $850,000. George B. Post 
is the architect. 

The Lord & Burnham Company have filed plans for an horti- 
cultural building to be built in Bronx Park, at a cost of $200,000. 
The building will be constructed of brick, stone, and iron. 

Architect Robert Maynicke has drawn plans for a new six-story 
building to be erected by the Germania Bank, on the northwest cor- 
ner of Bowery and Spring Streets. Cost, $200,000. 

Mr. Solomon Loeb, of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., will erect a seven- 
story home and office building, which will be presented to the United 
Hebrew Charities. About $150,000 will be expended. 

Architects N. Le Brun & Sons have planned a five-story brick, 
stone, and terra-cotta building for the Marist Brothers of the Church 
of St. Jean Baptiste. 

The Knickerbocker Realty Iinprovement Company will erect a 
twelve-story hotel on the site of the old Fourth Presbyterian Church 
on 34th Street, near Sixth Avenue. 

Architects Babb, Cook & Willard have planned a five-story 
brick dwelling to be erected on Fifth Avenue, near 88th Street, for 
Mr. G. H. Penniman. Cost, $65,000. 

Architects Child & De Goll are preparing plans for a velo- 
drome similar to the one in Paris, which will soon be erected in New 
York. The building will be devoted exclusively to bicyclists, and 
will cost about $250,000. 

The New York Metal Exchange will erect a ten-story fire-proof 
building at the corner of Pearl Street and Burling Slip. 



Hill & Turner, architects, are preparing plans for a church for 
the Washington Heights Dutch Reformed Congregation. Cost, about 


PHILADELPHIA. — Philadelphia has lately had an example of 
the phenomenon, probably not unknown in other localities, 
when a reduction in the amount of work has resulted in an increase 
in the number of architectural offices. Few of the usually busy 
architects have been 
able to hold their full 
complement of men. 
Some of these men 
have thus been 
tempted to begin 
practise with small 
houses or alterations 
to carry on, which 
would have been lost 
in the routine work 
of the larger offices. 
.And just so have 
many of our l>est- 
known men com- 

There is just 
finished at the 
Northeast corner of 
4th and Chestnut 
Streets a most 
charming addition to 
Philadelphia archi- 
tecture. A two-story 
bank by Wilson 
Eyre, Jr., built of 
Sayresville red brick 
in Flemish bond, 
having wide joints 
of cement, with 
white marble door- 
way, string-course 
and cornice, and 
slightly pitched cop- 
per roof treated so 
as to show already 
green. It all seems 
so natural a bit of 
colonial architecture 
lliat a stranger see- 
ing it in a few years 
must take it for a 
well-preserved speci- 
men of the old town. 
On the interior the 
colonial idea is faith- 
fully carried out : a 
yellow plastered 
barrel vault, cut into 
at the sides by 
round-headed win- 
dows and recesses 
opposite, and resting on white painted pila.sters with mutuled cornice : 
even the counters and screens are designed to correspond, in white 
painted wood relieved only by a few lines of mahogany molding. 

The Annual .Architectural Exhibition just closed, conducted by 
the T Square Club at the Academy of the Fine Arts, has been fully 
up to the average ; some good English work by Colcutt, Shaw & 
Ernest George, and French work of the students at the Beaux Arts. 


Barneyl& Chapman. Architects. 
Terra-Cotta hy Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

Frank .Miles Day & Brother showed a rendered elevation and 
photographs of the lately finished brick and terra-cotta Crozer Build- 
ing on Chestnut Street, above Broad. Very rich terra-cotta orna- 
ment around the tenth story and above, breaking out into pinnacled 
dormers around a peaked tile roof, gives the building a striking 
appearance from a distant point of view, for which it has evidently 
been designed. Cope & Stewardson were largely represented by 
rendered drawings of current work : Two fronts of dark red brick 
and light stone, on Walnut Street ; the gabled entrance to a country 

house in English 
style ; also two huge 
renderings of build- 
ings for the Pennsyl- 
vania School for the 
Blind, at Overbrook. 
A curious fact about 
the exhibition is that 
of the hundred and 
more practising 
architects in Phila- 
delphia, only some 
twenty were repre- 
sented. It is likely 
an effort will be 
made to increase 
this number largely 
in future exhibi- 

Real estate at 
Broad and Chestnut 
Streets has reached 
a value little 
dreamed of a few 
years ago. Already 
two corners have 
their thirteen and 
fifteen story office 
buildings, and now 
a third corner is to 
have one, this of 
seventeen stories. It 
has been designed 
by Edgar V. Seeler, 
and is to be built of 
granite for the first 
and second stories, 
to be occupied by 
the owners of the 
building, the Real 
Estate Trust Com- 
pany ; the upper 
stories of light brick 
and terracotta sur- 
mounted by a terra- 
cotta frieze and cor- 
nice. In planning 
the building consid- 
erable extra ingenu- 
ity and engineering 
was required, as a 
long, narrow strip is 
to be built and finished before the remaining frontage on Chest- 
nut Street is begun. This gives a problem of wind bracing which 
would have been much simplified had the whole structure gone up at 

A twenty-story building from the plans of J. Huston is projected 
on Broad Street below Chestnut. Huge candelabra, carrying electric 
lights around the sky line, are a proposed feature of the design. 



CINCINNATI. — The year 1897 has been an extremely dull 
one, and the records of the Building Inspector's office will 
show that we have done less in proportion to our population than 
almost any other city west of the mountains. 

Up to this time it looks as though the dulness would continue 
during the coming year, as very little new work is talked about. 


ST. Christopher's house, 

NEW YORK city. 

Barney & Chapman, Architects. 

Executed by the ConkUng-Arni- 

strong Terra-Cotta Company. 

The Cincinnati Chapter of Architects, under the aggressive 
leadership of its Secretary, Mr. A. W. Hayward, has awakened from 
its slumbers and gives promise of becoming useful to the profession 
and-the community. They are now at work upon a revision of our 
building laws, and are also actively pushing a license law. 

Messrs. Samuel Hannaford & Sons have just completed the 
drawings for the new Pearl Street Market House, and are now taking 
bids. This covers a space of 47 by 403 ft. It is naturally a very 
simple building in plan, but will be constructed of good materials, 
and will be quite elaborately finished with enameled and ornamental 
brick, with color decorations in friezes, and panels of Mosaic encaustic 

Messrs. Des Jardines & Hayward will remodel the old Masonic 
Temple, transforming it into a modern office building, at a cost of 
about #100,000. This will be an interesting bit of work, and we 
imagine, quite a serious problem, as the old story heights and the 
tremendously heavy construction of the old building renders any 
change of existing lines rather difficult. 

Next year the Golden Jubilee of the North American Saengerfest 
Association will be held in Cincinnati. The committee in charge of 
the affair will, within the month, issue a circular to the local archi- 
tects, inviting competition drawings. The building will be of a tem- 
porary character, to cost about $50,000, and the structure will be 
required to seat about twenty thousand persons, including audience 
and chorus. It is a pity that this building cannot be made a perma- 
nency, as the city needs a large hall of this character for conventions 
and other large gatherings. 

The Cincinnati Edison Electric Light Company have entrusted 
the work of their new building to Messrs. Elzner & Anderson, who 
have about finished the drawings. This is an extremely interesting 
building, and is remarkable for its very heavy steel construction, as 
the boilers and other heavy loads are carried on the upper floors. 

Outside of the work mentioned there is very little in sight. 
There are a few moderate-priced dwellings on the boards in several 
of the architects' offices, but in large office and commercial buildings 
we are wofuUy lacking. 

ST. LOUIS. — The outlook for the coming year is far from being 
as encouraging as was hoped for. Usually, anticipated work 
is well under consideration by this time, but there has been little 
activity in that direction up to the present. The conservative in- 
vestor has not loosened his purse strings sufficiently to cause much of 
a ripple in building circles, although there is some satisfaction to be 
gotten from the report of the Building Commissioner for January, 
which shows continued improvement in the class of buildings being 

The past year has the most notable fire record of any in the his- 
tory of the city. Early in the year the Lionberger Building, a noble 
work by Richardson, was destroyed, which, with its contents, amounted 
to a million and a quarter dollar loss; while later the old landmark, 
the Polytechnic Building, met a similar fate. During the closing 
month of the year the F. O. Sawyer Paper Company's building, and 
the Mermod, Jaccard Building were burned. The latter fire occurred 
on December 19, totally destroying the building, which was occu- 
pied as a jewelry store by the above-named firm. The enterprise 
shown by the firm, which is one of the largest of its kind in the West, 
was at least unusual, they having by the following morning purchased 
the entire stock of another firm, and opened for business without an 
hour's loss of time, the fire being on Sunday morning. 

The new year also gives promise of a fire record. On January 
8 a portion of the Christian Peper Tobacco Company's warehouse 
was consumed, entailing a loss of $125,000. The building was six 
stories, of heavy timber construction. Brick walls divided the build- 
ing and confined the fire to the one wing. Each of these burned 




Barney & Chapman, Arcliitects. 

Executed by the ConkHng-Armstrong Terra-Cotta 


buildings form an interesting study, fully illustrating the necessity of 
more thorough inspection of buildings and stricter enforcing of the 
building ordinance. 

On January 26 the Union Elevator was burned, causing a loss 
of $750,000. This was located on the other side of the river, but 
was a St. Louis enterprise. 




Baraett, Haynes & Barnett^ Architects. 

'I'erra-Cotta executed by the Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. Front Brick furnished by the }Iydraulic-Press 

Hrick Company. 

thrown by the French from the Trocadero, and were 
later recast. 

Within the last few months St. Louis has lost one 
of her most prominent firms of architects, Wheeler & 
McClure having gone to New York. 

A movement has been inaugurated by the labor 
organizations to liave an exposition here in 1903, in 
commemoration of the hundredth anniversary of the 
Louisiana Purchase. 

The Master Builders' Exchange closed their year's 
work on December 27, with a banquet and the instal- 
lation of the following officers for the ensuing 
year: — 

President, L.J. Evans; First Vice-President, J. D. 
FitzGibbons; Second Vice-President, George Ittner; 
Secretary, C. I). Morley; Treasurer, .Vdam Baurer; 
Trustees, Jas. H. Bright and C. Linnenkohl. 

At the annual meeting of the St. Louis Architec- 
tural Club, on January 8, Mr. Wm. B. Ittner was re- 
elected President; F. A. P. Burford, First Vice Pres- 
ident; H. G. Eastman, Second Vice President; Emile 
Neiman, Secretary; J. C. Stephens, Treasurer: R. G. 
Milligan and Benno Jansen, Executive Board. 

.St. .Xavier's Church, on the corner of Grand and Lindell Streets, 
la.s been completed with the exception of the tower, and was dedi- 

Bamett, Haynes & Barnett. Architects. 

cated on Sunday, January 16. The building is 212 ft. long by 120 ft. 
wide, and 66 ft. high in the center of nave. The ceilings are groined, 
springing from highly ])olished marble columns. The style is the 
early English, and it was designed by the late Thomas Walsh, who 
commenced the building in 1883. Later the plans were revised by 
Henry Switzer, who had charge of the work until its completion. 

The bells which will be placed in the tower when it is completed 
have a considerable historical interest, having been cast in Spain in 
I 761. On the night of July 25, 1 81 2, the bells were broken by a shell 

CHICAGO. — Mention has been previously made of the Illinois 
State law entitled, "an act to provide for the licensing of 
architects and regulating the practise of architecture as a profes- 
sion." Subsequent to Jam i, 1898, an architect obtained a license 
only by passing an examination, or making an " exhibition " to the 
Board of Examiners, which was considered by them an equivalent. 

The first grant of licenses to architects who were not practising 
when the law was passed resulted in (jualifying twelve on examina- 
tion (one of whom was a woman.) and six on exhibition of their work. 

J.W.|Siddall, Architect. 




jewelers' EXCHANGE, 


Winslow & Wetherell, Architects. 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra- 

Cotta Company. 

Only one was rejected. It is of 
interest to note that the man 
ranking first in this examination 
had had six years' experience 
with a contractor, but no techni- 
cal training aside from that 
gained in an architect's office. 
The second in rank, on the con- 
trary, had had an exceptionally 
extensive education. The woman 
was the third in rank, and she 
included in her experience a 
course at the Boston Institute of 
Technology, and travel abroad. 
Some of those ranking lowest 
had had four years' training in 
architectural schools. 

The Chicago building ordi- 
nances are undergoing revision, 
although nothing radical is con- 
templated. Joseph Downey, con- 
tractor and ex-commissioner of public works, is chairman of the re- 
vision committee, which includes in its membership real estate and 
material men, a representative of the Building and Trades Council, 
and Mr. Shankland, the engineering member of the firm of D. H. 
Burnham & Co. 

Amongst the work of interest announced this month are noted a 
Jewish synagogue of brick, designed by Mr. Paul Gerhardt ; a brick 
and terra-cotta high school build- 
ing, by N. S. Patton ; alterations 
to an office building at Lake and 
La Salle Streets, by D. H. Burn- 
ham & Co. ; an apartment build- 
ing by architect Eisendrath ; and 
some important fire-proof man- 
ufacturing buildings, by Mr. Fritz 

Jenney & Mundie are nearly 
ready to let contracts on the 
addition to the New York Life 
Building. Two stories of this 
structure will be granite, but the 
other ten stories will be terra- 
cotta. The floor and partition 
construction will be hollow tile. 

tom or lower part of the wall 
or backing upward, and as each 
course is laid the several tiles 
in the course are nailed to the 
wall or backing by one or 
more headed nails, the heads 
of the nails overlapping the in- 
terior of the inner wall of the 
groove. In bedding the tile the 
cement seizes the nail and fills 
the groove, 1)onding all together 
into the wall. Screws or shorter 
nails can be used where these 
tiles are set as linings over 
wooden partitions, also econo- 
mizing materially in space, and, 
owing to the secure bond be- 
tween the tiles effected by the 
cement tongue in the middle 
groove, it is not necessary to 
nail each individual tile. 
The tiles are made to lay as standard English size brick, namely, 
3 in. by 9 in. face, and are made 2 ins. thick. Where economy of 
space is an object this tile is an excellent device, and for wainscoting 
of lavatories in wooden houses, where brick nogging is not desired or 
impracticable, this tile can readily be put in place wifh combined 
economy and absolute surety against falling out after the work is fin- 
ished. Corners and quoins, rebated vertically to fit into the tiles, are 

manufactured to go with this 
facing, together with special 
moldings for top of wainscoting 
fastened in similar manner. 




Winslow & Wetherell, Architects. 

Executed by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 


THE catalogue of the American Enamel Brick and Tile Com- 
pany presents, in addition to the ordinary shapes, a form of 
enamel tiling intended to replace enamel bricks where economy of 
space and freight charges is necessary. The bricks or tiles are all 
grooved along the top and bot 

tom edges, the walls of the upper ^ 

grooving being of even length, 
while the inner wall of the lower 
groove is shallower than the outer 
one. This allows the outer joints 
to be laid close, at the same time 
leaving space enough between 
the outer walls for a nail, which 
can be driven at any point within 
the length of the tile, whether the 
same crosses a horizontal or a 
vertical joint of the wall behind. 
In applying these tiles to an up- 
right wall or backing they are 
built on each other from the bot- 


'HE twelfth annual conven- 
tion of the National Brick 
Manufacturers' Association was 
held at Pittsburgh, Pa., Tuesday 
to Friday, February 15 to 18. 
It was one of the most success- 
ful conventions ever held by the 
association. These annual gath- 
erings, which are attended by 
many of the larger clay workers of the country, are productive of a 
distinct betterment of the burnt-clay industries as a whole. Not 
only .do the workers freely discuss the more important problems con- 
nected with the business, but the greater part of the tim.e is given 
over to the reading of important papers of a technical nature, which 
are prepared by those well versed in the art of clay working. We 
doubt if there is another industry in this country where the people 

interested give more thought and 
careful attention to the end that 
their product shall meet the 
recjuirements of an exacting 




Winslow & Wetherell, Architects. 
Executed by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 

T II E Fawcett Ventilated 
Fire-proof Building Company, 
James D. Lazell, Boston agent, 
have completed a vault floor for 
the Five-Cent Savings Bank, 


The American Enameled Brick 
AND Tile Company, of New York, 
have appointed W. G. Weaver, 22 Clinton 
St., Newark, N. J., their sales agent for 
the State of New Jersey. 

Waldo Brothers have secured 
the contract for furnishing the glazed 
tiles for walls of Adams Square Station 
of Subway, Boston. The tiles will be 
manufactured by the .Atwood Faience 

Gross & Horn, 506 West Broad- 
way, New York, have been appointed 
agents for Samuel H. French & Co., 
manufacturers of Peerless Mortar Colors, 
who report a rapidly increasing demand 
for their product. 

The Brick, Terra-Cotta, and Supply 
Company, of Corning, N. Y., are furnish- 
ing the architectural terra-cotta required 
for the 119th Street, 89th Street, and 
20th Street schools. New York City ; C. 
B. J. Snyder, architect. 

The Burlington Architectural Terra- 
Cotta Company are supplying terra-cotta 
for the new shoe factory being built at 
Burlington, N. J. ; also for a residence at 
Germantown, Pa., of which H. E. Flower 
is the architect. 

The name of the Akron Hydraulic- 
Press Brick Company, of Cleveland, O., 
has been changed to the Cleveland 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. The 
management of the company is in no 
way changed, it being a branch of the 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Company of St. 

The Wallace Manufacturing Com- 
pany, at Frankfort, Ind., have sold since 
Jan. I, 1898, nine of their Wonder Brick- 
making Machines. This is pretty good 
evidence of two things, — increasing busi- 
ness among the brickmakers, and the 
popularity of this particular make of a 

The Mason Safety Sidewalk Light 
is attracting the attention of architects 
very generally. A good example of its 
use is shown in front of the Oriental Tea 
Company, on Court Street, Boston. It 
has a perfectly level, non-slipping sur- 
face, a great desideratum in wet or frosty 
weather. Its lighting capacity is very 

Precipitated Carbonate of Ba- 
RYTES, a preventative for scum and dis- 
coloration, neutralizing the sulphate of 
lime in the clay and water, finds a ready 
demand among those who investigate its 
merits. Gabriel & Schall, importers, 205 


proposed hachelor apartment hotel, 
new york city. 

Franklin D. Pagan, Architect. 

Pearl Street, New York, report a most 
gratifying growth of this part of their 
business. E. Willard, 171 Devon- 
shire St., Boston, has recently closed 
the contracts for 150,000 Standard and 
Norman sized brick for the new building 
now being erected by the Boston Wharf 
Company, Boston: M. D. Safford, archi- 
tect ; and 1 50,000 white brick for the 
We.stminster Chambers, Copley Square, 
Boston : H. E. Creiger, architect. 

The Berlin Iro.n Bridge Com- 
pany, of East Berlin, Conn., have closed 
the following new contracts : Steel roof 
for the Boston Gas Light Company's new 
liuilding; steel framework, new power 
house for the American Coffee Company, 
at Brooklyn ; furnishing and erecting a 
new building, to be known as the Tower 
Building, for the Benjamin .Atha & Illing- 
worth Company, at Harrison, N. J. 

The Columbus Brick and Terra- 
Cotta Company have supplied their 
brick on the following new work : Bank 
building, Columbus, Ohio; L. L. Rankin, 
architect ; residence for W. M. Taylor, 
Columbus; Yost & Packard, architects; 
Spahr-GIenn office building, Columbus; 
D. H. Burnham & Co., architects ; Citi- 
zens' National Bank Building, Charleston, 
W. Va. ; Yost & Packard, architects; 
Police Station at Detroit, Mich. ; Louis 
Kamper, architect. 

The C. p. Merwin Brick Company, 
Berlin, Conn., report the following build- 
ings lately completed, in which their hol- 
low brick were used: Insane ward Con- 
necticut State Prison, First National 
Bank, Police Station, and Brown Street 
School, all in Hartford, Conn. They are 
also furnishing hollow brick for Lowell 
Block, Worcester, Mass., Cutting, Bard- 
well & Co., contractors ; and both hollow 
and pallet brick for St. Patrick's Church, 
Whitinsville, Mass., Chas. D. Maginnis, 
architect; H. P. Cumming & Co., con- 

G. R. Twichell & Co., 19 Federal 
St., Boston, report the following recent 
sales: 150,000 enameled brick for the 
new building now being erected at South 
Boston for the Boston Electric Light 
Company ; a large quantity of Ridgway 
gray Roman brick and Massachusetts 
wire-cut red brick for the same structure ; 
l)uff brick for an apartment house at 
Hartford, Conn.; chocolate-colored brick 
for a front on Bay State Road, Boston : 
buff brick for eight new apartment houses 
at Brookline, Mass. ; and a large number 
of brick for fireplaces for a dormitory at 
Harvard College. 



The regular annual gathering of general managers of the various 
branches of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company was held, as usual, 
in St. Louis early in February. 

The Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, of St. Louis, find it both 
interesting and profital)le to entertain all their general managers once 
a year ; when thus assembled, some twenty or more practical men of 
experience in the business discuss and advise with each other con- 
cerning the various difificult problems connected with modern methods 
of brickmaking. As these gentlemen represent various plants 
scattered through nine States of the Union, and producing annually 
over three hundred million of bricks in endless variety of colors from 
many different clays, they are each able to furnish valuable sugges- 
tions from their various experiences under widely varying conditions. 
The care, energy, and ability devoted by these gentlemen to the prob- 
lem of producing at the least cost the high grade of bricks required 
by modern standards is apparent in the product resulting from their 
efforts, which may be seen in their exhibit rooms in St. Louis, Kan- 
sas City, Omaha, Chicago, Minneapolis, Cleveland, Rochester, Pitts- 
burgh, Baltimore, Washington, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. 
They are prepared to offer in any section of the country all the 
various shades of color in bricks, made from the different varieties 
of clay throughout the United States. 

These meetings, continuing through several days, afford an 
opportunity for pleasant social intercourse and much pleasant com- 
panionship between the gentlemen in charge of the various branches 
of this widely extended manufacturing business. 






Dried Linseed Oil 

is permeable to moisture and gases. No linseed 
oil paint will perfectly protect iron and steel from 
rust. If you use 

Durable fletal Coating: 

on structural Iron Work it forms an air-tight skin 
and affords absolute protection. " Application of 
Paints" will be sent on request. Gives facts 
worth knowing. 

Manufactured only by 

Edward Smith & Co., 

Varnish Makers and Color Grinders, 

45 Broadway = = New York. 

It's a 

A modest but very attractive de- 
sign for a simple Fireplace Mantel, 
made of Ornamental Brick. It gives a 
large return for a small po^^^^^^^^-^^^x^'y 
outlay, the price in red 
brick being only .... 

Our mantels are the newest and best in every way. Our customers say so. They don^t cost any 
more than other kinds, and can be easily set by local brickmasons. Don^t order a mantel before you have 
learned all about ours. The above is only one of our many designs. Send for our Sketch Book of 53 
mantels costing from $ 1 up. It tells all about these charming mantels. 

Phila. & Boston Face Brick Co«, 15 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass^ 







Napheys Acetylene Gas Generators ......... 

J. P.. Colt & Co.. 115 Nassau St., New York. 

Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New York Agents, Pfotenliauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 287 Fourth Ave. 

Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 


Correspondence School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. .... 

Harvard University, Lawrence Scientific .School ..... 

American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, III. 
Brick, Terra-Cotta and .Supply Co., Corning, N. Y. . 
Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 

New Kngland Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. PhiladelphiaOffice, 34 South 7th St. 
Gladding, McHean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ...... 

Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co., Indianapolis, Ind. ..... 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, ij4' Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent, W. L. McPherson, Building Exchange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 1 1 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 1 56 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Co., Century Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agen 
Brick, Terra-Cotta and Supply Co., Corning, N. Y. .... 

Brush & .Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio 
Dagus Clay Man'f'g Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. : Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 
Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ........ 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ...... 

Harbison & Walker Co., The. Office, 22d and Railroad Sts., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Hydraulic- Press Brick Co., The ........ 

Home Office, Union Trust Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Merwin, C. P. Brick Co., Berlin, Conn. ....... 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 1 56 Fifth Ave., New York Ci 
Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Office, 41 Wall St., N. Y.; Works, Shaw- 
nee, Ohio ............ 

Oliphant, Pope & Co., Trenton, N. J. ....... 

Pennsylvania Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential liuilding, Newark, N. J. 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston . 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. .... 

Ralston Brick Co., Ralston, Lycoming Co., Pa. ..... 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Ridgway Press-Brick Co., Ridgway, Pa 

New England Agents, G. R. Twichell & Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 

New York Agent, O. D. Person, 160 Fifth Ave. 
Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 1 56 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Williamsport Brick Co., Williamsport, Pa. ....... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 

Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

Hydraulic Press Brick Co., The ........ 

Home Office, Union Trust Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 
Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 


Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston ........ 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 


Berlin Iron Bridge Co., Berlin, Conn. ........ 


Alpha Cement Company, General Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 
Building, Philadelphia ........... 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., 92 State St., Boston. , 

Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City .... 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston ....... 

Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 

Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. . 

French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. I Broadway, New York City . 

Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. 15th St., Philadelphia .... 

Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York .... 





























CBMEmS.— Continued. 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, I. W. Pinkham & Co., 188 Devonshire St., Boston. 

James C. Goff, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. I. 

J. S. Noble, 67^ Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 William St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y. . 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 


Sturtevant Mill Co., Boston ..... 





CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental), 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-prooflng:, and Roofing Tiles. 

Black, John H., ^^ Erie Co. Savings Bk. Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y 

Fuller, H. E., & Co., Equitable Bldg., Boston .' . 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md., and 808 F St., 
N. W., Washington, D. C 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave,. New York City 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston ..... 

Twichell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire St., Boston 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 171 Devonshire St., Boston 


F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York 


American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio 
Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. .... 
Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 
Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. .... 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 415 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111. 
The F. D. Cummer & Sons Co., Cleveland, Ohio 
The Wallace Manufacturing Co., Frankfort, Ind. 


Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 


Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... 

Empire Fireproofing Co., 1301 Monadnock Block, Chicago .... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., Bourse Building, Philadelphia 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal 

Guastavino, R., 9 East sgth St., New York 

Boston Office, 444 Albany Street. 
Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City 

New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 151 5 Marquette Building, Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Townsend Building, Broadway and J5th Street. 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 41 Cortlandt St., New York ..... 


Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co., 85 Water St., Boston 


Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y 
























Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Ilamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 


Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y 

French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 


Moore, Benjamin & Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Smith, Edw.,& Co., 45 Broadway, N. Y 


Randolph & Clowes, Waterbury, Conn 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing and Siding Tile Co., 11 22 Marquette Building, 
Chicago, 111. ......••••••• 

Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited. 
Main Office and Factory, Alfred, N. Y. 
Chicago Office, Marquette Building. 
New York Office, 11 20 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 


The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., Boston . , . . 


Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

Ilamblin & Russell Mfg. Co., Worcester, 










Pancoast Ventilator Co., The. 316 Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 


The Cleveland Pat. Steel Wall Ties. Wason, Hamilton, and Dart Sts., Cleve- 
land, Ohio 

Ilamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 


Queen Sash Balance Co., 150 Nassau St., New York 

The Shull Overhead Window Pulley, 178 Devonshire St., Boston. 
IOC, Park Place, New York. 









Conkling, Armstrong 
^ S' Terra-Cotta Co 


. . Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Quality 


Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA. PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 


Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Perth Amboy, N» J* 


Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

J 60 Fifth Avenue^ 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street 




Architectural Terra-Cotta, i 


New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue, 


John Hancock Building, Builders Exchange, Builders Exchange, 




Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 

Designed and Delineated by H. F. BRISCOE. Modeled by TITO CONTI. 

We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 

^CSlOnCb in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified 
architectural effects. 

ifljOOClCO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 

|P!*C86C0 with great care to give clear-cut outlines and 
smooth surfaces. 

JOUtnCO in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 

-clSSCHlblCO from standard interchangeable pieces in 
any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 

II n ^CnCtHl producing all the desirable effects of special 
mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 


166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire-Proofing and General Building Materials. 







Office, 108 Fulton Street, 



White Brick and 

Terra=Cotta Co., 


Manufacturers of Afcliitectural TcrFa-Cotta In All Colors. 

Superior Quality of 

Bolib mabite 

Will Not Turn Green or Yellow. 

A comparison of our goods will manifest superiority 
in execution, vitrification, and perfection of finish. 

Architects' Drawings faithfully reproduced. 








The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd. 


.Manufacturer of.... 

Artistic Roofing Tiles. 


This cut illustrates the use of our 8 in. Conosera tile and the grad- 
uated tower tile ; also our terra-cotta hip and ridge roll and finials. See 
November and January numbers of The Brickbuilder. 



Suite 1123-4 Presbyterian Building, 

156 Fifth Avenue, 



This cut illustrates the use of our closed-shingle, as described in the 
December number of The Brickbuilder. 


Suite 1001-2 Marquette Building, 

204 Dearborn Street, 



This cut illustrates the use of our open-shingle tile, which is of the .same 
character as the closed-shingle, only made with a lip, and laid 200 to the 
square open, instead of 300 to the square clo.sed. 

Boston Representative, CHARLES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 




Attention is called to the fact that some 61,000 cu. ft. of terra -cotta are used on this building and the Astor Court Building, seen in the distance. This includes the work made for the interior, on the ground 

and first floors. The total weight was about 2,300 tons, which is equal to 60** truck lr>ads of 7.333 lbs. each. 


The New York Architectural Terra -Cotta Company, 

38 Park Row, New York City. 

.^,^ VOLVME W 

\'0 J898 
V/ No. 3 








Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada J2.50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union 53-50 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 


THERE appeared in Harper's Weekly, a short time since, a 
very interesting account of the artistic porcelain and pottery 
makers of Japan, from which it appeared that their industry is by no 
means a thing of the past, but on the contrary exceedingly alive and 
growing all the while, and that many of the effects, such as the peach 
blows and the sang de bceuf, which have been the despair of modern 
manufacturers, are imitated so cleverly by the modern Japanese 
artists that the best connoisseurs are sometimes at fault. Following 
this article we had occasion to pay a visit to a large tile works in a 
neighboring city, and were greatly interested and pleased at the 
results which were there being accomplished, as well as at the simi- 
larity of methods and aims which we found as compared with those 
of the Japanese artists. We doubt if, on the whole, there has ever 
been a time within the past few centuries when the ceramic arts 
were in as prosperous and promising a state as they are now ; and if 
we can judge of the future by the past, the United States will in the 
next one or two decades produce work of a quality which will hold 
its own not only with the work of our cousins in Germany and Eng- 
land, but with the more imaginative work of the Japanese artists. 
We have seen bits of porcelain, examples of glazes and enamels, 
which were thoroughly in the spirit of the Oriental work, and the 
natural possibilities of our soil are sufficient to satisfy the demands 
of the most exacting artists. 

The difference between our enameled terra-cottas and the deli- 
cate work of the Mongolians is one of application and fineness of 
workmanship rather than of material, and although we do not usually 
class Canton teacups or Imari ware with such prosaic products as 

enameled bricks, the artistic, decorative, and practical possibilities 
of the Japanese potter are all implied in the capacity for the pro- 
duction of first-class enamels laid over burnt clay. Our recent 
national development has been especially promising along these lines 
and there have been some notable works produced in enameled terra- 
cottas and glazed bricks which show not only the capabilities of our 
manufacturers, but appreciation on the part of our architects and con- 
structors of the capabilities of this fascinating material. We call it 
a fascinating material, for we have yet to know of a designer who has 
made a serious attempt to use it who has not sooner or later devel- 
oped a mania for it. The color possibilities are so large and the 
effects produced thereby are so permanent that there is no other one 
medium which is on the whole so satisfactory. The designation, 
enameled brick or terra-cotta, usually suggests to most minds a per- 
fectly bare uninteresting white wall with a glossy slippery surface. 
Our manufacturers, indeed, take a pride in the purity of the white 
enamel which has been applied to bricks and terra-cotta, but the 
palette of the designer in enamels is so large that almost any color 
effects can be produced, and we have recently seen some examples 
wherein blues, reddish browns, and greens have been used with very 
marked success. The stations of the Subway are lined with a very 
high grade of enameled brick and tile, and for white work they are 
very successful. A feeling is manifested at times that so long as 
enameled brick and terra-cotta is given a half-hearted opportunity in 
back halls, boiler rooms, and lavatories, that is all the manufacturers 
could reasonably expect ; but if there be infused into the design some 
of the elements which make the Japanese ceramics so fascinating, 
there is not the slightest reason why such material could not be 
adapted for some of the best uses. The Reading station in Philadel- 
phia has in one of the large waiting rooms a considerable quantity 
of most excellently designed and manufactured enameled terra-cotta 
work in strong colors and carefully elaborated designs. There is a 
private hotel in Boston in which the vestibule is treated in enameled 
terra-cottas, one of the earlier examples, but in a limited way quite 
satisfactory, and interesting in showing what might be done if the 
public and our designers were educated to a proper use of a certain 
material. More recently the baptistery of one of our large city 
churches has been finished throughout in enameled ware, in low 
relief, with a very successful color treatment. There is, of course, 
no lack of historical precedent even closer at hand than Japan for 
applying this material in the choicest work, but we are only begin- 
ning to use it understandingly. 

We must not think of enameled brick and terra-cotta as a con- 
structive material at all, but rather treat it purely as a finish, as a 
material which will take the touch of the designer and the sympa- 
thetic tones of the colorist, and will hold both for generations after 
the color of marble or stone have faded entirely away. A handicap 
which our manufacturers have been under in the past is the extremely 
limited market for a really first class product. The English glazed 
bricks, — and, by the way, we imagine some of our readers would be 
surprised to know that some of the best English glazed bricks are 
made by the Hon. Mr. (Gladstone, — ^set the pace in this country for 
many years, and our manufacturers thought the limit of their skill 
was reached when they equaled the foreign production. But we can 
now do better than that. It is not unfair to say that we have a cer- 
tain measure of the artistic sense which has made the Japanese pot- 



teries so famous, and when the public can appreciate more truly 
what exquisite effects can be produced in enamels and glazes, and 
how artistic a combination can be made with these materials applied 
to colored terra-cottas, it will not be necessary to finish our vestibules 
in mahogany to secure a rich effect, nor will enamel work suggest 
nothing more interesting than a perfectly uniform creamy white sur- 
face. The prime recommendation of terra-cotta was formerly that it 
was cheap. Now it ranks as the foremost art industry associated 
with the building trades; and in like manner its companion, 
enameled and glazed terra-cotta, can become one of the most notable 
mediums in which the artist can express the subtlest designs and 
produce the most permanent rich effects. We have always had a 
great faith in this material, and believe that the time will come when 
terra-cotta more generally will be enameled or glazed before it is 
applied to our commercial structures. The enamel will keep its color 
intact, and if we may judge by examples which have come down to 
us from the medieval period, there is no limit to the life of even the 
most delicate tones. 

THERE are begun in this i.ssue three articles of more than pass- 
ing interest. To those familiar with his earlier work on 
" Masonry Construction," the paper on " The Strength of Brick 
Masonry," by Ira O. Baker (M. Am. Soc. C. E., Professor of Civil 
Engineering, University of Illinois), will be a welcome contribution 
upon this subject. The paper will be concluded in the April number. 

" How to Build Fire-proof " forms the basis of an article by 
Francis C. Moore. As president of the Continental Insurance Com- 
pany of New York, and delegate of the New York Board of Under- 
writers to the Board of Examiners of the New York Building 
Department, Mr. Moore has had exceptional opportunities to observe 
the efficiency of the various methods intended for fire-proofing, as 
well as the deficiencies in plans and construction of many of the so- 
calledjfire-proof buildings, hence his deductions and recommendations 
will be found to be of especial interest and value. Mr. Moore's 
paper will be concluded in the April number. 

A paper " On the Saline Efflorescence of Brick, the Causes 
Leading to It, and the Practical Means of Avoiding .Same," by Oscar 
Gerlach (Ph. D., Berlin), will commend itself to those who have ex- 
perienced the annoyance which results from this disfigurement of 
brick wall by the accumulation of efflorescence, or scum, upon the 
brick. Prof. Edward Orton, Jr. (Department of Ceramics and Clay- 
working, Ohio State University), endorses this paper by Dr. Gerlach 
as being of "great practical and scientific value." 

The printing of these papers in this number has necessitated 
the discontinuance of the Mortars and Concrete Department for this 


Arthur Connelly, architect, Newark, N. J., has removed his 
office to 673 Broad Street. Catalogues desired. 

Alkrkij H. Granger, of Granger & Meade, architects, has with- 
drawn from that firm and removed to Chicago, where he has formed 
a partnership with Charles S. Frost. Mr. Meade has formed a 
partnership with Mr. Abram Garfield, under the name of Meade 
& Garfield, at 731 Garfield Building. 

Owing to the death of Mr. Forrest A. Coburn, of Coburn & 
Barnum, the firm of F. S. Barnum & Company, architects, has been 
organized, with the following members: Frank S. Barnum, Harry S. 
Nelson, Albert E. Skeel, Herbert B. Briggs, and Wilbur M. Hall, 
with offices in the New England Building. 

Bohemian Night was observed by the Chicago Architectural 
Club, Monday, February 28. The entertainment was arranged by 
Messrs. Richard E. Schmidt, Arthur Heun, Chas. E. Birge, A. G. 
Zimmerman, Myron H. Hunt, John B. Fischer, Adolph Bernhard, 
and E. H. Seaman, who served as hosts for the evening. 

The third annual banquet of the Cleveland Architectural Club 
was held at the Hollenden, January 20. President Herbert B. 
Briggs was toastmaster, and responses were made by Messrs. J. N. 
Richardson, Stephen C. Gladwin, Chas. W. Hopkinson, W. Dominick 
Benes, Louis Rohrheimer, and Starr Cadwallader. A feature was 
the presence of the ladies. 

A regui,ar meeting of the T Square Club was held on Wednes- 
day evening, February 16. The program of the competition for 
the evening, entitled " The Nucleus of a Town," had been arranged 
by Mr. Edgar V. Seeler, who led the criticism on the drawings sub- 
mitted, and spoke in an interesting way on the possibilities of the 
general planning of cities. 

The mentions were awarded as follows: First, Ira E.Hill; 
second, Arthur .S. Brooke; and third, W. P. Trout. 

On Monday evening, February 21, Mr. H. J. Maxwell Grylls 
spoke on " Roman Architecture," the third paper of the series on the 
"History of Architecture," at the Museum of Art, Detroit, before a 
liberally attended and appreciative audience. It was well illustrated 
by stereopticon views, and drawings by members of the club. 

The public are greatly interested in these lectures and take 
advantage of the opportunities offered. 

The next paper will be given, March 7, by Mr. James E. Scripps, 
on " History of Gothic Architecture." 


FISKE, HOMES & CO., in their advertisement, page vii, illus- 
trate number nine of their series of brick and terra-cotta fire- 
place mantels. 

The new Telephone Building at Cleveland, Ohio, C. F. Schwein- 



C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

Executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

furth, architect, is illustrated in the advertisement of Harbison & 
Walker Co., page xiii. 

Some interesting Chicago buildings roofed with Celadon tiles are 
shown in the advertisement of the Celadon Terra-cotta Company, 
Charles T. Harris, lessee, page xxvii. 



The American Schoolhouse. V. 


IN a pamphlet on " The Construction of Schoolhouses," published 
in 1895, Mr. Edward Atkinson gives the following "rough and 
ready computations upon the cost of schoolhouses," constructed upon 
the principles of " mill construction." 

The leading idea of this pamphlet is that schoolhouses are made 
needlessly expensive on account of expenditure for architectural 
effect, and that there are conditions of essential economy in so-called 
" mill construction " which make the use of this method one of radi- 
cal economy. Careful consideration of the schoolhouse work of 
several architects and my own experience leads me to a contrary 
opinion as to both propositions. While there are a few cases to be 
found where the expenditure for architectural effect on schoolhouses 
has been somewhat greater than good economy, if not the best taste, 

pensive, and has the disadvantage of being troublesome on account 
of shrinkage of the large-sized stock, and the advantage of being 
practically safe from danger to the inmates from a fire in the base- 

As to the use of thinner brick walls than ordinarily employed, 
this is not an essential characteristic of "mill construction," and, in- 
deed, the use of 8 in. brick walls is not to be recommended if 
plastering is to be laid directly thereon as it should be as a fire and 
vermin precaution. An exposed interior wall, if painted and properly 
constructed to receive painting, does not make for economy as against 
a plastered brick wall. 

Mr. Atkinson states that " in a broad and general way one may 
compute the cost of a school building, without plumbing and appli- 
ances, midway between the cost of the factory building and the hos- 
pital " constructed on the " mill " principle. " That would l)e $1.35 
per square foot of floor, counting all floors. 

" The schoolhouse of least cost in construction would be one 




William Atkinson, Arcliitect. 

would suggest, in the main the increased cost of a pleasing archi- 
tectural design bears but a very small proportion to the cost of a well- 
constructed schoolhouse. The elements upon which good effect 
depends are found in the very conditions of the problem, and with 
but small expenditure above absolute needs, a skilful designer can 
bring a satisfactory result. The additional expense mainly comes 
out of the pocket of the architect, who seeks to give proper propor- 
tion and expression to the structure entrusted to him. 

As to the greater economy of " mill construction " above that 
commonly employed, I believe that all who have calculated the cost 
of the two have found that " mill construction " is slightly more ex- 

placed on a moderate slope, consisting of basement story and two 
floors to be occupied by pupils, the main entrance being on the 
lower side of the slope by a door into the basement, the stairway 
being wholly within." These conditions are, by the way, not to be 
considered sufficiently normal to serve as a basis for consideration 
of cost of a typical schoolhouse, and they have not been strictly 
followed in the plans of Mr. William Atkinson, here shown, which 
are published at his request to illustrate the type of building con- 
templated by his father's pamphlet. The plan described in the 
pamphlet indicated that of a building with a central entrance, which 
would have necessitated that the schoolrooms would give off a 



common corridor and would have required that the two staircases 
should have been placed in staircase halls at right angles to the 
main corridor, which is practically the same plan as that shown in 
the Wyman School. Mr. Atkinson's plan differs in two essential 
points from the accepted ar- 
rangements of our graded 
schools. First, certain school- 
rooms can be reached from 
others only by passing through 
a third schoolroom, and all the 
"wardrobes" are not placed in 
conjunction with the school- 
rooms for whose pupils they 
are designed. 

Each of these variations 
from accepted conditions are 
nonconducive to the ready 
maintenance of order and dis- 
cipline as well as convenience. 

Mr. Atkinson's plan con- 
templates the use of 12 in. 
brick walls for first story and 
8 in. brick walls for second 
story. The central floor sup- 
port by steel columns and gird- 
ers has the objection of cutting 
through the heat and ventilation 
pipes, and of increa.sing the ex- 
pense of construction over that 
given by a brick carrying wall. 

"We will assume," says Mr. Atkinson in his pamphlet, "an 
eight-room schoolhouse in which the pupils are to be provided for on 
two floors of four rooms each, such schoolrooms to be of the dimen- 
sions of 28 by 32 ft. each, for the accommodation of 56 pupils each, — 

Edmund M. Wheelwright, Cily .Architect. 

" We assume that this building is to be covered by what 
is called a flat roof, that is to say, a roof of yi in. pitch, 
without any enclosed space above it. The total floor area, 

therefore, comes to, square feet of floor i 7,202 

divided by the number of 
pupils, this gives 38.56 sq. ft. 
to each pupil. 

" We will add for contin- 
gencies and assume that there 
would be 40 ft. to each pupil 
in such a building. At the 
midway ratio between the 
factory without plumbing and 
appliances, and the hospital 
with plumbing, heating, and 
all appliances, $1.35, this 
would bring the cost of a 
brick building of the most 
•substantial kind to $54 per 
pupil. Multiply by 448 and 
we get 524,192. 

" To this should be added 
architects' fees, plumbing, 
heating, ordinary grading, and 
contingencies. It would seem 
as if 25 per cent, added should 
suffice. If so, we reach a 
total cost of $30,000. In 
some instances, notably in 
crowded cities, the size, situa- 
tion, and neighborhood may make it necessary to arrange the school- 
rooms with reference to the sun, and to place hallways and stairways 
where a larger area than 60 per cent, of each floor will be occupied 
by them. In that case, the additional number of square feet of floor 

PiBvr Tloor Pl/vn 

Second f-ixoK Pi..\n 

fl-\i>tMENT PLAN 

or 448 pupils in all. P'our rooms of 28 by 32 ft., 896 sq. ft. each room, 

would require in all, square feet of floor 3i584 

" We find that the minimum of hallway, stairway, teach- 
ers' room, and lavatories bears the proportion of 60 per cent, 
to the space in the schoolrooms on each floor. That would 

add s(|uare feet of floor 2,150 

The basement would therefore cover square feet of floor 5,734 

First floor 5.734 

Second floor 5.734 

must be added at the normal rate of cost per square foot. I am 
unaware whether or not that cost is greatly more or less than the 
cost of buildings previously constructed to meet a similar want. 
The only test of these estimates is that plans and specifications 
should be made upon these lines for submission to any one of the 
thoroughly competent builders who will not scrimp the work or vary 
from the highest standard in every respect. My judgment is that 
this estimate can be attained in practise in the city of Boston, 
subject to such additional expense as may be imposed by compliance 
with the building act." 




It will be noted that the dimensions of the schoolrooms shown 
in the plan here published are 24 by 32 ft., and not 28 by 32 ft., as 
premised in the pamphlet ; but, as the architect writes me, if the size 
of the rooms were thus increased in the plans under consideration, the 
total floor area of all 
floors, including walls, 
would be about that 
given in the pamphlet, t. 
e., 17,202 sq. ft. 

Mr. Atkinson is of 
the opinion that such a 
structure as that contem- 
plated by his plan, but 
with rooms of the larger 
size, can be constructed 
outside of Boston, not 
including plumbing and 
heating, for about $1.30 
per square foot of floor 
area. He would use iron 
staircases, slate black- 
boards, fire-stops and ex- 
panded metal partitions, 
and wire-lathed ceilings. 
Aside from the excess of 
cost of requirements of 
the Boston Building Laws 

previous to 1892, the school would differ little in its features from 
those of Boston schoolhouses built about that time. The only points 
of such difference would be single instead of double sash, wood in- 
stead of cement and plaster finish, ordinary base in place of hospital 


Kdmund M. Wheelwright, City Architect. 

and (892 in Boston. It is a building of very simple type, with mill- 
constructed first floor, flat tar and gravel roof, and of such slight 
architectural pretensions as to bring it very close to the category of a 
factory building. It is a six-room building, but, planned for the ready 

addition of two more 
schoolrooms, the addi- 
tional cost of such further 
construction, if done at 
the time of the first con- 
struction, would have 
been, say, $2,000 addi- 
tional to the actual cost, 
or about $30,000. Mr. 
Atkinson's estimate of 
$r.35 per square foot of 
floor area did not con- 
template the cost of heat- 
ing and plumbing. These 
features of the VVyman 
.School cost about $3,200, 
making the cost under 
consideration about 

The floor area of the 
Wyman computed as an 
eight-room school was 
15,744 sq. ft.; its cost 
per square foot of floor area without heating or plumbing was, there- 
fore, about $2.27. 

If this building had been built for grammar grade, with school- 
rooms 28 by 32 ft. instead of 24 by 32 ft., its cost would have been 





base ; for all the Boston schoolhouses built at this time had " mill- 
constructed " first floors. 

Such being the case, it is difficult to see how Mr. Atkinson's 
expectations of cost can be borne out in an actual construction of 
such a building as he has planned. As this building he suggests is 
of a very unusual and not normal form of schoolhouse plan, it would 
appear more fruitful of satisfactory result to consider first the cost of 
an eight-room schoolhouse of a more normal type. 

Let us then consider the cost of the Wyman School built in 1891 

increased about $1,500, or about 10 cents per square foot, that is, to 
$2.37 as against $1.35, the price set by Mr. Atkinson as the price 
for his mill-constructed school of this type. 

The heavier brick walls required in the Boston school above 
that of the mill-constructed school involved an increased expendi- 
ture of about $2,200 ; the cost of asphalt floor above concrete, double 
instead of single sash, and other items of more expensive finish, 
involved not more than $1,800 in addition; and if the slight depart- 
ures from the strict requirements of necessity in external features 



did not amount to more than 5700, I am safe in saying that no 
saving would have been made if columns and girders had been sub- 
stituted for brick carrying partitions, but possibly 51,500 might have 
been saved by not using brick vent and heat flues, and some of the 
non-carrying brick 

About $6,200 is all 1 

the saving that would 
appear if the building 
had been constructed 
under building laws that 
would have permitted 
the construction upon 
which Mr. Atkinson 
bases his calculations. 

The area of an 
eight-room gra ni m a r 
school building, on the 
same plan as the Wy- 
man School, would have 
been about iS,ooo sq. 
ft. If a building of this 
plan were constructed 
as Mr. Atkinson sug- 
gests, we would expect 
its cost to be about 
$31,500, or, $1.75 per 
square foot of floor 

area. I cannot, judging from my own experience in the cost of 
actual construction, believe it possible to reach the low cost of $1.37 
per square foot of floor area given in the pamphlet. 

Let us consider another Boston schoolhouse of very plain ex- 
ternal treatment, — built at the same time as the Wyman School, — 
the Warren Grammar School. As this is a six-room building with 
an Exhil)ition Hall, it is practically the equivalent of an eight-room 

will not scrimp the work or vary from the highest standard in every 
respect," are employed. There is an evident fallacy in the method 
of striking the mean between the cost of a factory and the cost of a 
hospital as the basis of cost of a schoolhouse. There are no such 

elements of 

fKf ft Ef 111 I, 



Edmund M. Wheelwright, City Architect. 

a greater 
cost in a hospital above 
that of a schoolhouse 
which would justify 
such a basis of compu 
tation ; indeed, the 
greater floor spans re- 
quired in a schoolhouse 
make this class of build- 
ing little if any more 
expensive than a hos- 
pital of the same grade 
of workmanship and 
architectural (or non- 
architectural) treatment. 
In my own experience 
I have found but little 
difference of cost in 
schoolhouse and hospi- 
tal construction. 

In a schoolhouse 
expense for fire protec- 
tion and for hygienic 

reasons is equally if not 
more necessary than in a hospital. The expense of blackboards 
fully offsets the expense of marble fittings in the ordinary operating 

The cost of $1.64 per square foot of floor, is, I believe, the 
minimum cost at which a small grammar schoolhouse, two stories in 
height, can be built, if constructed as contemplated by Mr. Atkin- 
son's plan. Any departure from the regularity of this plan, or the 







Zt S-*. S2:2- 




se^oMD rtooK Plan 

Easement flan 

building. This building contains 18,648 sq. ft. of floor area, and 
cost, exclusive of heating and plumbing, about $35,000. It is even 
plainer in design than the Wyman School, and if the deductions on 
account of extra thickness of walls and other variants from Mr. 
Atkinson's hypothetical school are made, we may set the minimum 
cost of such a building at about ^30,500, or about $1.64 per square 
foot of floor area. 

This could again go to show that such low cost of schoolhouse 
construction as calculated in the pamphlet and by the estimate of 
the schoolhouse indicated by Mr. Wm. Atkinson's sketch plan is 
impossible, even if other than " thoroughly competent builders, who 

addition of any of the desirable features not contemplated therein, 
will make an additional cost. 

It should be borne in mind that this cost does not include 
heating or plumbing. These items will add about 22 cents to the 
cost per floor area; and the cost of the double sash, with the thicker 
walls necessitated thereby, asphalt floors and other features requisite 
for a schoolhouse of the first class, will add 10 cents additional. 
We may, therefore, set the minimum cost of an eight-room school- 
house built in a first-class manner, with all features desirable for 
health of pupils and permanency of construction, and with no architec- 
tural pretension, at $1.96 per square foot of floor area, if the building 



is of as compact a plan as the Warren School ; and that as the area is] 
increased in meeting the same conditions, that the cost is increased 
by about $i a square foot of such added floor area. 

Let us apply this method of estimating to a building of the area 
of the school predicated in the pamphlet. 

The Warren School had 18,648 sq. ft. of floor area, which, at 
$1.96, amounts to $36,550. The Warren School has more floor area 
than the school described in pamphlet by about 1,500 sq. ft., which, 
at $r per square foot, would decrease the probable cost of such a 
building to $35,000; the cost of grading, paving, and fencing the 
schoolyard of such a building would probably not be less than $3,500. 
The architects' commission would be $1,925, making a probable total 
cost of first-class, well-constructed, eight-room grammar school not less 
than $40,425, and which, if shorn of certain desirable features not 
contemplated in Mr. Atkinson's program, could not cost much less 
than $38,000, instead of $30,000, which is stated in the pamphlet to 
be the probable cost of such a building. I regret that further com- 
munication received from Mr. William Atkinson cannot be printed 
in this issue, but it will be given in the next paper. 

It has appeared desirable to analyze this subject for two reasons : 
First, to, if possible, lessen the number of adherents to the idea that 
the expense of schoolhouse construction is greatly increased through 
regard for architectural appearance, which appears to be the main 
point which Mr. Atkinson has sought to establish ; and, secondly, to 
remove the impression which this pamphlet has produced upon the 
minds of some, that thoroughly appointed and well-constructed 
schoolhouses are extravagant in cost, because they are found not to 
tally with the calculations there found. The question of the amount 
of cost due to architectural design in schoolhouses and the general 
artistic views of this subject will be later considered. 

To follow out further this consideration of schoolhouse costs, the 
following table relating to a six-room schoolhouse built in Boston 
under the Building Laws of 1892 is given. The increased size of 
building due to these laws will be noted, in comparing the plans of 
the Eustis and Fuller Schools, to be due to the requirement of the 
later law that staircases should be enclosed and shut off by tinned 
fire doors. 

Three items here given show the excess of cost of method of 
construction and features in Boston schools of that time above those 
of schools outside of that city. 

Greater thickness brick walls $1,173.00 

Increase through special requirements of law as in relation 

to enclosed staircases, etc 1,500.00 

Floor framing to carry load of 150 instead of 80 lbs. . . 1,000.00 

Iron above wood staircases 468.00 

Fire-proofing of floor and fire-stops 300.00 

$4,44 [ .00 

Wardrobes in separate rooms $1,600.00 

Double instead of single run of sash 420.00 

Asphalt instead of cement basement floors 500.00 

Fire-proof instead of stud partitions 121.00 

Wire-lathed instead of wood-lathed ceilings 296.00 

Slate instead of composition blackboard 209.00 

Keene's cement finish instead of wood 96.00 

Hospital instead of common base 106.00 

Bookcases and other special finishings 180.00 


These tables will be found useful in comparing the costs of 
different schools, but in such use it should be borne in mind that costs 
of schoolhouses vary on account of the number of schoolrooms, and 
also whether built for primary or grammar grades. This will be 
pointed out in detail later and an attempt will be made to fix certain 
proportions by which calculations may be made from one grade to 
another and from smaller to larger buildings, and vice versa. 

Architectural Terra-Cotta. 



IT has already been assumed, as a matter of course, that the first 
step towards the erection of a building is to employ a compe- 
tent architect ; not only to plan, but to supervise its erection. If the 
building is one on which structural iron (or steel) is to be used, he 
will require the help of an equally competent engineer. There are 
many ways in which such help may be obtained, but the usual course 
of procedure resolves itself into a choice between three alternatives. 
First, he may associate with himself a consulting engineer of repute, 
who takes charge of the constructural ironwork, and for which ser- 
vice is paid a separate commission. Second, he may employ com- 
petent help of this kind to work in his own office at fixed salaries. 
Third, he may arrange with a capable, trustworthy firm of contract- 
ing engineers, who will devise a scheme of construction ; for which, 
as well as for the execution thereof, they will hold themselves respon- 
sible, subject to agreement as to cost. 

On the relative merits of these three systems a divergence of 
opinion may reasonably be expected : but as the terra-cotta man is 
sure to have enough troubles of his own, he had better ask to be 
excused from any part in a question that does not directly concern 
him. He is not called upon for advice in regard to the steel structure 
as such, except in so far as his own work is likely to be affected ; 
and in that it is mechanical rather than business methods that he is 
forced to consider. Forced, we say, for a stage has now been reached 
where the settlement of these points is to him and his work a matter 
of vital importance. It often happens that they have been settled y(?r 
him; sometimes, indeed, before he has obtained the contract for his 
part of the work, or, at all events, before he has seen the details or has 
had time to make any recommendations concerning them. If settled 
in this way, the chances are that the best possible solution has not 
been thought of, because the man best qualified to render needful 
assistance, by reason of his special knowledge and experience, has 
not been consulted. In this we do not impute intentional discour- 
tesy to either architect or engineer ; nor do we charge them with any 
desire to discount the claims, much less ignore the existence of a 
terra-cotta maker. As a general rule, the facts warrant a distinctly 
opposite conclusion. It is the system under which contracts are 
usually awarded that is responsible for most of the anomalies that 
arise in the course of their fulfilment. 

Instead of the terra-cotta being one of the first items pushed 
forward to a definite settlement, it is often allowed to drag until 
nearly the last, or until some general contractor can make satisfac- 
tory terms with one out of many subcontractors. Meanwhile, the 
iron construction has been determined, and is then, perhaps, too far 
advanced at the works to admit of any modification being made, 
however freely certain oversights may be admitted. They may be too 
palpable to be denied, but these admissions are valueless when ac- 
companied by a statement to the effect that " the shop drawings are 
all out," or that " the holes have been punched at the mill," and so 
cannot be altered except at an expense to somebody, which nobody 
is willing to defray. The terra-cotta manufacturer is usually there- 
upon advised to do the best he can under these untoward conditions, 
and with that consolation is expected to rest and be thankful. In 
all instances of this kind he becomes a scapegoat on whose back a 
multitude of sins are carried into the wilderness of forgetfulness, 
while the iron construction, however much at fault, is allowed to pass 
unimpugned, as though a thing of divine origin. 

There are at least two ways in which these grievances may be 
remedied, or — which would be better — rendered non-existent. The 
points of contact between iron and terra-cotta might be reserved, and 
held subject to revision until such time as the successful bidder has 
had an opportunity of assenting to, or of offering a substitute in lieu 



of the proposed arrangement. The better plan, however, and we are 
glad to say one frequently adopted by the best architects, is to give 
out the contract for terra-cotta direct, and at the earliest possible 
date. If, for business reasons, all payments be made through the 
general contractor, it is a very simple matter to have that item in- 

cluded in his contract. Much remains to be said on this l)ranch of 
the subject, but to avoid a confusion of ideas, it is reserved for 
another chapter. 

The questions at issue may be further elucidated by the few 
simple illustrations now added to those already given. If. for ex- 
ample, an I beam should be placed arbitrarily as at A, Fig. 50, pro- 
vision would have to be made in the blocks forming lintel to receive 
the lower flange. To do so, however, would at once render the 
blocks more difficult to make, without adding any equivalent support 
to the lintel. In such a case the I beam should be raised, or the 
lintel lowered to position shown at 15, thus allowing the cornice course 
to rest directly on beam, the fascia lieing molded to fit in between the 
flanges. If, for any reason, the relative positions of I beam and of 
lintel could not be altered, then a channel might be substituted, and 
on it an L riveted at any desired height, as at C. A lintel of this 
kind would be considered self-supporting up to 4 ft., beyond which 
width of aperture it could be suspended by hangers, inserted in the 
manner indicated in section, and elsewhere e.xplained with sufficient 

.Another objectionable arrangement is shown at A, Fig. 51, and 
in it, too, the remedy is, we think, equally obvious. Just why that 
12 in. I beam should have been placed in its present position it is 
rather difficult to imagine. It cannot be supposed that a beam of 
that size was necessary to carry the wall above, there being but a few 
feet of brickwork between it and the sills of a similar tier of windows 
in the next story. Ostensibly it is intended as a support for the 
terra-cotta lintels : in reality it reduces these lintels to a shell, render- 
ing them liable to snap along the chase made for bottom flange; 
manifestly the line of least resistance. Had the engineer's intention 
been to rob these lintels of their own inherent strength, and at the 
same time cause the maker of them the utmost inconvenience, he 
could hardly have hit upon a readier means of doing both. The 
truth is, he had not mastered the rudiments of the business in which 
he was engaged ; or, having done so, acted with selfish indifference 
as to consequences. 

The change which we would advise in all cases of this kind is 
shown at B. An arch lintel 14 ins. deep and 16 ins. reveal would be 
quite safe over an opening of 5 ft., without any auxiliary support. 
Beyond that width, instead of a 12 in., we would use two 6 in. I 
beams, placed .so as to carry the brickwork above and relieve the 
lintel below. It is rarely necessary to insert the flange of cast or of 

rolled sections, and it is i)etter to avoid doing so wherever possible, 
e.xcept at a joint, where it can come between two courses. 

An equally objectionable use of iron is illustrated at C, Fig. 51, 
where a 1 2 in. I beam is placed so that the flange cuts into back of 
panel to within 2 ins. of the face. Had this beam been reduced to 
8 ins., the flange could then have come into the joint, and so would 
not have impaired the stability of the panel. This panel, it will be 
observed, could not be jointed to suit the flange because of the orna- 
ment on its face, which would thereby have been mutilated beyond 
redemption. If, however, a 12 in. beam /lad to be used, for some 
structural reason not apparent in this section, it could have been 
placed at least 2 ins. further back, thus increasing the thickness of 
panel to 4 ins. at its weakest point; in which case the existence of 
the beam would have been less mischievous. 

We can recall an instance of this kind in which the opposite 
course was adopted by the contracting engineer, and that, too, without 
any notice being given to the terra-cotta makers, whose work had been 
made to the original detail. Instead of moving it further back, he 
actually brought it 2 ins. farther out, without the least regard to the 
fact that the flange would then come clear through the terra-cotta 
panel. This, of course, was seen to be quite impracticable, but not 
until the work was being set; and then an expedient had to be re- 
sorted to which was not only expensive, but very unsatisfactory. 
Whether this unwarranted change was made in ignorance, or from 
sheer perversity, we know not. Perhaps he suffered from an over- 
weening desire to get the center of beam into the center of column, 
and so be able to save a little by using standard connections. The 
excuse is certainly a lame one, but it is the best we can offer on his 

.\t Fig. 52 we illustrate the design of a conventional balcony, such 
as might be projected from a second or third story window by way 
of embellishment. The manner in which it was constructed is like- 
wise shown in section below ; in this instance, as an example of how 
not to do it. In the first place, the cantilevers were of a strength 
out of all proportion to the load that could, by any possibility, be 




1 1 


= k 




put upon them. They were placed about 7 ins. too high, cutting 
through the top bed of modillions and into the bottom bed of the 
blocks forming platform, thereby causing an incurable weakness in 



both. The inverted tee resting upon them was not only quite unneces- 
sary, but positively suicidal, so far as the terra-cotta was concerned. 
There is no reason why the blocks in that platform should have been 
severed longitudinally at this point, in order that a superfluous piece 
of iron might be inserted in the joint ; thus creating another source 
of weakness no less mischievous than the one just referred to. Yet 
it is in this way, we regret to say, that a number of such balconies 
were actually constructed on a certain building of which they are 
supposed to be an enduring feature. 

The people who made the work are conscious of these defects, 
but excuse themselves at the expense of the architect, alleging that it 

proposed construction was fairly practicable, and that it could be 
attempted without endangering their own reputation. If not, their 
next step would have been to point out its defects and offer a feasi- 
ble alternative, which, in all probability, would have been accepted 
with thanks by the architect. 

A plan such as this is shown in sections A. A., B.B., and C.C, 
which, being simple and direct, would have been really much less ex- 
pensive in point of execution. The modillion in this case would be 
made with four walls and one horizontal partition, forming two open 
chambers, as at C.C. Into the upper one of these we would insert a 
Z}i 'jy 5 if- I beam, the end of which would be attached to floor beam, 




FIG. 52. 

is " made according to detail." He, in turn, contends that they were 
long enough in the business to have known right from wrong, detail 
or no detail, and that, as specialists in their line, they were expected 
to make good just such deficiencies. On the whole, we think he has 
the more valid half of the argument. Meanwhile it may not, per- 
haps, be without reason that those best acf|uainted with the facts are 
said to prefer the opposite sidewalk. 

The quality of the terra-cotta, as such, is excellent, being 
artistically modeled, sufficiently fired, and of good texture, but those 
who made it did not fully realize the extent of their responsibility. 
Had they done so, their first duty would have been to see that the 

and the surrounding space then well filled with concrete, as at B.I5. 
In this way we would get the full strength of the cantilever cased in 
cement, without weakening the modillion by needlessly cutting through 
its outer shell. There need not then be any doubt as to the relia- 
bility of two such brackets of composite construction. The platform 
would be made in three complete blocks of moderate size, two of 
them resting directly on the brackets, the center block joggle 
jointed on two sides, with a third side built into wall. As the sim- 
plicity and security of this arrangement will not be denied, it may be 
allowed to rest on these merits without further comment on that 



Strength of Brick Masonry. 


M. Am. Soc. C. E., Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, Champaign. 

AN excessive estimate of the strength of a structural material 
results in a weak and possibly dangerous construction; but, 
on the other hand, a failure to appreciate the possible strength of 
the material used needlessly increases the cost of the structure. 
From the very nature of the case, the architect or the engineer is 
more ready to accept the second condition than the first. If he 
overestimates the strength of the material he uses, he endangers 
his own reputation and possibly the lives of others; but if he under- 
estimates, the client pays the bill without being any the wiser. In 
case of doubt, it is proper to lean toward the side of safety, but the 
architect or engineer owes it to his client to make a safe but not ex- 
cessively strong structure. This requires that the designer should 
know the strength of his structural materials and the method of 
using them most economically. 

Apparently there is more extravagance in the use of masonry 
than of any other structural material. As an illustration of this 
may be cited the past and present practise in building masonry 
arches. The Pont-y-Prydd Bridge, in Wales, is a segmental ma- 
sonry arch having a span of 140 ft., and a rise of 35 ft. (one fourth 
of the span), and is built of small, rough rubble masonry in lime 
mortar. The arch ring is only i ft. 6 ins. thick at the crown and 
the same at the springing. It was built in 1750, and after four 
generations is still standing. Over against this example may be 
cited the Westminster Bridge, in London, which has a span of 76 ft., 
a rise of 38 ft., and a thickness at the crown of 7 ft. 6 ins., and at 
the haunches of 14 ft. The span of the Westminster is about half 
that of the Pont-y-Prydd, and the thickness varies from five to nine 
and one third times that of the Pont-y-Prydd. The first is built of 
small stones as they come from the quarry, and the second of care- 
fully cut large blocks. Of course the first carries only a country 
highway, while the latter carries a main street of a great metropolis ; 
but even a little comparison shows that the last is extravagantly 
designed. -Several other almost equally striking comparisons could 
be made between very early and more modern examples of arch 
construction. Again, innumerable comparisons could be made be- 
tween American railroad arches which stand without any signs of 
failure, and others which are unquestionably many times stronger — 
in some cases ten or twenty times — and this notwithstanding the 
fact that all the evidence shows that the former are extravagant. It 
is nothing uncommon to find arches of considerable size that cer- 
tainly have a "factor of safety" of, at least, one hundred. The 
cases of arches have been cited, since they are the only structures in 
which the ultimate strength of the masonry is even approximately 
approached. The load on masonry towers, mullions, piers, etc., is 
often still more extravagant. Of course, in many structures, par- 
ticularly small ones, other elements than the strength of material 
determines the dimensions, and in small structures an excess of ma- 
terial is not important ; but in larger structures the dimensions of 
the parts are usually determined by the strength of the material, and 
an excess is a serious matter. 

Within certain limits it can reasonably be said that if no one of 
a considerable number of structures has ever failed, it is probable 
that some, perhaps many, of them are extravagantly designed. This 
principle obtains in the evolution of a machine or of a bridge. A 
certain part is made too small and breaks ; a new and larger one is 
made, but after a time it also breaks; a third and still larger one is 
made which does not break, at least for a long time. In this case it 
may safely be concluded that the part as last made is of proper de- 
sign. On the other hand, if a part is made too heavy, competition or 
economy will prompt .some one to make it smaller ; and if it success- 
fully does the work, it is proof that before it was uneconomically 

Did any one ever hear of a brick pier being crushed, even in 

a temporary structure, where it would be entirely proper to design on 
a smaller margin of safety than in a permanent structure ? Of course, 
oftentimes the size of a pier is determined by its resistance to being 
overturned by accidental blows before its vertical load comes upon 
it, rather than by the load it is ultimately to support ; but the fact 
remains that since it is very rare to find l)rick constructions that have 
failed, owing to excessive loads, it is probable that many such are 
extravagantly designed. 

How comes it that masonry is used so extravagantly ? There 
are two reasons : First, many designers more or less blindly follow 
preceding practise. Mr. A designs a structure without much knowl- 
edge of the strength of the masonry he uses. Next, Mr. B is called 
upon to design a structure a little higher or heavier than Mr. A's, and 
he adds to Mr. A's sizes without knowing whether A's structure was 
extravagant, and without knowing whether the increase in size is pro- 
portional to the increased load. Mr. C then treats B's structure as 
the latter did A's, each saying that as masonry is cheap, he will be 
sure to make it large enough. With a higher-priced material this 
process is less likely to take place, since the requirements of economy 
will probably determine the elements of the design. 

A second reason for the unintelligent design of masonry struc- 
tures is the lack of definite information as to the strength of masonry. 
Until very recently there have been no experiments to determine 
either the strength of brick masonry or the law of its variation, and 
even now there has been no experimental determination of the 
strength of stone masonry. Therefore, since existing structures give 
no definite information as to the actual strength of masonry, it is not 
surprising that the strength of brick and stone have not been utilized 


Within the past few years several valuable series of tests have 
been made upon the strength of brick masonry, with the large and 
accurate testing machine of the United States Arsenal at Watertown, 
Mass., under the direction of the War Department. The reports of 
the tests are published annually under the head of " Reports of Tests 
of Metals and Other Structural Materials made at Watertown 
Arsenal, Mass.," and are included in the annual report of the Secre- 
tary of War. They are also published separately. The experiments 
on brick masonry are de.scribed in the following volumes: — 

Report of Tests of Metals, etc., 1883 (Senate Executive Docu- 
ment No. 5, Forty-eighth Congress, F^irst Session), pp. 217-20; ibid., 
1884 (Senate Ex. Doc. No. 35, Forty-ninth Congress, First Session), 
pp. 69-124 and 235; ibid., 1886 (House Ex. Doc. No. 31, Forty- 
ninth Congress, Second Session), Part II., pp. 1691-1742; ibid., 1891 
(House Ex. Doc. No. 161, Fifty-second Congress, First Session), pp. 
739-43; ibid., i8g2 (House Ex. Doc, Fifty-third Congress, First 
Session, without a distinguishing number), pp. 323-34. 

In all, 97 tests were made of piers built of various kinds of 
brick and mortar, varying from 2 to 10 ft. in height, and from 8 to 
16 ins. square. These experiments are very valuable, but have not 
received the attention their importance warrants, possibly because 
the reports of them are scattered through several volumes which are 
more or less inaccessible. The above volumes contain practically 
only the numerical results of the experiments, and it is proposed here 
to discuss these experiments somewhat fully. 

/Cind of Brick. — Three grades of brick were used. The 
weakest were second-hand " medium hard-burned common brick," 
designated in the oflicial report as Bay State brick. The strongest 
were " hard-burned common brick," designated as common brick. 
The best were a hard-burned, medium smooth and regular pressed 
brick, designated as face brick. The brick were tested by grinding 
the broadest surface approximately flat with loose emery on a face 
plate and crushing between steel pressing surfaces. The average 
crushing strength of the first was 11,406, of the second, 18,337, and 
of the third, 13,925 lbs. per square inch. 

In determining the crushing strength of brick and stone it is 
customary to test cubes, since with specimens broader than high the 



pressing surfaces materially increase the apparent strength of the 
material. Judging from experiments made by the writer on the rela- 
tive strength of cubes and whole brick, it is probable that cubes of 
the above brick would have shown a strength of only about half the 
above results, which shows that the brick were not remarkably strong, 
since cubes of brick frequently test 15,000 to 20,000 lbs. per square 
inch, or even more. 

Method of Builditig Piers. The piers were built by a common 
mason under instructions to do ordinary work. The bond was broken 
every course. After building, the piers were stored under a dry shed. 

Age when Tested. The piers were from fourteen to twenty-four 
months old when tested, unless herein otherwise stated. 

Strength of Lint e Masonry. Nine piers from 2 to 10 ft. high and 
12 ins. square, built of the weakest brick (medium-burned common 
brick) laid in common lime mortar, showed an average strength of 
1,118 lbs. per square inch. Neglecting for the present the effect of 
the height of the pier, let us see if we can arrive at an adequate con- 
ception of the meaning of 1,118 lbs. per square inch. Ordinary brick 
masonry weighs from 120 to 130 lbs. per cubic foot, or a prism of 
such masonry i in. square and I ft. high would weigh not more than 
0.9 lbs. Therefore, 1,118 lbs. per square inch is the pressure at the 
base of a wall of ordinary brick masonry i ,240 ft. (nearly a quarter of 
a mile) high. This is a fair average for the weakest grade of masonry 
experimented upon. The highest in this series was 1,270 lbs. per 
square inch, and the lowest 779 lbs. per square inch. Not infre- 
quently men refuse to buy soft brick, " because they are not strong 
enough to bear the pressure "' of a two or three story house. 

Method of Failui-e. " The first sign of failure was the formation 
of cracks in the brick opposite the end joints in the adjacent courses. 
As the load increased these cracks gradually widened and increased 
in length, final failure occurring by the partial crushing of some of 
the brick and the enlargement of the longitudinal cracks. This 
manner of failure was common to all piers." In other words, the 
piers failed by the brick breaking across, after which the parts sepa- 
rated. The brick break transversely because of the irregularities of 
form, and because of the unequal distribution of the mortar in the 
joints — ^ probably chiefly the first. 

Effect of Irregularity of Form of Brick. The experiments give 
significant evidence as to the effect of irregularity upon the strength 
of masonry. Hard-burned common brick having a strength of 
18,337 lbs. per square inch gave, with lime mortar, 1,814 lbs. per 
square inch; while face brick having a strength of only 13,925 lbs. 
per square inch gave a strength of 1,814 lbs. per square inch. The 
quality of brick is indicated somewhat by the fact that the face brick 
were laid with y% in. joints, and the common brick with }i in. The 
first brick were practically 10 per cent, the stronger, while the masonry 
was nearly 10 per cent, the weaker. With Rosendale natural cement 
mortar the face brick gave 15 per cent, greater strength, and with 
Portland cement mortar the face brick gave masonry 34 per cent, 
stronger than the stronger common brick. In other words, the 
weaker but more regular brick gave the stronger masonry. Not in- 
frequently architects and owners, particularly the latter, reject tlie 
softer and more regular brick for the harder and more irregular, on 
the supposition that the latter will make the stronger wall. Within 
reasonable limits the reverse is more nearly true, as shown above. 
( This paper will be concluded in the April mimber. ) 

The subject of the John Stewardson Memorial .Scholarship, the 
competition work for which is just commenced, is unique. A farm 
standing on typical Pennsylvania farm land, with barns, farmyards, 
gardens, etc., is the problem, and one that the ten young men now at 
work on it must find full of interest. 

The Pittsburgh Chapter of the American Institute of Architects 
are arranging for their first public exhibition. It is to be held in the 
Carnegie Art Galleries early in May. Many prominent architects 
throughout the country have already expressed their intention of ex- 
hibiting drawings. 

On the Saline Efflorescence of Bricks. 



I PROPOSE in the following article, the first of a brief series, 
to consider the mode of origin of the common saline efflores- 
cence of bricks. A series of researches which I conducted at the 
Laboratory for Clay Industries of Professor Seeger and E. Cramer, 
of Berlin, Germany, and which were continued in practical work in 
America, furnished me with results that not only afford a clear ex- 
planation of the origin of efHorescence, but also point to the prac- 
tical means of avoiding the same. The means of avoidance I shall 
discuss in a separate article. 

By " efflorescence " I understand what is commonly termed 
" whitewash," wherever and whenever such incrustations appear. 
For the sake of clearness I shall follow the process of brickmaking 
in all its successive single stages, as commonly conducted, and point 
out at each step the causes concerned in the production of the 
chemical salts occasioning the annoying superficial colorations in 

Most noticeable and most annoying are the white efflorescences 
on red or yellow brick ; less striking are the green and yellow incrus- 
tations on light brick. The white efflorescences are always of inor- 
ganic or mineral origin, being mainly sulphates of lime, magnesia, 
and alkalies. We shall consider here the formation of the white 
efflorescences, reserving the green and yellow for another occasion, 
and as a matter of clearness distinguish carefully between : — 

1. The formation of efflorescent sulphates which are found 
already formed in the clay pits, or which are first formed from 
allowing the clay to lie unused for a certain length of time, or 
which arise at any time during the making of the clay into green 
bricks ; and 

2. The formation of sulphates which arise during the water- 
smoking and during the burning of the green material in the kilns. 

This distinction is necessary, because practical brickmakers are 
prone to think that water-smoking alone is the cause of the white- 
washing sulphates making their appearance on the finished products. 



The majority of clays used in brick and terra-cotta making 
contain greater or less quantities of mineral salts. Chemical analy- 
sis has shown that these salts are sulphates of lime and magnesia, 
less frequently of iron and alkalies. These sulphates are formed 
by the weathering of finely and uniformly distributed particles of 
iron pyrites, which is an almost constant accompaniment of the clay. 
Through the action of water, air, and heat the iron pyrites (FeSo ) 
is gradually oxidized and converted into ferrous sulphate (FeSOj ), 
which, being easily soluble in water, is, in union with the carbonates 
of lime, magnesia, and alkalies, whose constant presence can also l)e 
shown, converted into the respective sulphates of these combina- 
tions. For example, FeO. SO;, + CaO. CO^ = FeO. CO. -f- CaO. 
SO, . 

It is readily intelligible now that the more minute the distribu- 
tion of the iron pyrites is in the clay, and the more the mass as a 
whole is exposed to the influences of the weather, /. t'., to the effects 
of water, air, and heat, the greater the quantities of iron pyrites 
oxidized and the greater the quantities of soluble sulphates stored 
up in the clays. If we are using, for instance, a stony clay belonging 
to the carboniferous formations, which always contain heavy quanti- 
ties of iron pyrites {e. g., blue shale), and work the same into green 
bricks immediately, and at the beds where the clay is found, then 
certainly the whitewashing is far less apt to be noticeable than if the 



clay had been suffered to lie for montlis before using, exposed and 
in the open air. 

To prove this, I analyzed several specimens of clay from the 
same pit, and so determined the amount of soluble sulphates in each. 
One specimen was taken from the upper layer of the clay, another 
from a lower layer quite protected from the air and heat. The 
analysis showed that the upper layer contained four times as much 
soluble sulphates as the lower, protected layer. 

Another experiment yielded similar results. I took three speci- 
mens from the same layer of clay. Of the first specimen, loo grams 
were immediately analyzed and the amount of sulphates therein con- 
tained determined ; of the second specimen, loo grams were finely 
pulverized, moistened, and exposed to the weather for three months, 
and at the expiration of that lime analyzed for the amount of 
sulphates; while loo grams of the third specimen were likewise 
finely pulverized and let lie for three months in a dry, hermetically 
sealed tin box and then analyzed. It turned out that specimens 
I and 3 contained almost equal amounts of sulphates, while specimen 2 
showed six times the amount of the others. Another clay, likewise 
belonging to the carboniferous period, having been let lie for months 
in the open air, left behind it on the ground where it had been heaped 
large quantities of beautifully formed gypsum crystals. 

But even if such clays are worked into bricks immediately upon 
being transported from the pits, it does not necessarily follow that 
the formation of sulphates will be entirely prevented. If the green 
bricks be let stand a long while in the drying rooms a constant 
oxidation of the iron pyrites will take place on the surface of the bricks 
through the action of the moist atmosphere, and, concomitantly with 
this, the formation of sulphates which, while not visible to the eye 
in the green bricks, will, after burning, make their appearance in the 
shape of whitewash. To prevent this, not only is the immediate 
working of the clay into green bricks necessary, but it is also requi- 
site to dry and to burn the bricks with all the expedition possible. 

The oxidation of iron pyrites is accordingly a main cause of 
the formation of sulphates occasioning whitewash. A second source 
is the sulphur contained in th'e water employed in the preparation of 
the clay. This water frequently contains gypsum; and since many 
clays require so much as 30 per cent, of water for rendering them 
plastic, the gypsum present in the water naturally contributes a high 
quota to the formation of the annoying superficial efiHorescences in 
question. So, too, by various other admixtures, as mineral colorings, 
oxide of iron, ochre, superoxide of manganese, the whitish efflores- 
cences can be augmented. Wherefore, it is necessary that all such 
substances when used as admixtures should, without exception, be 
analyzed for the amount of sulphates they contain. 

The quantity of water requisite for working the clay depends 
wholly on the nature of the clay and on the peculiar methods 
employed in working it. The greater the quantity of water, the 
greater the quantity of the sulphates dissolved in it, and the greater 
the quantity of dissolved salts deposited on the surface of the bricks 
in drying. 

The method of drying is also of paramount importance, both as 
bearing on the formation of these efflorescences and as affecting 
their visibility on the surface. The quicker the drying can i)e per 
fected, the more advantageous will be the appearance of the burnt 
product, for in a perfectly dry brick all further oxidation of the 
iron pyrites is absolutely excluded ; and then again, in consequence of 
the rapid evaporation of the water, the dissolved sulphates are not 
wholly deposited on the surface of the product, but in large part 
are left behind in the pores of the clay. The drying process conse- 
quently deserves the highest attention at the hands of the practical 
l>rickmaker. But since the space at my present disposal is limited, I 
shall reserve the discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of 
the different methods of drying for a future occasion. 

To recapitulate : the substances giving rise to the efflorescence 
or whitewash of green clay products are (ij the soluble sulphates 
contained in the natural clays, and (2) the sulphates formed during 
the storing and initial treatment of the clays consequent upon the 

weathering of the iron pyrites and its resultant transformation into 
sulphuric bases. It remains to be mentioned that the efflorescences 
which find noticeable lodgment upon the green, unbaked material 
are subsequently burnt in indelibly on the surface of the brick, and 
can be removed neither by chemical nor mechanical means. 





The presence of iron pyrites in the clay is, we have seen, the 
main cause of the origin of whitewashing sulphates on the surface of 
the unburnt material, and iron pyrites again is chiefly concerned in 
the production of whitewashing sulphates during the water-smoking 
and burning of the green products. This happens in a twofold 
manner — -first, and again, l)y the presence of iron pyrites in the clay; 
and .secondly, and particularly, by the iron pyrites contained in the 
coal, which is mostly used as a fuel. 

In burning two processes are distinguished: (i) water-smoking, 
and (2) burning proper. 


Tlie object of the water-smoking is to expel the water which has 
been mechanically absorbed by the clay, and which still remains in 
it after drying, — the so-called " hygroscopic " water, — whereby the 
clay is thoroughly dried, but loses none of its original physical 
qualities. The purpose of burning, on the other hand, is (i) the expul- 
sion of the waXtr' chemically contained in the clay (clay substance 
being essentially .\l, O .; (SiO^, ) -\-2\\., O. (2) the chemical disintegra- 
tion of the several components of the clay, and (3) a more or less perfect 
fusion of the individual argillaceous particles, whereby a definitive 
and permanent alteration of the substance is attained. With the 
loss of the chemically contained water, the clay loses its plasticity — 
a property so essential to the manufacture of argillaceous products. 

We shall consider the process of water-smoking first, which has 
for its object the expulsion of the hygroscopic water. Since water is 
converted into steam at 212 degs. Fahr., this latter is the proper tem- 
perature for the process — ■ attainable only by the artificial convection 
of heat to the products, /. e., by the consumption of fuel. But since 
the size and the construction of the kiln in which the water-smoking 
is conducted renders it absolutely impossible for a perfectly uniform 
temperature to be obtained throughout the whole enclosed space, 
consequently that portion of the kiln and of the contents of the kiln 
which first comes in contact with the hot gases from the fireplace 
will be heated first. .At these points a part of the water in the green 
products will be converted into steam, whilst at points more remote 
from the fireplace scarcely any rise at all in temperature will be 
noticeable. At these latter points the water vapor originating at the 
first points will be condensed and precipitated on the surface of the 
cold green products, whence, since the clay is strongly hygroscopic, 
it will be absorbed into Uie interior of the l)ricks. If the clay, now, 
still contains soluble sulphates in its interior, these sulphates will be 
dissolved in the water, and later, when the points in question have in 
their turn reached evaporating heat, will be drawn to the surface of 
the bricks, and, as the heat is increased, be burnt in there. If the 
green clay does not contain sulphates, or if the sulphates be rendered 
innocuous by the admixture of appropriate chemicals, the water so 
condensed will have no injurious effect upon the appearance of the 
bricks, provided the fuel employed contains no sulphur. But if 
a sulphurous fuel be employed, — for example, coal, which always con- 
tains more or less iron pyrites, — the water will absorb the gases of the 
sulphurous acids produced by the combustion of the iron pyrites, 
and this diluted acidic solution will act on the carbonates in the clay 
and form sulphurous salts, which, as the heat increases, will come to 
the surface and there be oxidized to sulphuric salts, thus causing 
again the annoying colorations. 







President of the Continental Insurance Co.. N. Y. 

Delegate of New York lioard of Fire Underwriters to the Board of Examiners of the 

New York Building Department. 

BY way of preface to the following article, I wish to say that it 
has been prepared after careful consultation with well-known 
experts, and after careful observation and study of numerous fires in 
this class of structures, and especially in those which caused losses 
to my own company. 

I think it advisable, in an article of this kind, to state, as 
premises, certain propositions which might be treated as deductions. 
Some of them are axiomatic or self-evident, needing no demonstra- 
tion, and ought to appeal to any practical mind as being truths, 
rather illustrated than demonstrated by the experience of the past 
few years. In accordance with this line of treatment, I desire to 
state by way of premise : — 

First. It may be claimed that no construction is fire-proof, and 
that even iron and masonry could with propriety be designated as 
" slow burning." The iron or steel used in a modern building has, 
in its time, been smelted in a furnace which presented no greater 
capacity for running metal into pigs than some of our modern 
buildings, whose interior openings from cellar to roof correspond to 
the chimney of a furnace, and the front door to its tuyere. If a 
pyrometer could be adjusted during the progress of a fire it would 
be found to rise quite as high as in any forge. 

Second. Glass windows will not prevent the entrance of flame 
or heat from a fire in an exposing building. It may seem strange 
that so obvious a proposition should be thought worth stating, and 
yet to-day more than 75 per cent, of the "fire-proof" structures of 
the country have window openings to the extent of from 30 per cent, 
to 70 per cent, of the superficial area of each enclosing wall without 
fire-proof shutters. Heat from a building across a wide street finds 
ready entrance through windows, and the several fire-proof floors 
serve only to hold ignitable merchandise in the most favorable form 
of distribution for ignition and combustion like a great gridiron to 
the full force of a neighboring fire. This was the case in the burning 
of the Manhattan Hank Building, on Broadway, in New York, and 
of the Home Building, in Pittsburgh. The latter building was full Oi 
plate glass windows, 16 by 16 ft. Such buildings are not more ca- 
pable of protecting their contents than a glass show-case would be. 
A recent article on the Pittsburgh^fire in^the Engineering News aptly 
expresses this in the following words: '-There seems to be some 
irony in calling buildings fire-proof which opposed hardly anything 
to a fire from across the street more sturdy than plate glass ! " 

Third. Openings through floors for stairways or elevators, gas, 
water, steam pipes, and electric wires, from floor to floor of fire-proof 
buildings tend to the spread of flame like so many flues and should 
be fire-stopped at each story. This fault is more generally over- 
looked than any other. Ducts for piping, wiring, etc., should never 
be of wood. In the Mills Building, in New York, a fire, not long 
since, jumped through two or three floors from the one on which it 
originated, by means of the passageways for piping, electric wiring, 
etc., comparatively small ducts, but sufficient for the spread of flame. 
In one instance the fire skipped one floor, where it was cut off, and 
ignited the second floor above. 


Fourth. In view of the fact that it is necessary to cover iron 
with non-combustible, nonconducting material to prevent its ex- 
posure to fire and consequent expansion, and in view of the fact that 
all ironwork, except cast iron, will rust to the point of danger, it is 
best to use cast iron for all vertical supports, columns, pillars, etc. 
It is not advisable, of course, to have floor beams of cast iron (except 
in the form of Hodgkinson beams thoroughly tested). If a floor 

beam should give way, however, it might not necessarily wreck the 
building, whereas if a vital column should give way a collapse of 
the entire structure might result. 


At a convention held some years ago in New York, at which 
were present a greater number of experts in iron than probably ever 
met before or since in one room, there was not one who contended 
that cast iron would rust beyond the harmless incrustation of the 
thickness of a knife blade, whereas there was not one who did not 
believe wrought iron would rust to the point of danger ; and there was 
not one who claimed to know whether steel would or not, each ad- 
mitting that steel had not been sufficiently tested as to rust to 
warrant a reliable opinion. If it could be relied upon as rust proof, 
it would be superior to all other material for fire-proof buildings be- 
cause of its great strength in proportion to weight. The use of steel in 
construction is growing, because it is cheaper than wrought iron, as 
lighter weights are used for the same strength, but while supposed to 
be superior to wrought iron, some of the prevailing impressions with 
regard to it are erroneous. Defects not possible of detection by 
tests are liable to in its structure. Among the first steel beams 
brought to the city of New York there were instances in which they 
were actually broken in two by falling from the level of trucks to the 
pavement, probably due to their having been rolled when too cold, 
as steel when rolled below a certain temperature becomes brittle. 
Better beams are now made. 

In my opinion, cast-iron columns are superior to steel and more 
reliable. Il is not generally known that American cast iron is vastly 
superior to English cast iron, and will stand a greater strain without 
breaking. Cast iron, moreover, will not expand under heat to the 
same extent as wrought iron and steel, which is another fact in its 


No bearing column should be placed in such a position that it 
cannot be uncovered and exposed for examination without danger to 
the structure. One of the ablest architects in New York makes it a 
rule to so fire-proof his columns that they can be examined at any 
time by removing the fire-proofing to determine whether rust has in- 
vaded their capacity to carry their loads. In my judgment, periodi- 
cal examinations should be made, from time to time, in this way of 
all wrought-iron or steel columns, as it may happen that a leaky 
steam or water pipe has worked serious harm. Such a discovery 
was accidentally made recently in an important New York building. 


Numerous newspaper paragraphs appear, from time to time, 
which claim that metal stripped of its covering of cement has been 
found exempt from rust, with the paint intact, etc., and the fact is 
cited as evidence that cement is a preservative of iron and that the 
danger of rust is over-estimated. It is probable that cement will 
protect paint for a long time, and, of course, paint, if properly put 
on, will protect iron while the oil in it lasts. Painting, by the way, 
should be done with the best quality of linseed oil and without the 
use of turpentine, benzine, or dryers. It should be thoroughly 
applied in three coats, with about a gallon to 400 sq. ft., and the iron 
should be first thoroughly cleaned of rust and dirt, by pickling or 
other process. Paint is rarely properly applied, however, and even 
when of the best quality, is a preservative of tiie metal, as already 
stated, only so long as the oil in it lasts. 

Those who claim to have evidence of the exemption of iron 
from rust rely, I think it will be found, upon iron which has been 
under exceptionally favorable conditions, free from dampness, the 
action of gases, etc., overlooking the fact that a leaking water pipe or 
steam pipe, or the escape of gases from boiler furnaces, will attack 
iron and gradually but surely consume it. A notable instance of 
this is the case of the plate girder of the Washington Bridge over 
the Boston & Albany Railroad, in Boston, where a quarter-inch plate 
girder was recently found to be entirely consumed in places from 
the operation of gases from the locomotives passing below. 



It is quite common to have advocates of wrought iron cite rail- 
road bridges and the elevated railroad structures of New York as 
proof of their claims, but if they will take the trouble to examine 
these structures they will discover that in spite of the fact that they 
are exposed to view, so that they can be painted frequently, the evi- 
dences of rust are unmistakable, especially about the rivets; and one 
can well imagine what would be the result in the case of riveted iron 
members in the skeleton structure of a building where such iron- 
work is entirely concealed from view, periodical inspections being 

Rust is especially liable in the cellars and basements of build- 
ings. The wrought-iron friction brakes of freight elevators in the 
cellars of stores, for e.xample, are frequently found so consumed with 
rust as to be easily rubbed to pieces in the hand. 

Steel rivets are dangerous and they should never be used, unless 
of a very superior quality, so soft that hammering will not crystallize 
the material, and yet with sufficient tensile strength to insure perfect 
holding qualities. This is difficult to secure. Their use in columns 
for buildings is objectionable, as they rust badly under certain con- 
ditions; columns, therefore, should be without rivets, and the beam- 
bearing bracket shelf on cast-iron columns should be cast in one 
piece with the column. 


It is generally supposed and frecjuently stated that there is a 
great difference between the expansion of iron and masonry by heat. 
This is not the case. For example, the length of a bar which at 
32 degs. is represented by 1, at 212 degs. would be represented as 
follows : — 

Cast Iron i.ooi i 

Wrought Iron 1.0012 

Cement 1.0014 

Granite 1.0007 

Marble i.ooii 

Sandstone 1.0017 

Brick 1.0005;^ 

Fire-brick 1,0005 

In the fire-proof building of the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, in New York, some years ago, a heavy brick pier, 7 or S 
ft. in diameter, adjoined the wall of the boiler furnaces. The differ- 
ence in expansion in the brickwork next to this furnace wall as com- 
pared with that of the remaining brickwork of the pier was so great 
as to produce a crushing of the material from top to bottom of the 
pier for a depth of several inches, and it was found necessary to 
change the furnace wall and leave an air space between it and the 


While the difference in expansion between masonry and iron 
incorporated with it is less per running foot than is generally sup- 
posed, and while the difference in expansion between a cubic foot of 
iron and that of a cubic foot of masonry would hardly be noticeable, 
especially if the iron were covered on all four sides, yet in stretches 
of 50 ft. or more, as in the case of iron I-beams and girders, the 
cumulative effect of expansion in uncovered iron might be a serious 
matter — quite sufficient with the rises of temperature due to a burn- 
ing building to push out the bearing walls and wreck the building. 
Especially is this true of temperatures higher than 500 degs. It is 
unnecessary to suggest that metal differs from masonry in the im- 
portant respect that heat does not travel throughout the entire length 
of the latter, while it does in the case of metal. 

In other words, while the difference between the expansion of a 
lineal foot of iron as compared with a lineal foot of masonry, marble, 
brick, etc, is very slight, the difference in conductivity is very great. 
The conducting power of silver, for example, being represented by 
I, copper would be ,845, cast iron ,359, gold ,981, marble .024, and 
brick .01 — an important fact to be considered in the construction of 
buildings. Brickwork raised to a white heat would not raise the 
temperature of other masonry in the same wall a few feet away, but 

one end of an iron I-beam could not l)e raised to a white heat 
without raising the temperature of the beam for its entire length. 

It is a well-known fact that iron responds so readily to tempera- 
ture that, in surveying land, a surveyor's 100 ft. iron chain will, in 
measuring the distance of a mile, result in a variation of 5 ft. between 
winter temperature and summer temperature, resulting in an error of 
one acre in every 533. 

Where iron beams and girders are inserted in walls without 
sufficient space left for their expansion under heat they are almost 
certain to overthrow the bearing walls by their expansion thrust. A 
large warehouse in Vienna in which such provision had been con- 
templated by the architect was totally destroyed, with its contents, 
by reason of the fact that an officious subordinate, discovering the 
space in the wall purposely left at the end of each beam, deliberately 
poured liquid cement therein, which, having set, effectually thwarted 
the well-meant intention of the architect, and resulted in the destruc- 
tion of the building. 

The expansion thrust of iron beams may be computed upon the 
following factor of expansion: Rolled iron of a length of 1,562 ft. 
will expand one eighth of an inch for every degree of temperature. 
The heat of a burning building as already stated is enormous — 
sufficient to fuse most known materials ; it may safely be estimated 
to be at least 1,000 degs.; therefore a length of rolled iron of 1,562 
ft. at 1,000 degs. of temperature would expand about 125 ins., and a 
50 ft. length of iron girder would expand between 4 and 5 ins., show- 
ing that there should be a play at each end of at least 2 ins. if the 
iron is not fire-proofed. Inasmuch as in iron construction the iron 
beams and girders are usually anchored to the walls to steady them, 
the space should be left and the tie to the anchor should be by a 
movable hinge joint, which would be of the same strength with an 
inflexible anchor for all tying purposes, but would yield under the 
thrust pressure like an elbow and allow play of the beam, or stiff 
anchors should have elongated holes to allow expansion when beams 
are of great length. Girders are seldom over 25 ft. long, but if 
bolted together, as is frequently the case, they may be i 20 ft. or more 
long, and a line of columns from cellar to roof of a building may 
easily have one continuous iron structure of two hundred or more 
feet. It should be remembered, however, that this danger from the 
expansion of iron may be almost wholly counteracted by protecting 
it from exposure to fire through the use of non-conducting material. 
It is more important to protect girders than beams. 

The mistaken pride with which the owners of some buildings 
point to exposed iron beams in ceilings as evidence that the floors 
are" fire-proof," actually justifying the supposition that they are left 
exposed for such display, would be ludicrous if it were not serious. 
In buildings occupied for offices or dwellings, where there is not 
sufficient combustible material to endanger the beams, it is not so 
objectionable ; but in warehouses and stores, filled with merchandise, 
such construction is dangerous; and if one of the upper floors should 
give way it would come hammering down to carry all below and 
thoroughly wreck the structure. 

In this connection it is well to say that combustible merchandise 
should never be stored 100 ft. above the street grade even in a fire- 
proof building, since the average fire department cannot reach it at 
that height. 


Fifth. The roof, that portion of a building which ought to be 
most carefully watched during construction, is often the most neg- 
lected, woodwork entering into the composition, as in the case of the 
Home Building, at Pittsburgh, where the cornice was supported on 
wooden outriggers. 

Sixth. Partitions. These should not be erected upon wooden 
sills, as is sometimes the case — only, however, with ignorant and 
inexperienced architects, who suppose that it is necessary to use 
wood in order to nail baseboards and other trim at the bottom of the 
partition. Porous terracotta will hold nails and should be used in 
preference to wood, wliich, as soon as it burns out, will let down the 
entire partition. 




Seventh. All buildings over 125 ft. high should be provided 
with 4 in., or, better still, 6 in. vertical pipes, with Siamese connec- 
tions at the street, for the use of the fire department, extending to 
the roof, with hydrants at each story and on the roof. This would 
save the time of carrying hose to upper floors — a difficult task in the 
case of high buildings. Ample tanks of water should be provided 
on the roof supported by protected iron beams resting on iron tem- 
plates on the brick walls, to supply the building's inside pipe system 
for fire e.Ktinction, and secure pressure by gravity or by some other 
method constantly operative, especially on holidays and at night. 
Stone templates should not be used, and care should be taken to 
secure strong supports so that, in the event of fire below, the tanks 
will not come crashing through the building to destroy it and 
endanger the lives of firemen. Two such disasters in fire-proof 
buildings within a year show how true is this proposition. Tanks in 
the basement under air pressure are also a great advantage, and 
recent invention has perfected them to the point of reliability. 

Fire Marshal Swenie, of Chicago, urges that standpipes should 
not be less than 6 ins. internal diameter, and that a check valve 
should be provided, so that when steamers are attached their force 
will be added to that of the local pumps. Each floor should have 
hose connections with the standpipes and sufficient hose to reach to 
the most remote point of the floor above, and this hose should be 
frequently inspected to see that it is in order. He recommends that 
a code of signals by which communication can be established between 
the firemen and the engineer of the building is essential. 


Eighth. All high buildings should have constantly present, 
night and day, some competent person understanding the elevator 
machinery, fire appliances, etc., so as to aid the firemen in reaching 
the upper levels; and there should be sufficient steam in the boilers, 
at all times, to run one elevator. 

I quote from the valuable treatise on handling fires in these 
buildings presented by Fire Marshal Swenie to the International 
Association of Fire Engineers held in August, 1897. He says: — 

" In case the elevators fail it is necessary to use the stairway, and 
after the truck men should follow the pipe men bearing the necessary hose, 
and this must be carried on the shoulders of the men. A 50 ft. section of 
ordinary 2^ in. cotton hose with couplings weighs from 56 to 60 lbs., and 
250 ft. of i^ in. rope about 65 lbs., either of which is a good load for a 
man who must climb a steep stairway to the height of 250 ft. With an 
average rise of 7 ins. per step, that means taking some 430 vertical steps 
before reaching the scene of action and consuming from 7 to 10 minutes of 
time. If it is found necessary to use hose instead of the standpipes for 
taking the water from the street to the floor, the hose should be taken up 
in the elevator, if it is running, and then lowered until connection is made 
with the hose below." 


Ninth. Marble, slate, and other stones are certain to disintegrate 
or crumble when subjected to the joint action of heat and water. 
For this rea.son 90 per cent, of the staircases in modern fire-proof 
buildings would be found utterly unreliable in the event of fire, either 
for the escape of the inmates or for the use of firemen — a serious 
consideration. Stone treads are usually let into iron rabbet frames, 
and as these stone treads would give way in case of fire, it would be 
impossible for a person to find a footing on the stairways; 2 in. oak 
treads might actually last longer ; but a safer staircase would be one 
the framework of which is of iron, the tread having an iron web or 
gridiron pattern, the interstices or openings of which should be small 
enough to prevent the passage of a foot, underlying the stone or 
slate, so that if the stone tread should disintegrate the staircase 
would still remain passable. 

It is possible to have the supporting tread of open-work cast 
iron in an ornamental pattern, which in relief against the white 

marble tread resting on it would present a tasteful appearance from 
the underside or soffit of the staircase, with this great advantage that, 
in the event the action of fire and water should pulverize the marble 
or slate tread, it would still afford a safe support for the foot. In 
the case of the burning of the two fire-proof buildings. Temple Court 
and the Manhattan Savings Bank, in New York, the slate treads 
yielded early in the fire, leaving staircases with openings the full size 
of the tread, which, within a few minutes after the fire started, were 
impassable for either firemen or inmates. It is astounding that this 
vital fault should be so generally overlooked in fire-proof buildings. 

I may here state that the Manhattan Savings Bank Building 
did not deserve to be called " fire-proof " for the reason that it had 
hollow spaces under the wooden floor boards, and that the iron 
beams and girders were not protected. Some of them were large 
riveted box girders, which yielded quickly to the heat of burning 
goods and pushed out the side walls. 

It is generally supposed that it is not necessary to be careful as 
to stone treads in buildings occupied solely for offices separated in 
fire-proof hallways in which, it is claimed, there is nothing to burn ; 
but in the case of one large fire-proof building of this kind in New 
York I found the space under the staircase in the basement story 
was used to store the waste paper and rubbish of the building — - 
material particularly likely to cause a fire by concealed matches, oily 
waste, cigar or cigarette stumps, etc., and to make a lively and quick 
fire quite sufficient to destroy stone staircase treads. Even where 
there is no combustible material in the hallway, if the "staircase is 
near windows stone treads may be destroyed by exposure to burning 
buildings and by the combustion of window frames, dadoes, and 
other wooden trim. 

Tenth. No building should exceed in height the width of the 
street on which it is located, from the view point of light and health ; 
nor in any case, in excess of 95 ft. for mercantile occupancy, nor a 
height in excess of 200 ft. for office occupancy. 


Eleventh. It should be remembered that merchandise, furniture, 
etc., are combustible, no matter whether located in fire-proof buildings or 
in ordinary buildings. This obvious fact seems generally to be ignored. 
In fact, combustible material will sometimes be more effectually and 
thoroughly destroyed in a fire-proof building than in an ordinary 
building, since the early collapse of the latter may smother the fire 
and effect salvage, whereas fire-proof floors support the contents of 
the former and distribute them so that they are more certain to be 
destroyed. There was not a dollar of salvage in the great stock of 
merchandise in the Home Building, at Pittsburgh. The entire 
household furniture of a tenant in one of the best fire-proof apart- 
ment houses in New York was totally cremated, and a fire in the 
Great Northern " fire-proof " Hotel, at Chicago, seriously burned the 
automatic organ to the extent of over $4,000. There is no more 
reason why the combustible contents of a fire-proof building should 
not be consumed than why the fuel in a stove should not be burned. 

Twelfth. Enclosing walls. These should be of brick, the brick- 
work of the lower stories especially, if not of all, being laid in cement 
mortar. In fact, the specifications for a building in the compact 
part of the mercantile section of a city ought to be drawn in contem- 
plation of the possible cremation of its contents and the generation 
of heat considerably greater than 2,000 degs. Fahr. The heat of a 
wood fire is from 800 to 1,140 degs. ; charcoal, about 2,200 degs.; coal, 
about 2,400 degs. Cast iron will melt at between 1,900 and 2,800 
degs.; wrought iron, 3,000 to 3,500 degs.; steel, 2,400 to 2,600 
degs.; and if an architect should l)e retpiired to draw specifications 
for a building adjoining others, with the knowledge beforehand that 
its entire contents, from cellar to roof, were to be totally consumed, 
and he were under a bond to pay damages to surrounding property, 
he would not be more severe in his exactions than should a building 
law protecting neighborhood rights in the enjoyment of property ; 
for a mercantile or manufacturing building sometimes generates a 
greater heat in combustion than a smelting furnace. 



The Masons' Department. 


PROMINENT among the many details of municipal govern- 
ment which must be worked out to a satisfactory conclusion 
by practical experience is that of the method of awarding contracts 
for public work. At the present time the law usually provides that 
all such work amounting to over a certain sum, usually from one to 
five thousand dollars, must be open to public competition. It has 
been supposed, until recently, that the most serious objection to 
this method of procedure was the fact that it resulted in a majority 
of cases in the awarding of the work to some second or third rate 
contractor who produced only ordinary or inferior work. But the 
mayor of one of our largest cities, after having tried to enforce his 
interpretation of the stipulation in a city building contract providing 
that "preference shall be given to union labor" (which his honor 
maintained, until the court rendered an adverse decision, was prac- 
tically mandatory), has decided that the proper way to construct 
municipal buildings is to have the work done by union men and by 
the day. Of course, in order to try such an experiment, the existing 
laws requiring an open competition and the award to the lowest 
bidder must be repealed. 

This change the master builders have opposed, probably as a 
matter of principle; but it is a question whether it would not be 
better in the end to permit the experiment to be made. The present 
methods are acknowledged to be bad, and certainly the only way to 
improve such conditions i^ to try other methods. But while it may 
on the whole appear desirable to know the result of having a public 
building built by the day by union labor, there are two serious 
difficulties which must be overcome before such a system can be 

The great objection to day labor on large and important works 
is, primarily, the fact that the men employed under such conditions 
have not the incentive to work to the best of their ability, and it is 
unquestionably a fact that the same gang of men on a contract job 
would do much more work in a given time than where the work was 
being paid for by day labor. The reason for this is so obvious that 
explanation is unnecessary. As things are at the present time, if a 
city building is built by day work, the length of time necessary for its 
construction and the bill for labor will probably present an inter- 
esting and at the same time an extravagant comparison with similar 
work done under the direction of an able contractor and his fore- 

The other reason why work done entirely by members of the 
various unions is likely to 'prove unsatisfactory is that up to the 
present time the unions have done but little to improve the quality 
of work, and this fact is responsible for one of their greatest weak- 
nesses. Although this statement would probably be emphatically 
denied by union members or sympathizers, the fact remains that 
to-day most of the best mechanics either do not belong to the union 
at all, or else are indifferent and passive members. 

The unions are now controlled and managed by a class of men 
who are better talkers than workers, but as soon as the skilled 
mechanics become enough interested in the union of their particular 
trade to control its policy and make its membership a guarantee, so 
far as possible, of the ability of its individuals, both as to ability to 
do work well and the capacity to do it quickly, then, and not until 
then, will the labor union feel the support of public opinion, which is 
absolutely necessary for its successful existence. But although these 
objections to the plan of having a municipal building built by day 
labor have been pointed out, and the opinion expressed that the result 
will be disappointing, nevertheless, let us by all means try the experi- 
ment, and very likely valuable lessons will be the consequence. 
Certainly in any, if not in a majority of cases, the best way to 
show the fallacy of socialistic schemes is to give them a full and fair 

THE ethics of trade are extremely nebulous in the minds of a 
great many persons. A feeling is often manifested that, con- 
sidering the keen, sharp competition to-day, and the fact that the sup- 
ply of work is so far below the desires and demands of the craftsman, 
the only motto to be considered is the one which has been popularly 
ascribed to one of our political bosses, " Do others as they would do 
you." Fortunately there is a saving remnant of those who do not 
ascribe to such doctrines, but make it their principle to be fair with 
those with whom they have dealings. The building trades, with their 
wide subdivision of interests and complexity of departments, offer a 
large opportunity for a contractor to take advantage of his fellows, 
especially in his relations with sub-contractors, and we wish to em- 
phasize one evil which is only too prevalent, namely, the trading on 
sub-bids. A general contractor will make up a figure to be submitted 
in competition, and will use sub-bids for portions of the work, incor- 
porating them in his own ; and then if the contract is awarded him, in 
only too many cases does he deliberately ignore the sub-bidder over 
whose shoulders he has stepped to a contract, and, on the principle 
that he has a right to purchase his wares where he can get them 
cheapest, will proceed to make new deals with mechanics, and use 
his earlier bids as clubs to beat down the price. This is all wrong ; 
it leads to demoralization of building interests, it encourages and 
almost obliges inferior work, and it is a practise which cannot be too 
severely condemned. The present system of contracting, where every- 
thing is awarded to one responsible head, has many advantages, but 
there ought in principle, as well as in fact, to be the most scrupulous 
regard for good faith between the general contractor and the sub-bid- 
ders, if we are to have the uniformity in the quality of the work which 
every one desires. Once a bid has been passed in and used it ought 
to be adhered to, and the sub-contractor whose bid is so used is en- 
titled in equity to the contract. 

Another feature which is often not properly regarded is the chang- 
ing of a bid after it has been once made. Tiiere are plenty of owners 
who will endeavor to take advantage of a tight market, hard times, 
or scarcity of work, and will make a builder an offer of considerably 
less than his bid. We are sorry to say that some architects will lend 
themselves to this practise by endeavoring to please the owner, and 
will aid in beating down a contractor. We know of one architectu- 
ral firm, however, doing a very large business, which has made it a 
rule, which is adhered to pretty thoroughly, never to allow a contrac- 
tor to change a bid either up or down after it is once put in ; and if 
after a bid has been made in good faith a builder cuts his price, that 
builder is very apt to find himself dropped out next time bids are 
called for. The result is that this firm gets bottom prices first time, 
as no bids are made with the idea of their subsequently being 
shaved off a bit. This is quite as it should be. We believe in fair 
and even liberal profits to all mechanics; but if a bid is respected as 
it should be, the bidding will be closer to start with, and there will be 
a feeling of honorable treatment between the owner and the contrac- 
tor which will go far towards securing better work. The same ap- 
plies exactly to bids between contractors and sub-bidders ; and while 
work might be wanted so badly that the tendency would be to cut 
the price rather than lose the job, if it were a more general custom 
to insist upon adherence to the original bid, and the contractors 
knew they would be fairly treated in the matter, it is probable that 
every one would be better satisfied. 


A PROVISION in a contract for the construction of a residence 
that the builder, in case of non-completion of the house by a 
given date, should pay ten dollars for each day's delay, is a stipulation 
for liquidated damages. The failure of a subcontractor to fulfil his 
contract is no defense to the recovery of such damages. .And where 
a builder agrees to construct a building by a certain date, which re- 
quires that it shall be done during winter months, the severity of the 
winter alone is insufficient as an excuse for failure to perform, if 
the work could have been carried on by the exercise of extra means 
or effort. — Supreme Court, Washington. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities^ and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — We have just entered upon tlie third month of 
our existence .is Greater New York, and in view of the criti- 
cisms now being passed upon the "machine" administration, it is 
interesting to recall some of the public benefits dispensed by the 
recent " reform " administration. 

It must surely be a matter of pride to us when statistics prove 
that our summer death rate has not been so low in twenty-five years 
as during the season passed. This is a more significant fact than 
would at first appear to one not familiar with New York, with its 
great cosmopolitan population and its crowded streets and tenements; 
and the unusual and vigorous effort to keep these streets and districts 
clean has been a most important factor in the saving of life, for 
which great credit is due to Col. Geo. E. Waring, upon whom the 
responsibility has 
rested. He organ- 
ized and directed an 
army of men, dressed 
in appropriate uni- 
form s, somewhat 
similar to the Pari- 
sian idea, and no ex- 
pense or trouble was 
spared in having the 
work tho roughly 
done to the satisfac- 
tion of the public 
rather than the poli- 

Some of the 
worst slums on the 
East Side have been 
demolished and re- 
placed by small 

Two recreation 
piers have been built 
and others are con- 
templated. These 
piers are two storied 
and are well patron- 
ized by those who 
are not fortunate 
enough to be able to 
take their families 

out of the city during " the heated term." Work has been commenced 
on the new North River Bridge, and land has been purchased for a 
second bridge over the East River, which will greatly facilitate com- 
munication between the various parts of the metropolis. 

The post-office service has been greatly improved, the most 
recent innovation being the pneumatic tube mail carrier, which was 
tested last week and which proved eminently satisfactory. 

The projected scheme of a tunnel connecting New York and 
New Jersey is being pushed, and we may confidently include this 
among the developments of the near future. 

A great botanical garden is to be erected in lironx Park, one of 
the most beautiful natural parks in the vicinity. This is a great 
work and will undoubtedly prove as popular as the gardens at Kew, 
England, which are visited by great numbers of people, sometimes 
hundreds of thousands in one day. The buildings will be laid out 
in such a manner as to carefully guard against destroying any of the 

McKim, Mead 

natural beauty of the park. Over $500,000 will be expended. 
Drawings of some of these buildings will soon be reproduced in The 

It will undoubtedly interest architects to know that a company 
has been formed which has for its object the sanitary and structural 
inspection of buildings. It makes examinations and reports on the 
condition of buildings and premises for owners, tenants, and intend- 
ing buyers, lessees or mortgagees, and supervises the construction, 
maintenance, and repairs of buildings, entering into yearly contracts 
for these services. The idea has met with considerable favor in the 
city. The names of several architects of high standing who are in- 
terested in the venture is a sufficient guarantee of the integrity of the 

Most of the necessary money has been raised for the proposed 
monument to the late Richard Morris Hunt which is to be placed in 
Central Park. The expense of the work has been generously met by 
contributions from those who knew Mr. Hunt, and who admired his 
personality, his generosity, and devotion to his profession, and his 
sympathy and helpfulness to yoimg men. He was one of the founders 
and one of the most enthusiastic members of the Municipal Art Society, 
which has for its object the protection of the city against promiscuous 

gifts of statuary, etc., 
which, if worthy, are 
one of the most 
beautiful adjuncts to 
landscape" architec- 
ture, but if not, are 
^H^ 'l^ an eternal blot. Al- 

'^'%' though still young, 

the society is highly 
respected, and has 
accomplished great 
good. We can only 
hope for the time 
when works of archi- 
tecture will be tried 
by some such fire. 
At present the press 
nobly seconds the 
work of censorship 
in regard to monu- 
ments, etc., and peo- 
ple are beginning to 
discriminate between 
good and bad work; 
but criticisms in re- 
gard to works of ar- 
chitecture, infinitely 
more important and 
more lasting, are 
c a u t i o u sly whis- 
pered, and the work 
goes on so that now one of the largest and most important office 
buildings in New York is the most offensive, and caused a well- 
known editor to remark in private, "If that building had been de- 
signed by a younger man it would have ruined him." Among recent 
items of news may be mentioned : James Brown Lord, architect, 
has prepared plans for a new building, to cost $35,000, for the New 
York Circulating Library. It will be erected on looth Street, near 
the Boulevard. Clarence True, architect, has plans drawn for twenty- 
four five-story brick and stone dwellings to be built on Riverside 
Drive; Edward Wenz, architect, has prepared plans for a five-story 
brick flat building on loist Street, near Columbus Avenue to cost 
$45,000; Raleigh C. Gildersleeve, architect, has plans drawn for a 
five-story stone and brick dwelling to be erected on Fifth Avenue 
near 77th Street ; cost, $75,000. 

Brite & ikicon, architects, have planned a five-story dwelling, to 
cost $100,000, to be erected on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 64th 


& White, Architects. 



Street; Richard H. Hunt, architect, has comijleted drawings for the 
new east wing of the" Metropolitan Museum of Art, which will cost 

PHILADELPHIA.— The workings of the law permitting the 
supervising architect of the Treasury to give out government 
buildings amongst architects for competition have just had a prac- 
tical demonstration here, and given general satisfaction. Some eight 
Philadelphia architects were invited and submitted designs for a 
Custom House and Post-Office, to be built in Camden, N. J., in com- 
pliance with a strictly business-like program of competition describ- 
ing in an explicit manner the number of and space required by the 
various departments, office.s, etc. The cost stipulated was liberal 
without being lavish, the ground for the proposed building large 

enough to admit of 
light on all sides, so 
it may be seen how 
interesting was the 
problem, and how it 
required but an hon- 
est judgment and 
award to place the 
competition amongst 
the best. The deci- 
sion of the experts, 
of whom there were 
three, including Su- 
pervising Architect 
Taylor, seems to in- 
dicate that, to the 
end, everything had 
been carried out sat- 
isfactorily. The 
successful architects, 
Rankin & Kellogg, 
are to be congratu- 
lated on this the 
latest of their many 
successes in profes- 
sional competitions. 
Their design shows 
a dignified building in the style of the Italian Renaissance, having a 
two-storied-columned portico with pediment in center of facade, re- 
mainder having balustraded skyline. It is to be entirely of white 
marble. It seems perhaps still a great waste of architectural skill to 
have so many designs thought out with the certainty that only one 
can be used, but it is a step much in advance to have competition 

The buildings of the University of Pennsylvania 
have a peculiar interest to the architect in the variety of 
their building material. The old-time green-stone Uni- 
versity Hall stands side by side with the bright red 
press-brick and terra-cotta of the library, and seemingly 
shelters by its towering mass the low-lying Huston Hall 
with its English-mullioned windows in light stone set in 
the gray stone of (iermantown. .Across the way are 
some buildings in dull rough-red brick and red terra- 
cotta, while further out is the beginning of the dormi- 
tory system in a quaint red brick with bright Indiana 
limestone lavishly used. Standing at the lately finished 
Dental Hall, by Kdgar V. .Seeler, in its rich, warm colors, 
the walls of the museum close by just being put, in part, 
under roof, .seem composed of yellowish-gray materials, 
but only a closer inspection .shows how curious is the 
composition. Two rough, small-sized bricks are placed 
end to end, without mortar, so as to resemble one long 
brick, then a black or purplish header separated liy 
about i}4 ins. of cement mortar, All the horizontal 


Kxecuted by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 

Shickel & Ditmars, Architects. 

joints are of this thickness of cement. The scheme of the bond is 

after that known as Flemish, with stretchers double the usual length. 

These abnormally wide 

joints take almost as 

prominent a part in the 

general color effect as the 

red brick, with the result, 

as before mentioned, of 

giving the wall a very 

light tone. 

The architecture is 
Italian, one might even 
say from Bologna, with 
round brick columns with 
the caps to be found 
there, while some beauti- 
ful patterns of colored 
marbles, eminently lio- 
lognese, are set into the 
brickwork, in the tym- 
panum of the windows, 
and in the friezes under 
eaves ; also, curiously 
enough, between first- 
story windows under piers 
of the second story. A 
domed central structure 
is to dominate the mass, 
but of this only the foun- 
dations are in, — wide 

, ... f, ■ I I PANEL, SPINGLEK liUll.DING, NEW YO 

foundations of brickwork, 


looking now like the ruins 

Executed by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 
of some Roman palace. w. H. Hume & Son, Architects. 

PITTSBURGH. — • The increase in building operations expected 
with the beginning of the new year does not seem to have be- 
gun as yet; architects report considerable small work in progress, 
but practically no large office or mercantile buildings definitely de- 
cided upon. 

Within the past year Pittsburgh has suffered severely from fires. 
The Home tire of last summer undoubtedly caused the greatest 
financial loss, but the Pike Street fire of last month probably nearly 
equaled it in this respect, and was, in addition, accompanied by a 
terrible loss of life. 

The burning of the building occupied by the Edmunson & Per- 
rine Furniture Store, and of the Union Trust Company Office shortly 
followed the Home fire, while a nine-story building on Penn Avenue, 


Winslow & Wetherell, Architects. 





near 9th Street, was burned in the same week in^ 
which occurred the Pike Street fire. 

Among competitions recently held but not yet 
decided have been those for the new Union Trust 
Company Building; for a new school building in 
Ward 20 ; for the First United Presbyterian Church 
to be erected on Fifth Avenue, near the entrance to 
Schenley Park; and for the City Deposit Bank, at 
the corner of Penn and Center Avenues. 

The design of F. J. Osterling for the new Court 
House at Washington has been accepted; it is esti- 
mated to cost about $500,000. 

Work has been commenced on the new ten-story 
apartment house on Forbes Street opposite Schenley 
Park. It is intended to have the building completed 
in time for use as a hotel during the triennial con- 
clave of Knight Templars to be held here in October 
next ; Rutan & Russell are the architects. This firm 
is also at work on a new armory l^uilding for the Na- 
tional Guard of Pennsylvania, to be located on Bed- 
ford Street. 

Pittsburgh contractors are proving that they 
can erect buildings with as great rapidity as those 
of any city. 

Work was commenced on the eight-story office 
building for J. G. Murtland, at the corner of Sixth 
Avenue and Smithfield Street, about the middle of 
November. It is to be ready for occupancy April i. 
It is built of buff pressed brick, terra-cotta, and sand- 
stone. The department store for H. C. Rowe, at 
North Highland and Penn Avenues, was begun at 
about the same date and is to be finished the same 
time. Alden & Harlow are the architects of both. 

The new Home Building is nearing completion. 
When the old building was burned the steel frame 
and most of the terra-cotta floor arches remained in 
place. After a careful examination and test they 
were found uninjured and it was decided to use them 
again. Peabody & Stearns are the architects of the 
present store. These architects have also recently 
let the contract for a new market in the East 
End. It is 170 by 270 ft., is to be built of brick 
and terra-cotta, and cost jt 150,000. 

Executed by tlie Conkling, Ariiislrong Terra- 

BUFFALO. — The new year has opened with a 
much more favorable outlook than has been 
in evidence for a long time. On every hand we hear that there is to 
be a much better season. Prices of building materials are raised, 
and the class of buildings seems to have been elevated. 

The increased price of material will help to throw out a good 
many of the speculative builders, who have done so much to pull 
down domestic architecture to the level it is now on. 

Buffalo property seems to be gaining in popularity amongst out- 
side investors, as during the past few months large blocks of real 
estate have been sold to capitalists in New York and Pittsburgh. 
The new owners express their intention of building soon. 

The Pan-American Exposition is making great progress. Con- 
tracts have been let for several of the main buildings. These struc- 
tures, though possessed of some architectural pretensions, are designed 
for manufacturing purposes. The capital has been advanced by 
various large concerns, who, after the exposition is over, intend to 
take over the whole affair ; and with the advantages of having electric 
power so close at hand, there seems to be no reasons why this should 
not become a great manufacturing center. All the power used at 
the exposition will be obtained from the Falls. 

The largest piece of work in hand to be mentioned is the 74tli 
Regiment Armory. As was mentioned in a former letter, bids had 
been opened for a stone building, but as the amount ran over jS 1 00,000 

Cotta Company. 
Barney & Chapman, Architects. 

above the sum given by the State, the specifications 
were revised. Bids were asked for on various kinds of 
material, stone and brick, with the result that the 
building will be of Medina stone, at a cost of 
$335,585. It was proposed to build entirely of 
brick, but there was a general outcry against this, as 
it was thought that the appearance of the building 
would be spoiled. 

It is said that the Iroquois Hotel is to be raised 
from eight to twelve stories, and that the banquet 
hall will be placed on the twelfth story, and is to be 
surrounded by other smaller ones so planned that, 
by an ingenious arrangement of the architect, Mr. 
Aug. Esenweim, they can be thrown into one large 
hall. The rotunda will be finished entirely in Mex- 
ican onyx and marble. 

The city has had still another experience in 
letting contracts to the lowest bidder. 

Two schools were commenced last year, both 
given to one man, he being on the second school 
nearly 27 per cent, less than the next highest. When 
the bids were before the school committee, repre- 
sentations were made that he had failed to carry 
out other contracts and that various material men 
had liens on the property. However, the contracts 
were given him, with the result that -the buildings 
have been liened upon, and that the city will finish 
them. The Bond Company found loopholes to 
escape from fulfilling their bond, one being that the 
city finishes the work ; and as that appears to be 
the next move, the men who have liens on the 
property will doubtless lose their money, as, the 
work being for the city, liens have no force for ma- 
terial, but only for money due. People are wonder- 
ing why the Surety Company is not being made to 
finish the schools. 


Where the laws of a State give a lien on the build- 
ings or structures, and on the interests of the owner 
in the land on which they stand, for work done and 
material furnished and used in them, on destruction 
of the building by fire before completion the lien 
may be enforced against the land on which it stood. 
— App. Ct., Iiicf. 


have so often been asked to publish a list of American 
brands of cement and the particular class of work that each 
brand is suitable for, that we take pleasure in calling the attention of 
our readers to a group of pamphlets just issued by the Commercial 
Wood & Cement Company, Philadelphia and New York. 
pamphlets, of which there are four, relate to the brands of American 
cement for which this concern is agent, namely. Commercial Port- 
land, Commercial Rosendale, Victor Portland, and American Portland. 
Each pamphlet contains an amount of data and general information 
pertaining to the particular brand which it represents, that makes it 
not only interesting, but instructive and otherwise valuable. The 
more important work in which the cement has been used is enuiner- 
ated, often illustrated, within these pages. In the pamphlet devoted 
to the interest of the American Portland brand there is published a 
most interesting paper by W. W. Maclay, C. E., on the "Testing 
and General (2ualities of Portland Cement, and some Rules for Using 
It so as to Get the Best Results." 

Copies of these pamphlets may be had by ajiplying to the 
Commercial Wood & Cement Company, 156 Fifth Avenue, New 



The Use of Terra-Cotta for Interiors. 

WE have recently received a few samples of terra-cotta work 
from Fiske, Homes & Co., Boston, which we think deserve 
more than passing comment. 

Terra-cotta for the exterior construction of buildings long ago 
took its place as one of the most desirable materials. 

The construction and decoration of the interior of the modern 

where there has been a lack of proper clay products for ornamenta- 
tion. The features which have prevented the universal adoption of 
brick mantels have been their crudeness of design and roughness of 
construction. Architects have been accustomed for years to over- 
come the former difficulty by making their own designs, but have 
experienced delays of manufacture, uncertainties of color, as well as 
great expense in the execution of this special work. 

Could the architect feel sure of obtaining a good design, exe- 

home is, however, something of quite a different order, and re(|uires 
a class of goods distinctly superior, in nicety of workmanship and 
careful selection of color, to those employed on the exterior. 

In interior work, the structure is of comparatively small size, 
requiring ornamentation of low relief ; the eye, being close to 
the work, is offended by the boldness and roughness which char- 
acterizes exterior designing, while 
jointing entirely suitable for ex- 
terior work appears crude when 
used on the interior. 

Terra-cotta manufact u r e r s 
have, as a rule, confined them- 
selves to a grade of work suitable 
for exterior, and the architect and 
builder have, therefore, not found 
it desirable to use it extensively 
inside the building. Such a state 
of things is not necessary, per sc. 
as the delicate product of the 

modern pottery bears evidence to the fact that burnt-clay products 
are capable of the finest workmanship. 

Why a similar refinement should not be obtained in interior 
terra-cotta, thus combinmg the nicety of marble, papier iiiachc 
ornamentation, or even woodwork, with the beautiful blending of 
colors obtainable only in clay products is a question which we cannot 
understand : and we believe, when the terra-cotta manufacturer realizes 
the fact that his work must take its place as a part of the interior 

furnishings of the room and produces work capable of such use, that 
it will be gladly accepted by the architect and builder. 

The samples of interior terra-cotta illustrated herewith seem to 
us to be a decided step towards the realization of that perfection 
which we mention above. This work is produced for use about the 
fireplace, where bricks have been used from time immemorial, but 

cuted promptly from stock patterns, and with that certainty as to the 
nicety of workmanship and color demanded by interior conditions, it 
seems to us that clay products would be recognized as the most satis- 
factory in every way for fireplace construction. 

These conditions seem to be realized by the work illustrated 
herewith to a remarkable degree. Not only are the designs good in 

arrangement and proportion of 
parts, i)ut the modeling is done 
with special delicacy and refine- 
ment of lines not possible or even 
, _^^^^ desirable for exterior work. The 

^l^f^^^ "^%k. ^ modeler seems to have kept before 

k^ * — ^•^ I'im the fact that the same perfec- 

tion is demanded and should be 
realized in the fireplace as in the 
woodwork and papier inachc orna- 
mentation on the walls and ceilings, 
and even the furniture that stands 
around the fireplace. The edges 
are straight and true ; the pieces are sufficiently uniform in color 
and size to enable the use of narrow joints and correct lines through 
the entire structure, thus largely obviating that crudity in appearance 
that has been characteristic of such work in the past. 

All of the ornamentation of these mantels, where possible, is 
produced by terra-cotta rather than molded bricks. 

Messrs. Fiske, Homes & Co. are well-known terra-cotta manu- 

facturers of long experience, and they appear to have attacked the 
fireplace question as such rather than as brickmakers. 

We believe they have contributed a valuable addition to the 
desirable materials for interior decoration and have given a new im- 
petus to burnt clay on the inside of the modern house. 




R. GuASTAViNO Co. have removed their Boston office to 19 
Milk Street, Room 53. 

Waldo Bros, will supply Atlas Portland cement for draw 
pier, Charlestown Bridge, Boston ; Perkins & White, contractors. 

Charles Taylor's Sons, Cincinnati, Ohio, manufacturers of 
enameled brick, fire brick, etc., are in the market for a clay disinte- 

Whidden & Company have awarded the cement contract for 
foundation for new Boston Electric Light Company Plant to Waldo 
Bros., specifying Atlas cement. 

John W. Hahn, 166 Devonshire Street, has been appointed 
Boston agent for the American Enameled Brick and Tile Company, 
of New York. 

Waldo Bros, will supply Atlas Portland cement to the Hart- 
ford Paving & Construction Company for government work at Fort 
Constitution, N. H. 

The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company will sup- 

^ '.■::^^ 

TERRA-COTTA detail, brazier building, BOSTON. 

Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

Cass Gilbert, Architect. 

ply 75,000 of their cream-white bricks for the new building wliich 
is to be erected at Richmond, Va., as a Home for Incuraliles. 

The ScoUay Square station of the Boston Subway will be lined 
with enameled brick made by the American Enameled Brick and Tile 
Company, of New York; Norcross & Cleveland are the builders. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company have 
closed a contract with Norcross Bros, for supplying the enameled 
brick that are to be used in the immense new Southern Terminal 
Station at Boston. 

The Indianapolis Terka-Cotta Company report a good 
spring business. They are now engaged on contracts for new work 
in Toledo and Cincinnati. The terra-cotta for the Edison Electric 
Light Company's new building in the latter-named city will be fur- 
nished by them. 

The Brick Terra-Cotta and Supply Company, Corning, 

terra-cotta detail, blind asylum, overp.rook, pa. 

Executed by the Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 

N. Y., are furnishing the architectural terra-cotta required for the 
Fourteenth Ward School building, Syracuse, N. Y., M. D. Make- 
piece, architect. 

The Bristol and Plainville Tramway Company are erect- 
ing near Plainville, Conn., a new substantial steel bridge, having a 
span of about yo ft. The bridge has been designed with a view of 
being a permanent structure, well able to take care of the increasing 
and heavy traffic of the road. It has been furnished and is now 
being erected by the Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East Berlin, 

The New Jersey Terra-cotta Company has closed contracts 
for furnishing the following buildings with terra-cotta : Residence and 
carriage house, Islip, L. I., Lawrence Birdsall, architect; school, 
Cranford, N. J., Ackerman & Ross, architects, Peter Tostevin's Son 
& Co., builders ; offices, 66th Street and Columbus Avenue, New 
York City, Neville & Bagge, architects, Robinson & Wallace, 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East Berlin, Conn., 
are building a new boiler-house roof for the Coe Brass Manufacturing 
Company, at Ansonia, Conn. The Hartford City Gas-Light Com- 
pany, of Hartford, Conn., have placed with them an order for one 
of their steel roofs lined with their patent anti-condensation fire-proof 
roof lining, which has 
given such eminent satis- 
faction in the past. !■ ^:.:,j^i'»fa a-- 

The R I d g w a y 
Press-Brick Company, 
Ridgway, Pa., have 
closed the following new 
contracts for supplying 
their bricks : 40,000 light 
iTiottled Romans and 
3,000 dark mottled Jack 
arches for Harre Rob- 
bins's residence, Pitts- 
burgh, S. F. Heckert, ar- 
chitect ; sale made by 
Jas. R. Pitcairn, Pitts- 
burgh representative; 
200,000 vitrified gray 
standards and 2,000 vitri- 
fied gray bull noses ; 
power plant for North- 
western Mining and Ex- 
change Company, Brock- 
wayville, Pa. ; 100,000 
vitrified buff brick for 
factory building for Wil- 
cox Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Wilcox, Pa. 


I'".xcc utcd by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 
Bruce Price, Architect. 



The Clinton Metallic Paint Company, of Clinton, N. Y., 
are sending out in little white enamel boxes, scarcely larger than a 
postage stamp, samples of Elastic Silk Fiber Roof Cement. This is 
said to be a strictly up-to-date article, combining unusual elasticity 
with adhesiveness, and a special value is given to it from the peculiar 
fiber it contains. Its qualities admit of its working in any climate, 
and on either metal, slate, or glass, and the white enamel boxes which 
the Clinton Company are sending out are a unique departure in 
sampling, in the roof cement trade, at least. 

From building reports which have recently come to hand it is 
noticeable that Powhatan white bricks are to be used liberally in 
New York building operations. Among the buildings which are to 
be constructed of these bricks are : Tlie new Hall of Education ; apart- 
ment houses on 87th Street west of Park Avenue ; building corner 
(j2d Street and Madison Avenue, N. L. & L. Ottinger, architects; new 
building for the Knickerbocker Realty Improvement Company, 116 
West 34th Street; new building on 125th Street near Amsterdam 
Avenue, Pollard & Steinam, architects; new building at 3d Street 
and Avenue C, Harry McNally, architect. 

The product of the American Mason Safety Tread Company is 
being specified for use in a very large proportion of the buildings 
now in the hands of Boston architects. The Safety Tread is to be 
placed upon the stairs of the Southern Union and Dartmouth Street 
railroad stations Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects ; the new 
building of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E. B. Homer, 
architect; the Paul Revere School, Peabody & Stearns, architects; 
the West Roxbury High School, Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, archi- 
tects; the East Boston High School, J. Lyman Faxon, architect; 
Melrose High .School, Tristram Griffin, architect ; the Brayton Ave- 
nue School, at Fall River, A. M. Marble, architect ; school at East 
Douglas, Clarence P. Hoyt, architect ; Massachusetts Eye and Ear 
Infirmary, Shaw & Hunne well, architects; Masonic Temple, Loring 
& Phipps, architects ; large buildings of the Boston Real Estate Trust 
on Beach Street and of the Francis estate on Chauncy and .Avon 
Streets, Winslow & Wetherell, architects ; India Street building, Alex. 
.S. Porter, Trustee, Charles E. Park, architect ; India Street building, 
John I). Long, Trustee, Rand & Taylor, Kendall & Stevens, archi- 

tects ; and several other large buildings for mercantile uses. The 
approval of the Mason Safety Tread by Prof. F. W. Chandler for use 
in the Institute Building, and, as consulting architect for the city of 
Boston, for the important new public school buildings, is significant 
of the favor with which this modern protective device is received by 
professional men of the highest standing. 

A NEW and beautiful thoroughfare has been added to the 
several leading to Thomas Park and Dorchester Heights, I5oston, 
which is not only in keeping with the general surroundings, but adds 
greatly to this beautiful spot, says the Boston Herald. 

This new thoroughfare is to be known as Covington Street, and 
its unique construction and general appearance for a thoroughfare 
make it something of a curiosity, as regards the laying out and con- 
struction of public thoroughfares. 

It shows that although a grade may be very steep, it is possible 
to overcome it, as far as pedestrians are concerned ; for this new 
street is constructed with artificial stone blocks arranged in a series 
of flights of steps, with a broad landing of the same material between 
each flight, making it easy and convenient to surmount. 

In starting the work, flights of steps were cut out of the earth 
embankment. These steps were then covered with a surface of 
broken stone and cement, so that when the stone steps should be 
placed in position it would be impossible for any damage to result 
from cold or frost. 

There are seven flights of stairs containing nine steps each, and 
between each flight is a landing about 6 ft. long and 1 2 ft. wide, the 
entire structure being constructed of artificial stone composed of 
crushed granite and cement. 

The W. A. Murtfeldt Company, of Boston, did the work, and 
the cement used by them was the Dyckerhoff brand. 


For New York or Western office, a couple of strictly ,\i draughts- 
men, one good free-hand sketcher, designer, and water colorist ; also 
good man for working drawings and details. Must be rapid, accu- 
rate, and capable. Permanent positions to right men. .\ddress, 
stating salary expected, W. J. KEITH, .Architect, .Minneai)olis, Minn. 

Fireplace Mantels 

The best ones to buy are those we make of 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as good or 
as durable. Our mantels don't cost any more than 
other kinds, and are far better in every way — our 
customers say so. Don't order a mantel before you 
have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch Book 
showing 53 designs of mantels costing from $J2 

Phila. & Boston Face Brick Co,, 




Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, 


Manufacturers of the 

Celebrated Powhatan "Cream White" and "Silver Gray" 

Artistic Front Bricks. 

These bricks are manufactured in all sizes and shapes from a pure NATURAL WHITE foot-hill clay by the " stiff mud " process, 
hand pressed and burned in down-draft kilns ; they are of a solid color and uniform throughout, containing no KAOLIN OR CHEM- 
ICALS of any description, and therefore WILL NOT CHANCE COLOR when exposed to the action of the weather. 

The ** SILVER CRAY" bricks are made from the natural white clay, in combination with jet black imported Manganese, 
and are the only Gray bricks on the market which are absolutely free from the very objectionable yellOW tingC. Test them 
by comparison. 

For Prices, Freight Rates, ij Offipp 

Samples, etc., address the nUIIIC V/llli^t;, 


Townsend Building, 1 123 Broadway. 

O. W. KETCHAM, XLena^Cotta, 

Supplies r\V 

^O ]£namelc^ 


Builders' Exchange, t>^^^C *SSkv{c\x 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. ^ 4f W ^^ Jt^l iWK* 

-^^^V Every Description. 

Telephone, 2163. ^L, 




Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 





Rocky Hill, N.J. 









New York Office: 

105 E. 22d Street. 

HARDING & GOOCH, Architects. 

Broad Street. New York City. 

W. A. & F. E. CONOVER, Buildcos. 

Architectural Terra-Cotta Executed by the 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 

Boston Representative: CH ARISES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 


Conkling, Armstrong 
^ ^ Terra-Cotta Co. 


W. i. G. AUDSLEY, ARCHrTECTS, New Vork, 


. . Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Quality 


Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., 




Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 
and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Perth Amboy, N. ]. 


Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

J 60 Fifth Avenue. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street* 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 


New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 


John Hancock Building, 

O. W PETERSON & CO., Agents. 


Builders Exchange, 

WM. C. LEWIS, Agfent. 


Builders Exchange, 
w. LINCOLN Mcpherson, Agent. 



Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 


\\\ Q>, 

Designed by J. A. SCHWEINFURTH. Del. by H. F. BRISCOE. Modeled by TITO CONTI. 

We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 

^CSlOnCO in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified HSSClTlblCO from standard interchangeable pieces in 
architectural effects. 

ilDOOClCu entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 

|Pl*C88Cc) with great care to give clear-cut outlines and 
smooth surfaces. 

JoUtnCO in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 

any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 

II n OfCtlCVHl producing all the desirable effects of special 
mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 

166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire=Proofing and General Building Materials. 









Office, 108 Fulton Street, 





LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Architect. 
Terha-Cotta Executed by THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 


Manufacturers of 

Architectural Terra- Cotta 



Cheltenham, St. Louis. 


502-503 Century Building. 





Enameled Brick and Tile 
Faience Mantels, 


Displayed and sold by all the leading Tile and 
Mantel dealers. 

f Grueby Faience Co. f 

Makers of 



^164 Devonshire Street. 



Boston. @ 



The North wes tern 

Terra- Cotta Co. 

In all Colors and 
according to Special 


Architectural. . 
Terra- Cotta 

Glazed and J^nani- 
eled Work in all 

^'"r. ^•"^i ^!?'"T. 

Works and Main Office, Corner of 
Clybourn and Wrightwood Aves.... 

City Office^ Room iii8y The Rookery, Chicago. 








The Columbus**,. 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Co*, 


Manufacturers of 

Plain, Molded, 

and Ornamental 




Buff^ Gray^ and Terra-Cotta Colors. 

Works at Union Furnace, Ohio. 


Preaident and General Manager. 

A. B. COIT, 

Secretary and Treasurer. 



Telegraph and 



180,000 Brick 
Per Day. 

C. p. /Herwin Brick Co., 


Pallet Face, Building, Sewer, Paving, and Molded 

Also a Superior Quality of HOLLOW BUILDING BRICK. 






W. S. RAVENSCROFT, President. 

I. J. HOBLETZELL, Vice-President. 

M. S. KLINE, Secretary and Treasurer. 



Telegraph Office 


jfront anb 







The Dagus Fire-Flashed Pompeian Brick. 



178 Devonshire Street. 

W. H. OSTERHOUT, Pres't. 

W. H. HYDE, Vice-Pres't. 

E. n. CAMPBELL, Sec'y and Treas. 

Ridgway Press=Brick Company, 

Ridgway, Pa. 

Manufacturers of 

The Ridgway gray 


New England Agents: 

G. R. Twichell & Co., 

19 Federal Street, 



New York Agent : 

Orrin D. Person, 

160 Fifth Avenue. 

Pittsburgh Agent : 

James R. Pitcairn, 

33r Fifth Avenue 

CHURCH AT NEWTON, MASS., Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue, Architects. 

The Gray Bricks used in this church were furnished by the Ridgway Press-Brick Co. 




Made by Mud Process, Hand Pressed, Fire Flashed. 

" POMPEIAN " brick made by this Company sur- 
pass all others in keeping bright and clean in Pitts- 
burgh or any other atmosphere, as the following 
extracts from letters received will show: 

Pittsburgh, May 9, 1896. 
. . . Ten years ago I built a residence here, using your 
" POMPEIAN " brick. These brick are to-day as bright and 
clean as when laid. They are impervious to water, and a 
driving rain clears the wall from dust and soot, instead of 
soaking the dirt into them, as it will with porous material. 

Pittsburgh, Jan. 14, 1896. 
It is five years since my house was completed. So far as 
can be seen, the brickwork is as clean as on the day the build- 
ing was finished. 

Cleveland, O. 
Your "Pompeian" brick stands the Cleveland climate 
better than any other brick I have observed, retaining their 
bright, clear appearance. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
The brick to-day look brighter, cleaner, and more attractive 
than they did when the building was first erected, and every 
rain storm seems to freshen them. 

Send for descriptive pamphlet showing photo- 
graphs of buildings and mantels in which our brick 
have been used. 


J. A. & W. T. WILSON, Architects. 


THE Shawnee Indian was for many years the terror of the white set- 
tlers of the Ohio Valle}^ but is known to the present generation there 
only from history and tradition. The small remnant, about i,'5oo, of his 
once powerful tribe now live peaceably in the Indian Territor3\ His name, 
however, is fittingly commemorated in the village of SHAWNEE, Ohio, 
where the clays from which he made his pottery arc to-day manufactured, 
by the most elaborate processes, into the superior 

Face Brick, 

in a great variety of beautiful and artistic shapes and colors. 
For samples, catalogue, and prices of these brick, address, 


or their offices, 44 Pine Street, New York* 


NEW YORK . . Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 East 23d St. 
CHICAGO Engle Brick Co., 142 Washington St. 

CINCINNATI .... Mendenhall, Ncff & Co., 237 West 4th St. 
PITTSBURGH ....... Burgy & McNeill, 531 Wood St. 

DETROIT F. B. Stevens, Griswold and Atwater Sts. 



JUfcgs- :>efcgv 5Ufcgv 5Mfcgy Mafcgv «»!fe/;» MjfeiP- A!t^> jcfcgv aafc^a- JUfe/p- 3efe/> sLtz> jcfe/rv m»>?*- iMfcyrv ^»>7v 

%3Pk 3?fi: 3?K 3?^ ^^ ^^m ^^ ^m 3Pf 


Enameled Brick 

rianufacturers of a Superior Quality of 





Used in over 300 of the best Buildings in New York and other large cities. 

Works : 

P. O. Address, 

Oaks, Pa. 

Address all Correspondence 
to Main Office. 

Main Office: 

25th Street and Broadway, 

Townsend Building, 

New York City. 

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Orrin D. Person, 

i6o Fifth Ave., 

New York City. 

Orrin D. Person, 

308 Builders' Exchange, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Orrin D. Person, 

Builders' Exchange, 

Newark, N. J. 

John H. Black, 

Erie Co. Savings Bank Building, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Pittsburg Mortar & Supply Co., 
339 Fifth Ave., 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Co., 

Chamber of Commerce Building, 
Richmond, Va. 

R. L. Watson, 

Mithoff Building, 

Columbus, O. 

The Midland Brick & Supply Co., 
226 The Arcade, 

Cleveland, O. 

B. T. Hazen, 

3 Builders' Exchange, 
Cincinnati, O. 

Holmes, Strachan & Co., 

19s East Atwater St., 
Detroit, Mich. 


j jsi^miLSi^g"^ 

B J?r 




— "^ " 

General Offices : 




Kind &: Kuhi.mann Builders' Sup. Co., 
153 South St. Clair St., 
i'oledo, O. 

Illinois Supply & Const. Co., 
Century Building, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Willia.m J. Watkins & Co., 

N. E. Cor. Fourth & Main Sts., 
Louisville, Ky. 

Twin City Brick Co., 

Minneapolis and St. Paul. 

H. D. Bullard, 

710 Palladio Building, 
Duluth, Minn. 

Clarence C. Cuff, 

10 Arcade, Yonge St., 
Toronto, Can. 
W. S. Nelson, 

Hall Building, 

Kansas City, Mo. 

B. S. Lewis, 

428 Church St., 

Nashville, Tenn. 
W. L. Dearborn, 

Hennen Building, 

New Orleans, La. 



84 University Place, 

New York City. 







C entral Fireproofing 













874 Broadway, New York* 




Chicago Terra-Cotta Roofing & Siding Tile Company, 

J 122 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

t)itrifie6 IRoofIno Ziic of all tkin^s. 

Write for Catalogue. 

F. W. Silkman, 


Cbemicale, /llbinerale, 
Claipe, anb Colore. 

For Potters, Terra=Cotta, and Enameled Brick Manufacturers. 

Correspondence Invited. 

231 pearl Street IHew l^ork. 



The Celadon Terra- Cotta Company, Limited, 




Manufacturer of 


Alfred, New York. 

Ew York Office, 

(Under Babcock Patents.) 

Chicago Office, 

Suite 1 123-4, 

Suite 1001-2, 










*s ?5 VOLVME W 

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p. O. BOX 3282. 

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Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 


IT is always difficult to properly measure the results of effort of 
the passing generation. The nearness of view is a bar to clear 
perspective values, and we cannot properly compare the present with 
the past or even foretell future developments with any very great 
surety. At the same time we believe that certain general tendencies 
are not difficult of measurement even while in process of evolution, 
and the signs of the times certainly seem to indicate that we are 
about to begin a period of vast extension in building, or perhaps 
more properly in architecture. For a number of years now this 
country has been passing through a financial depression, and that, 
together with the imminence of war on our very borders, makes the 
prospect seem gloomy. There is, however, a fair evidence that we 
are preparing the way for architecture of a kind and on a scale in 
advance of anything that has gone before. It is only within a com- 
paratively few years that our methods have been such as to admit of 
real permanence in our constructions. The fire-proofing systems, which 
are still so young in years as to have hardly attained a majority, have 
enlarged the possibilities for a degree of permanence which did not 
exist during the previous generation ; and, more than that, we as a 
people have been awakened to the commercial value not only of good 
construction but of good looks, and it is believed that when the 
country has righted itself from the political troubles through which 
it is now passing and has regained a measure of its native buoyancy 
we will be ready to construct buildings which will be free from the 
ephemeral character of most of our recent public works. 

The greatest building epoch which the world has ever seen was 
undoubtedly that which culminated during the first century after 

Christ, under the sway of the Roman emperors. The architecture 
produced at this period was characterized more than in any other 
way by the solidity, the enduring qualities of its construction. Other 
periods of art have far excelled it in pure art and esthetic percep- 
tions, but the world to-day owes its best constructive ideas to the 
Romans. Unless we greatly misinterpret the signs of the times, the 
next quarter century will witness a very widespread return to some of 
the methods which marked the more important Roman buildings, 
and especially in the construction of walls and vaulted surfaces 
there is reason to believe that we are developing into a permanence 
of construction which will augur well for the possibilities of artistic 
growth. If any one were to visit a huge structure such as the new 
South Union Station, now in process of building in this city, an edi- 
fice which, taken altogether, is one of the largest which has ever been 
conceived by human thought, it would seem as if we were in the 
midst of an iron age, as if steel in its various forms was the impor- 
tant element in our buildings, as if it had come to stay, and was not 
only indispensable, but was unreservedly approved of by our construc- 
tors. Steel and its possibilities have undoubtedly increased the 
horizon of the architect and have added enormously to the possibili- 
ties of construction, and yet we question very often whether in an 
architectural and constructive sense we have not lost rather than 
gained by the use of this extremely adaptive material. A wall of 
huge solid masonry construction seems clumsy and antiquated by 
comparison with the slender shafts which we find in the basements of 
some of our tallest buildings, and the whole character of our streets 
has been changed very materially in the more recent constructions 
by the possibilities of steel. We will venture the broad assumption 
that aside from the question of pecuniary gain or commercial neces- 
sity there is not one thinking architect in ten who would not prefer 
to construct of solid masonry from foundation to garret rather than 
to, of his own choice, select the spider-like constructions which we 
seem obliged to resort to ; and from a standpoint of architecture the 
constructive values of steel are but a poor compensation for the 
manifest deficiency of our public buildings in those qualities of 
breadth, solidity, and permanence which contribute so largely to the 
success of the old Roman work. 

A love for the massive constructions of antiquity does not, how- 
ever, oblige us to imitate them literally. The Romans used brick 
and concrete as brute materials which would overcome the thrusts of 
vaults and arches to such an extent that such things as iron ties or 
bands were not required, and the actual factor of safety in nearly all 
the Roman work is, therefore, so far in excess of anything which 
scientific construction would call for that the same results, namely, 
stability and permanence in appearance, could be obtained in modern 
work with far less sacrifice of space and internal arrangement. The 
very able article by Professor Baker, the first instalment of which 
appeared in the last number of The Brickbuiluek, is a move in the 
right direction towards the increasing of the possible reliance which 
can be placed upon good masonry. As the article very justly inti- 
mates, a brick pier or wall crushed by superimposed load is so rare a 
circumstance as to be almost unrecorded. We trust good masonry 
less than about any other material which is used in building. 

The buildings erected from the designs of the late H. H. Rich- 
ardson are preeminently characterized by the appearance of extreme 
solidity and permanence, though we imagine that Mr. Richardson 



was by no means ahead of his generation in his knowledge of con- 
structive values. In one of the largest of his structures he had planned 
for a brick pier to support a load running up into hundreds of tons. 
The builder, who was a cautious as well as a thinking man, after 
putting up the pier and imposing the load upon it, became alarmed 
at the size in proportion to the load, and, finding that the brickwork 
was loaded with something over 25 tons per foot, without saying any- 
thing to anybody made some experiments. He built a brick pier 
and proceeded to undertake to crush it, but he found the resistance 
so great that before it began to show any signs of weakness whatever 
he gave it up, and was perfectly satisfied that the pier as designed by 
Mr. Richardson was ample for the purpose, notwithstanding it was 
loaded with nearly twice as much as any of our building laws would 
permit. Since then he has always been a firm advocate of the 
strength of brickwork when properly laid. 

We do not need the heavy constructions of the Romans, but we 
do need the solid character, and that character is only simulated by 
the use of steel. Furthermore, we feel that with the blessings of 
peace, and the consequent expansion of our industries and our wealth, 
we shall see an era of public building such as has never visited this 
country before, and it looks as if we would be ready for it with methods 
and ways of building which will give us the right to rank our build- 
ings with the creations of the past which have survived for us. We 
do not consider a building in Europe which is a couple of centuries 
old as in any sense wearing out, and yet the average life of our 
structures here has been up to the present from thirty to forty years. 
This is not simply because methods of planning have changed, for we 
are using very largely the same methods that were followed in the 
time of the Renaissance, and, barring certain questions of practical 
interior arrangements, some of the old Roman and Florentine palaces 
could to-day be utilized, with very slight change, for a modern office 
structure. Consequently the short life of our modern buildings is not 
due to inadaptability .so much as to the innate nature of our con- 
structive methods. 


In the March issue of The Hrickbuilder there was illustrated 
a residence at Brookline, Mass., of which Henry Forbes Bigelow, 
Boston, was the architect. By mistake, the names of Winslow & 
Wetherell, were given as being the architects. 


Parish & Schroeoer, architects, have removed their offices to 
the Bancroft Building, 3 W. 29th Street, New York City. 

Fred M. True.x, architect, has opened an office at Red Bank, 
N. J. Catalogues desired. 

The firm of Wagner & Reitmeyer, architects, Trust Building, 
Williamsport, Pa., has been dissolved. Mr. Wagner will continue 
the business of the old firm. 

Robert S. Soule, architect, has opened an office in the Hennen 
Building, New Orleans. Catalogues and samples desired. 

D. M. Collier, architect, has opened an office in the Lennon 
Building, Oneonta, N. Y. Catalogues and samples desired. 

The office of James Craddock, architect, Lincoln, Neb., was 
recently burned out. Mr. Craddock has opened an office in the 
Oliver Theater Building, and would be glad to receive catalogues 
and samples. 

A collection of paintings by a group of American artists 
was exhibited at the St. Louis .Museum of Fine Arts on the evening 
of March 29, and on the evening of April 12 there was shown a 
collection of paintings and drawings illustrating scenes of the Revo- 
lution, and also a collection of Favrile glass. 

The St. Louis Architectural Club held its regular monthly 
meeting on the evening of March 12 in their new quarters at 

916 Locust Street. Drawings in their regular monthly competition 
were submitted, the subject being an engine house. First prize was 
awarded to Benno Jensen; Mr. Farberger, second mention; J. C. 
Stephens, third. J. W. Cinder and R. M. Milligan acted as judges. 
The problem for this month is a house for the club. In addition to 
this, Mr. E. Lasser has offered a prize for the best design for a horse 
stall in iron. 

A regular meeting of the T Square Club was held on Wednes- 
day evening. March 16. Mr. Louis C. Hickman spoke on the subject 
of the " Planning of a City Residence," and made some interesting 
observations on the possibilities of originality in such planning. 

The subject for competition for the evening was " The Faqade 
of a City Residence," apropos of which were Mr. Hickman's remarks. 
First mention was awarded to Horace H. Burrell ; second mention, 
to Edward Gilbert ; and third mention, to W. C. Scheetz. 

A Club Smoker and Special Competition in Decoration was also 
held on March 2. First mention was awarded to Nicola d'Ascenzo ; 
second mention, to Horace H. Burrell. Mr. Frank Miles Day led the 
criticism on the drawings submitted, and also gave an informal talk 
on the New Congressional Library at Washington. 


THE Commercial Cable Company's building, New York, Hard- 
ing & Gooch, architects, is illustrated in the advertisement of 
the E.xcelsior TerraCotta Company, page iv. 

The Ph(tnix Mutual Life Insurance Company's building, Hart- 
ford, Conn., Cady, Berg & See, architects, is illustrated in the adver- 
tisement of the New Jersey TerraCotta Company, page viii. 

.Number ten of the series of Brick and Terra Cotta Fireplace 
Mantels, of which J. A. Schweinfurth is architect, is illustrated in 
the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., page vii. 

.■\ residence at Baltimore, J. A. & W. T. Wilson, architects, is 
illustrated in the advertisement of Harbison & Walker Company, 

detail betwee.n sixth and .seventh story windows, 
hotel .martinique, new york city. 

'i'erra-cotta and brick by the New ^'o^k Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 
H. J. Hardenbergh. Architect. 

page XV. This building has been shown previously in this advertise- 
ment, but by mistake was titled a residence at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The basement floor construction of the American Soda Fountain 
Company's new building, Boston, Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, archi- 
tects, is shown in the advertisement of R. Guastavino, page xxiv. 

The Bank of Commerce Building, New York City, James Barnes 
Baker, architect, is shown in the advertisement of Henry Maurer & 
Son, page xxv. 

The New Hospital Building at Eastern Ohio Asylum for the 
Insane, Massillon, Ohio, Yost & Packard, architects, is shown in the 
advertisement of the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Charles T. Har- 
ris, Lessee, page xxix. 

The new Delmonico Building, Fifth Avenue, New York City, 
James Brown Lord, architect, is shown in the advertisement of the 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, page xxx. 



The American Schoolhouse. VI. 



R. WILLIAM ATKINSON writes concerning his plan pub- 
lished in the March paper of this series : — 
The plan is an at- 

tempt to reduce an eight- 
room schoolhouse to its 
lowest terms; in other 
words, to arrange four 
schoolrooms and four 
wardrobes on each floor, 
in the most compact 
manner possible. 

" As an example of 
the economy of floor 
space attained in this 
plan, take the second 
floor. On this floor only 
23 per cent, of the total 
area is devoted to hall- 
ways, stairways, heating 
and ventilating flues, and 
thickness of walls and par- 
titions, or, in other words, 
77 per cent, of the whole 
area is actually utilized. 

"The following fix- 
tures will illustrate this 
point : — 

Edmund M. Wlieelwright, City Architect. 

Area of building (53.9 by 92.3) .... 4,974.97 sq. ft. 
This area is made up as follows, on the second floor : — • 
Four class rooms at 768 3,072.00 sq. ft. 

Four wardrobes at 1 17.8 471.20 sq. ft. 

Two teachers' rooms at 100 200.00 „ „ 

Total utilized area (77 per cent.) .... 3,743.20 „ „ 
Space occupied by halls, stairs, flues, walls, 

and partitions (23 per cent.) . . . , 1,231.77 sq. ft. 

4,974-97 „ ,, 

"In schoolhouse 
plans of the ordinary 
elaborate type, in which 
large areas are devoted 
to hallways, corridors, 
and passages, it often 
happens that less than 50 
per cent, of the total area 
of the plan is utilized in 
rooms actually devoted to 
thepurposesof the school. 
" The amount of 
money to be spent in floor 
space devoted to hall- 
ways and corridors is a 
question for school com- 
mittees to decide in any 
given case. This plan, 
as stated above, is an 
attempt- to get the thing 
down to its lowest terms. 
" One important fea- 
ture of this plan is in the 
location of the stair- 
ways, which are placed at opposite ends of the building and in sepa- 
rate hallways not connected with each other, so that if one hallway 
should become filled with smoke, in case of fire, the other hallway 
would still give a safe way of egress to the inmates of the building. 












" This plan attains an economy of construction, as compared with 
the ordinary type of plan, in the following ways : — 

"I. By a reduction of area, as explained above. 

*' 2. By a reduction in the amount of interior partition wall. 

" 3. By a reduction 
in the height of the build- 
ing obtained by reducing 
the thickness of the floors 
and by running the win- 
dows clear up to the ceil- 

" 4. By a reduction 
in cubical contents by 
the use of the fiat roof. 

"5. By eliminating 
cut stone as far as possi- 

"6. By simplicity 
of construction. 

" The main proposi- 
tion of my father's pam- 
phlet is that an eight- 
room schoolhouse of two 
stories and a basement, 

with class rooms of the ordinary dimensions (28 by 32), may be 
planned to cover a ground area of not over 5,734 sq. ft., and that 
such a building ought not to cost over $30,000 complete, including 
grading of lot and architect's commission. This proposition was 
arrived at by theoretical reasoning. 



'• It has been my purpose in working out these plans to show that 

the proposition is a sound one, and capable of being demonstrated in 

practical form. 

" My plan with rooms 28 ft. wide instead of 24 would cover a 

ground area of 5,713.37 
sq. ft., substantially the 
same as the hypothetical 
figure given in the pam- 
phlet. This shows that 
the first part of the pro- 
position is correct. And 
from estimates which I 
have made I am satisfied 
that the plans as shown 
(but with class rooms 28 
instead of 24 ft.) could 
be executed complete for 
considerably less than 
$30,000 in the vicinity of 

My opinion in re- 
gard to Mr. Atkinson's 
proposition is so fully 
given in my last paper 

that further discussion of the subject appears to be unnecessary. 

As a result of the consideration of schoolhouse costs, previously 

given in these papers, the following general conclusions may be 

drawn : • — 

The addition of a schoolroom would appear to decrease the 


i r T T r 





cost of a sclioolhouse by about 2 per cent. The percentage of de- 
creased cost will probably be less in buildings in excess of sixteen- 
schoolroom capacity. 

Given an equal number of rooms, the cost of a grammar school- 
house is 4 per cent, 
greater than that of a 
primary school. 

The same accommo- 
dation can be given at i 5 
per cent, less cost in a 
three-Story than in a two- 
story schoolhouse. 

Separate wardrobes 
adjoining schoolrooms, 
increasing the cost of 
schoolhouse 4 per cent, 
over the cost of buildings 
of same number of rooms 
in which the clothing is 
hung in the corridors. 

An increase of 4 
ins. in one thickness of 
brick walls increases the 
cost of schoolhouse con- 
struction about 4 per 

Leaving out of con- 
sideration any additional 

thickness of brick walls which may be entailed thereby, the cost of 
double run of sash in schoolrooms increases the cost of school- 
houses about i}( per cent. 

The unusually severe require- 
ments of the Boston Building Laws 
as revised in 1S92 increased the 
cost of schoolhouse construction 
fully 9 per cent, without compensat- 
ing advantage. The floor, for in- 
stance, had to be constructed to 
carry a live load of 150 lbs. per 
square foot in addition to the weight 
of the floor itself. This condition 
alone increased the cost of construc- 
tion of Boston schoolhouses z}4 per 

When the Boston Building Law 
was further revised in 1897 and it 
was required that all schoolhouses 
should be of " fire-proof " construc- 
tion, no change in this requirement 
of excessive strength of floors was 

Previous to the passage of this 
law but two schoolhouses had been 
built in Boston with fire-proof floors, 
the Latin and English High and the 
Andrews School. The fire-proof 
floors in the Andrews School in- 
creased the cost of construction 
about 20 per cent. The Andrews 
School building was a nine-room, 
three-story, primary schoolhouse 
with roof of wooden construction. 
If such a building were built to-day 
with roof as well as floors of steel 
beam and terra-cotta arch construc- 
tion, the cost would probably have been increased about 25 per cent, 
above that of a building of the same grade and size but with floors 
and roof of wooden construction. 

Charnberlin & Austin, Arcliitects. 


The Gilbert Stuart Grammar School, built with floors and roof 
of wooden construction, cost $6,193 per schoolroom. It is a fourteen- 
schoolroom building with assembly hall. It is probable that if of 
fire-proof construction throughout, its cost would have been increased 

22 per cent., or to $7,555 
per schoolroom. Leav- 
ing out of consideration 
the cost of plumbing and 
heating, the cost per 
schoolroom of such a 
building of fire-proof con- 
struction would have been 
$6,855 PC schoolroom. 

Since the construc- 
tion of the Latin and 
English High School, 
which was completed in 
1 88 1 , the Paul Revere 
School is the first wholly 
fire-proof school building 
built for the city of Bos- 
ton. It is an eighteen- 
room building costing 
$152,406, or $8,488 per 
schoolroom. -Since the 
plumbing was more elab- 
orate in this building 
than in any previous 
school, bath rooms being here provided, we find that if the plumb- 
ing, together with the heating, is deducted, the cost per schoolroom 

was $7,322. The Revere School 
was lighted by electricity, the Stuart 
School was not ; the Revere School 
had upon the stairs Mason Safety 
Treads in place of rubber mats, and 
had oak instead of ash finish. 
These features probably increased 
the cost above that of Stuart School 
about $200 per schoolroom. It is 
reasonable to suppose that the more 
elaborate external treatment of the 
Revere School rendered the build- 
ing 3 per cent., or $350 per school- 
room, more expensive than the 
Stuart School. On account of the 
restriction of the site the cost of 
the Revere School was increased by 
the necessity of adopting a broken 
plan so that proper lighting might 
be given to the schoolrooms; we 
certainly may judge that this in- 
creased cost was $5,000 above that 
of the Stuart School. This amount 
would fully account for the remain- 
ing difference of cost between the 
two schools, if we consider the 
Stuart School as being of fire-proof 
construction and costing $6,855 per 
schoolroom, with heating and plumb- 
ing not included. 

It would appear from the al)ove 
conclusions that under ordinary con- 
ditions of site and architectural 
treatment, the excess of cost of fire- 
proof construction above that of 
buildings constructed under the Boston Building Laws of 1892 
would be about 22 per cent., /. e., a building of the form and archi- 
tectural treatment of the Stuart School can be built in Boston of 



fire-proof construction, with heating, ventilation, and the customary 
plumbing, for $7,555 per schoolroom, and that it may be safely 
reckoned that an equally well-finished and appointed building, con- 
structed in a perfectly safe and satisfactory manner, but of less ex- 
pensive construction than is permitted by the present Boston Build- 
ing Laws can be built, including plumbing and heating, for about 
$6,800 per schoolroom, or for but about $600 more per schoolroom 
than if constructed with wooden floors and roof under the require- 
ments of existing building laws. 

Consideration of the relative decrease in cost of school accom- 
modations due to the size of building and to the use of three instead 
of two story buildings, leads to the conclusion that if the demands 
for school accommodation under the best hygienic and structural 
conditions are to be met with due consideration for economy, that 
instead of small two-story, large three-story schoolhouses should be 
built, that school buildings should not be less than three stories in 
height, that they should not contain less than the equivalent of sixteen 
rooms, and that where 
fire-proof construction 
is required, schoolhouses 
should not be less than 
four stories in height. 

The schoolhouses 
lately constructed in 
New York City are built 
in accordance with the 
policy which should 
maintain in our large 
cities, if public educa- 
tion is to be given to our 
quickly increasing popu- 
lation without imposing 
an unfair burden upon 
the community. In that 
city the schoolhouses re- 
cently constructed are 
large fire-proof buildings 
of several, in some cases 
seven, stories in height. 
These later New York 
buildings are so impor- 
tant that they will later 
be given extended men- 
tion in these papers. 

It is not only in New York that the method of economically 
meeting the needs of schools constructed in accordance with the 
most approved conditions has ieen adopted. We find that a like 
policy maintains in the country towns of New England. The sys- 
tem of small district schools is being abandoned in these towns, large 
school buildings are being built at convenient centers, and thus the 
benefit of better conditions in school construction are gained at, I 
believe, no greatly increased cost per pupil, even though the towns 
pay for the transportation ol children living at long distances from 
the schools. 

Although generous appropriations are made in our large cities 
for school buildings, there is generally complaint of insufficient ac- 
commodation for the school children. If building laws are not made 
needlessly severe, and if large buildings of three or more stories in 
height are more generally constructed, this condition need not exist. 
The disadvantage of long flights of stairs for children to climb is 
largely one of the imagination. This inconvenience can in great 
measure be obviated by the introduction of elevators, and by the 
utilization of the roofs for the playground of the children assigned 
to the schoolrooms of the upper stories. Roof playgrounds are an 
interesting innovation in school planning lately adopted in the New 
York City schoolhouses. 

The rapid increase of population is often found to soon render 
small schoolhouses inadequate for the accommodation of the chil- 

Edmund M. Wheelwright, City Architect. 

dren of the neighborhood they were originally designed to serve. It 
should be borne in mind that with these small schools not only is the 
cost per schoolroom fully 20 per cent, greater than in the large three- 
story schools, but that the cost of grading, paving, and fencing, and 
the cost of janitor service and fuel, is relatively greater per pupil. 

Too often saving in cost is made at the expense of truly 
economical and safe construction. In one large Ohio city where 
•those in authority pride themselves upon the low cost of the school- 
houses, I found a building, four stories in height with stud interior 
partitions, furred walls, and no fire stops. It was unprovided with 
metal or brick ducts for ventilation. The foul air was supposed 
to find its way through the hollow spaces in floors and walls to the 
outer air. A more imperfect system of ventilation and a more in- 
genious fire trap than this method of construction could not well 
be devised. The rough surface of sawed lumber and the backs of 
plastered surfaces gave ready lodgment for dust, and the uncertainty 
of the direction of the air under such conditions gave no warrant that 

this dust was not 
breathed in by the oc- 
cupants of the building. 
It is hoped that 
members of school com- 
mittees and others in- 
terested in schoolhouse 
construction will recog- 
nize that in such work 
great saving in cost can 
seldom be made except 
by sacrifice of desirable 
features, and that the 
permanent value of a 
building depends upon 
the knowledge, skill, and 
forethought used by the 
architect in the disposi- 
tion of its parts, in the 
durability and fire-pro- 
tected character of its 
construction, in the 
quality of its appoint- 
ments and fittings; and 
finally, that the beauty of 
the design is no small 
consideration, but one 
which may fittingly be restrained within the limitations of brick con- 
struction. Such construction may be more or less elaborate, as the 
neighborhood, the site, and the size of the building may require. 

Except in the special cases of buildings built by private gift as 
memorials, public schoolhouses demand no richer external treatment 
than can be given by properly designed brickwork with stone or terra- 
cotta trimmings. Ordinarily, with careful study, a satisfactory build- 
ing can be produced if constructed of common brick of good quality. 
Variety can be given by the bondings of brickwork, by the use of 
various colored mortars in the brickwork of the several stories, and 
in the accentuation of certain features. To give variety of surface, 
and as a means of accentuation, different shades of red brick can be 
used with good results. By such simple means, schoolhouses may 
be constructed at a reasonable expense which will have a pleasing 
architectural effect, and few are now found to maintain that the archi- 
tectural effect of a schoolhouse is an unimportant consideration, and 
that a beautiful schoolhouse does not do its part in the education of 
the young. Personally, I have regretted that I have ever built brick 
school buildings of the factory type. The percentage of cost be- 
tween a school building designed with regard for architectural effect, 
and one of a purely utilitarian construction is not great. Under or- 
dinary conditions, satisfactory architectural results may be obtained 
at an excess of cost of not more than 5 per cent, above that of the 
most " practical " construction. A careful reckoning of the cost of 



the Brighton High School, the most elaborate school building designed 
by me, shows that but 8 per cent, of its cost was for architectural fea- 
tures. It will be generally admitted that a large building demands a 
greater relative cost for architectural effect than does a smaller one. 

In designing a schoolhouse the architect should strive to pro- 
duce not an English college building, a French chateau, or a " Ro- 
manesque " library, but a schoolhouse. The practical requirements 
of the problem demand in most cases symmetry of plan, and in all 
cases, lighting of the schoolrooms by wide and high windows. It is 
requisite that these windows should not have transom bars, and that 
either a flat roof or one of low pitch should be used. A high, well- 
lighted basement is also a requisite of a schoolhouse. The impor- 
tant rooms in the basement need ample windows, and a stud of lo 
ft. is none too high for the proper installation of the heating ap- 
paratus. These requirements for the basement affect schoolhouse 
designing most radically. 

Such being the general requirements which most influence the 
external expression of our schoolhouses, it will be found difficult to 
reconcile therewith features borrowed from the late English Gothic 
and the early English Renaissance. 

Aside from economy in planning, which certainly leads to a 
balanced arrangement of rooms, and which, except in rare cases, pre- 
cludes a picturesque and irregular disposition of these rooms, the 
key to the external expression of a schoolhouse is the size, and dis- 
tribution, and form of windows which experience has shown to be 
best adapted for the needs of a schoolroom. This consideration of 
window treatment alone leads the architect who appreciates the 
economic and practical requirements of the problem to abandon pic- 
turesque treatments in a schoolhouse design, and to adopt those sug- 
gested by the brick architecture of the Italian Renaissance and by 
the Georgian work of England and this country. Sufficiently varied 
motives for the external expression of our schoolhouse plans can be 
found in these styles. Such motive may be used without sacrifice of 
the practical requirements of the buildings, while unity in the varia- 
tion in design is permitted. Ample scope is given the designer by 
variation in texture and color of brickwork ; by variety in detail, divi- 
sion, and accentuation of surface ; in the treatment of roof, and in 
the mass and the proportion of the structure. By these means 
almost infinite opportunities for the expression of individual taste 
and skill are offered. Careful study in the application of these styles 
to schoolhouse construction will certainly tend to the greater refine- 
ment and perfection of the architectural expression of what is now 
a well-defined and generally satisfactory type of American building. 

The architect to whom the designing of a schoolhouse is en- 
trusted should accept the limitations imposed by the practical con- 
ditions of the problem. He should not seek to be "original," or to 
gain the semblance of a structure, however beautiful in its own time 
and for its own needs, which does not meet the requirements of an 
American schoolhouse. He may well be content to express in fit- 
ting architectural form the already well-developed schoolhouse plan. 
He will find profit by the study of the Cambridge High School. 
This building was, in my opinion, the first American schoolhouse 
which was designed in a truly artistic spirit; for here is found, 
with proper accentuation, good proportion, and refined detail, no 
sacrifice of the practical requirements which fitted the structure to 
its purpose. 

THE recent earthquake in San Francisco, while proving very 
destructive to many buildings, offered another evidence of 
the strength of the modern steel structure. It is reported that the 
nineteen-story Claus Spreckles building, although swayed like a tree 
in the storm, was not injured in the least. The damage to buildings 
of ordinary construction was very considerable, while some, presum- 
ably of the older and weaker buildings, made an utter collapse. 

The cyclone in St. Louis also gave pretty substantial evidence 
of the stability of this form of construction ; for with all the de- 
struction in that instance to wooden and other structures, the skele- 
ton iron and steel buildings suffered little damage. — Boston Herald. 

Strength of Brick Masonry. 


M. Am. Soc. C. E., Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, Champaign. 

Effect of Different Mortars. The effect of the different kinds 
of mortar is shown in Table I. The results in this table are averages 
for different kinds of brick, various heights of piers, etc., and hence 
should be used only as showing the relative strength of different 





Kinds of Mortar. 

I lime, 3 sand 

I Rosendale, 2 sand . . 
I Portland, 2 sand . . . 
Neat Portland .... 
I Rosendale, 2 lime mortar 
I Portland, 2 lime mortar . 






strength of 

the masonry 

in lbs. per 

sq. in. 



2,3 '5 
1 ,646" 
1,41 1 

Strength of the 

masonry in terms 

of that of the 

Brick. Mortar. 


O.I 2 


I '-3 


Note that the substitution of a i to 2 Rosendale natural cement 
for the lime mortar added 18 per cent, to the strength of the masonry, 
and that the substitution of a I to 2 Portland cement mortar added 
66 per cent. There are so few observations with the last three mor- 
tars that it is unwise to attempt any generalizations as to these 

The last two columns of Table I. give interesting data as to the 
strength of the masonry in terms of that of the brick and also of the 
mortar. The ratio between the strength of the masonry and that of 
the brick will depend upon the manner of testing the latter. The 
brick under consideration were ground to a plane and tested on their 
broad side between steel pressing surfaces. In connection with the 
last two columns of Table I., see Table III. following. According to 
that table, brick masonry with mortar composed of i part lime and 
2 sand has 44 per cent, of the strength of the brick ; and with i part 
Portland cement and 2 parts sand the strength of the masonry is 63 
per cent, of that of the brick. Nothing is known as to the strength 
of the mortar in Table III. 

In one particular the data of Table I. are disappointing. Evi- 
dently the mortar in the second and third lines was abnormally weak. 
Three six-inch cubes of each mortar were tested by crushing when 
fourteen and one half months old. The results are given in Table II. 









Kinds of Mortar. 

I lime, 3 sand .... 
I Rosendale, 2 sand . . 
I Portland, 2 sand . . . 
Neat Portland . . • . 
Neat Rosendale .... 
r Rosendale, 2 lime mortar 
I Portland, 2 lime mortar 


Strength lbs 

of the mortar 

in Table 1 

per sq. in 






Tensile Strength 

of Ordinary 

Mortar, lbs. per 

sq. in. 

Min. Mean. 









The last column of the table shows the minimum and mean ten- 
sile strength of ordinary mortar. It is known that the crushing 
strength of cement mortar is eight to ten times as great as the tensile 
strength, "['his shows that the i to 2 Kosendale and the 1 to 2 Port- 
land mortars were astonishingly poor. The crushing strength of the 
I to 2 Rosendale mortars at fourteen and one half months was less 
than the minimum tensile strength of natural cement mortar at one 
year; and the crushing strength of the i to 2 Portland mortar was 
only 1.7 times as great as the minimum tensile strength of average 1 
to 2 Portland cement mortar. In a letter to the writer of this, the 
officer in charge of the Watertown Arsenal said : " The cement was 
purcha.sed in the market, and the maker's name is not known. The 
mortar was mixed by an ordinary mason, and was not tested in tension." 

It is very unfortunate that the cement mortar was so poor. 
Mortar acts as a cushion to distribute the load of compression, and 
consequently the nearer the physical properties of the mortar approach 
those of the brick the more strength will be developed in the pier. 
The crushing strength of I to 2 Rosendale cement mortar should 
have been, say, ten times as much as it was, in which case the 
crushing strength of the masonry would certainly have been increased. 
Let us see if we can compute what it would have been. The third 
mortar in Tables I. and II. is four and one third times stronger than 
the first, and the third masonry is roughly two thirds stronger ; there- 
fore, assuming the crushing strength of the 1 to 2 Rosendale mor- 
tar to have been 1,500 lbs. per square inch (about eight times the 
minimum tensile strength in Table II), and applying the above ratio, 
the masonry with i to 2 Rosendale mortar would have had a strength 
of about 4,000 lbs. per square inch. Reasoning similarly, the ma- 
sonry with I to 2 Portland cement would have stood something like 
5,000 lbs. per square inch. 

F.j^ect of Size of Cross Section. The e.xperiments show conclu- 
sively that the strength decreases as the area of the cross section 
increases. Twelve-inch piers are about 20 per cent, weaker than 
eight-inch piers, and sixteen-inch are about the same amount weaker 
than twelve-inch ones, — all under like conditions. There are com- 
paratively few exceptions to these conclusions. The greater strength 
of the smaller pier is doubtless due to the better bonding. 

Effect of Heii^/it of Pier. Naturally the strength of the pier de- 
creased as the height increased. Averaging all the grades of brick 
together, and representing the height in feet by H and the diameter 
in feet by D, the crushing strength of piers may be represented by 
the following formulas : — 

With I to 3 lime mortar, 

the crushing strength in pounds per square inch = 2,330-102''. (i) 
With I to 2 Rosendale mortar, 

the crushing strength in pounds per square inch = 2,520-104''. (2) 
With I to 2 Portland mortar, 

the crushing strength in pounds per square inch = 3,350-132^. (3) 

Hollow vs. Solid Piers. Seven piers 12 ins. square, with a 
hollow core 4 ins. square running from top to bottom, and four piers 
16 ins. square, with a hollow core 8 ins. square, were tested. Nothing 
significant is shown by these experiments, the crushing strength per 
square inch of net area agreeing surprisingly with the values for solid 
piers of the same external dimensions. 

Effect of Profile of Pier. One of the most interesting tests of 
the whole series is that of an 8 by 16 in. pier with a 16 by 16 in. base. 
The smaller section was connected to the larger by four courses, each 
of which projected on two sides an inch beyond the course next above 
it. The pier was 50 ins. high, the small section being 25 ins. high. 
The pier consisted of thirty courses of '• face " brick in lime mortar, 
and was tested when two and one half months old. The average 
thickness of the joints was three sixteenths of an inch. This pier 
failed in the lower and larger portion under a stress of 601 lbs. per 
square inch, the upper and smaller portion showing no signs of failure 
under i ,233 lbs. per square inch. The problem is : Why did the pier 
fail in the larger portion under less than half the stress the smaller 
portion bore without any signs of failure ? 

Fig. I , made from the pier now in the Masonry Laboratory of the 
University of Illinois, shows the cracks developed in the base section 
during the test. The only cracks are those shown in the illustration 
and similar ones immediately opposite in the back face. The cracks 
are approximately in the plane of side of the top section. Appar- 
ently the failure is due to the compression of that portion of the 
bottom section directly under the top section, thereby causing the com- 
pressed portion to shear off from the uncompressed part of the base 
section. This fact is very surprising and is important in designing 
footing courses. Probably if the base section had been thinner the 
pier would have been stronger, and possibly failure would have taken 
place in the smaller section. 

A pier having an 8 by 8 in. top section of twenty courses, and 
a 1 5 by 16 in. bottom section of eight courses, with four contract- 
ing courses connecting the larger and smaller portions, laid in neat 

Portland cement mortar and tested 
when two and a half months old, 
failed in the smaller portion under 
3,540 lbs. per square inch, the stress 
on the base section being 833 lbs. 
per square inch. In this case the 
difference between the upper and 
lower sections was too great to se- 
cure the effect discussed in the pre- 
ceding paragraph. 

Effect of Age. The experiments 
give little or no information as to the 
effect of age upon the strength of 
masonry. Four twelve-inch piers 
laid in i to 2 Rosendale cement 
mortar, tested when twenty-one 
months old, are comparable with 
four tested when six and a half 
years old. The first four gave an 
average strength of about 2,100 lbs. 
per square inch, while the second 
four gave about 2,000 lbs. per square 
inch. Notice that the younger 
masonry is the stronger. This differ- 
ence is greater than can be accounted 
for by the probable error of the exper- 
iments; nevertheless, it may be due 
to error. However, it may be due to 
unsound cement. 

Apparently masonry laid in lime 

mortar was the same strength at two 

and a half, fourteen, and twenty-four 

months of age. This condition is 

based on only two experiments of each age, and is therefore liable 

to considerable error. It is interesting, however, as showing the 

rapidity with which lime mortar gains its strength. 

Effect of Various Elements. One twelve-inch pier with joints 
broken every sixth course, and one twelve-inch pier with the brick laid 
on edge, were tested, but the result is without special significance. 
It is impossible to draw any safe conclusions from a single test. 
The difference between the results for the two piers above and those 
for piers built in the ordinary way is not greater than the error of 
the experiments. 

Six piers were tested with blue stone cap and base, but the 
stone did not materially affect the strength of the brick masonry, as 
might have been foretold. 

A pier of face brick 12 ins. square and 6 ft. high, laid up hol- 
low without any mortar, had a strength of 525 lbs. per square inch 
— about one third of a similar pier with mortar. 


According to the building regulations of lierlin, the safe load 
for brick masonry is less than one tenth of the results in Table III. 

FIG. I. 



On the Saline Efflorescence of Bricks. 



Kind of Brick. 

of Brick, lbs. 
per sq. in. 

Ultimate Strength, in lbs. per sq. in,, of 
Brick Masonry with Mortar Composed of 


1 Lime 

2 Sand 

7 Lime 

I Cement 

16 Sand 

1 Cement 
6 Sand 

I Cement 
3 Sand 


Clinker Stock . . 







Selected Stock 







Ordinary Stock . 







Perforated . . . 







Porous .... 







Porous Perforated. 






Table III. purports to give the ultimate strength of the masonry, 
and claims to be derived from experiments. The internal evidence is 
that it was not derived directly from experiment. If the strength of 
the brick in any line of Table III. be represented by i, that of the 
corresponding masonry in the several columns will be represented by 
44, 48, 55, and 63 per cent, respectively, which shows that the results 
were computed and not derived directly from experiment. However, 
these per cents, are interesting as showing the relation between the 
masonry and the strength of the brick, and also as showing the rela- 
tive strength of the several grades of masonry. These per cents, 
correspond to the numbers in the next to the last column of Table I. 
It is not stated how the brick in Table III. were tested, but it is evi- 
dent that they are very much weaker than those in Table I. (It will 
be remembered that the latter had a strength of from i i,ooo to 18,000 
lbs. per square inch when ground flat and tested on the broad side.) 
Although the brick of Table III. are much the weaker, the masonry 
is much the stronger. In Table III. the term "cement" almost cer- 
tainly means Portland cement. 

The pressure at the base of a brick shot-tower in Haltiinore, 
246 ft. high, is estimated at 6}4 tons per square foot (about 90 lbs. 
per square inch). The pressure at the base of a brick chimney at 
Glasgow, Scot., 468 ft. high, is estimated at 9 tons per square foot 
(about 150 lbs. per square inch); and in heavy gales this is increased 
to 15 tons per square foot (210 lbs. per square inch) on the leeward 
side. The leading Chicago architects allow 10 tons per square foot 
(140 lbs. per square inch) on the best brickwork laid in i to 2 natural 
cement mortar, and 5 tons for ordinary brickwork in lime mortar. 
Ordinary brick piers 18 by 24 ins. by 10 ft. have been known to 
bear 40 tons per square foot (560 lbs. per square inch) for several 
days without any sign of failure. 

Tables I, and III. appear to show that the above practise is very 
conservative with regard to the pressure allowed on brick masonry. 
According to Table I., the ultimate strength of ordinary brick masonry 
with lime mortar is ri2 tons per square foot (1,551 lbs. per square 
inch); and w\i\\ good i to 2 natural cement is certainly at least 130 
tons per square foot (1,825 lbs. per square inch), and probably twice 
this amount; and v/\\.\\ good i to 2 Portland cement is certainly 1 So 
tons per square foot (2,540 lbs. per square inch), and possibly twice 
this amount. 

The nominal pressure to be permitted upon brick masonry de- 
pends upon the kind of material employed; the degree of care with 
which it is executed ; whether it is for a temporary or permanent 
structure, an important or unimportant structure; and, it may be 
added, the care with which the nominal maximum load is estimated. 
Hence it is illogical to attempt to use a constant factor of safety. 
The designer must use his judgment and his knowledge of the 
attendant conditions of the problem in hand, 

• From " Abstracts of the Institute of Civil Engineers " (London), Vol. 7<;, p. 376, 


AVOIDING THE SAME. — Continued. 


THE efflorescences produced by the sulphates in the green brick 
or during the water-smoking are always visible on the surface 
of the burnt product, either in the form of whitewash or in that of 
minute warty, crystalline kernels. On the other hand, the burnt pro- 
ducts may come from the kiln faultless in appearance and without a 
visible trace of coloration, and yet conceal in their interiors consider- 
able quantities of sulphates, which, when the bricks are later wet by 
water, are dissolved and make their appearance at the surface. These 
salts arise always during the burning, — ■ not before, — and are particu- 
larly annoying because of their usually appearing first in the finished 
buildings, where, through the effects of rain and frost, they gradually 
are drawn to the surface. 

Hitherto the opinion has been erroneously entertained that, in 
burning, only the sulphurous acid gas due to combustion participates 
in the formation of whitewashing sulphates, whereas the undisinte- 
grated iron pyrites still remaining in the clay was left entirely 
unnoticed. Now Dr, Hans Guenther, of Carlsruhe, has recently 
shown by a series of instructive experiments that also the iron pyrites 
in the clay participates in the formation of whitewashing sulphates 
during the burning; and this is readily intelligible when we reflect 
that the sulphurous acid gas, produced by the combustion, must act 
mainly on the surface of the bricks and can only gradually penetrate 
into their interior, whereas the combustion of the finely distributed 
iron pyrites in the brick itself brings the generated sulphurous acid 
gas into immediate contact with the finely distributed carbonates of 
the clay, and so renders possible a perfect absorption of the acid by 
the carbonates. 

The formation of whitewashing sulphates during burning takes 
place as follows : — 

A part of the sulphur in the iron pyrites ( FeS^, ) is very loosely 
combined with the iron, and oxidation of this part begins at approxi- 
mately 650 degs. Fahr., whereas the other part burns only at red 
heat. The products of the disintegration are oxide of iron (Fe^, Oo ) 
and sulphurous acid gas (SOo ). Expressed in chemical formula?, we 
have : — 

I. FeS, -f 2O = FeS -f SO, 
II. 2FeS -f- 7O = Fe,' O.., + 2SO.3. 

The sulphurous acid gas SO^ , when heated in contact with solid 
porous bodies, is oxidized by the superfluous oxygen of the air of 
combustion to sulphuric acid, or converts existing oxides into sul- 
phuric salts. It was for a long time erroneously believed that the 
presence of water or of water vapor was necessary to the formation 
of sulphates; but as early as 1856 Plattner in his book, Der nictal- 
liirgische Rostprocrss, demonstrated experimentally that sulphurous 
acid gas in combination with the oxygen of the air and in contact 
with minute particles, or in contact with porous solid bodies, oxidizes 
to sulphuric acid, and that the water vapor in the air was not of 
consequence for the formation of this acid. If the minute particles 
or porous bodies are or contain oxides, these oxides are converted 
into whitewashing sulphuric salts. The following of Plattner's ex- 
periments is of special interest to the brickmaker. He conducted a 
mixture of sulphurous acid gas and atmospheric air, once wet and 
once dry, over some unslacked lime (CaO) in a glass tube. At red 
heat the lime was converted into calcium sulphate (CaO -f SO, + O 
^ CaSOj ) without a trace of sulphurous acid or sulphuric acid being 
noticeable at the free end of the tube. All the sulphurous acid, 
accordingly, was absorbed by the lime and converted by the oxygen 
of the air into sulphate of calcium. The same experiments were 
made with other oxides with the same results. 

In the burning of clay products the same conditions prevail, pro- 



vided the fuel contains sulphur and the clay contains carbonates of 
calcium, of magnesia, or of alkalies — which is to a greater or lesser 
extent usually the case. At red heat the carbonates, liberating their 
carbonic acid, are converted into their respective oxides, which, being 
finely distributed throughout the porous brick by the oxidizing action 
of the air, combine with the sulphurous acid gas to form whitewashing 

To turn these laboratory experiments to account for practical 
brickmaking, the experiments were made on a large scale. Dif- 
ferent clays were burnt with different fuels, and the amount of sul- 
phates contained in the products determined both before and after 
Experiment 1. Clay alone cotitains sulphur. 

Material. Clay containing both iron pyrites and a small quan- 
tity of carbonate of lime. 

Mode of Burning. Red heat (about 1650 to 1750 degs. Fahr.). 
Gas furnace. Oxidizing flame. The gas employed showed only the 
merest traces of sulphur. A kilogram of the unburnt clay con- 
tained 0.584 grams CaS04 , or calcium sulphate. A kilogram 
of burnt clay contained 2.874 grams of CaS04 . Result, Since 
the fuel contained no sulphur, the fivefold increase of the amount 
of whitewashing sulphates in the burnt product must have been 
entirely due to the presence of the iron pyrites in the clay. 
Experiment II. Both the clay and the fuel contain sulphur. 

Material. Same clay as in Experiment I. 

Mode of Burning. Red heat. Coal fuel. Oxidizing flame. 
Coal contained 3 to 4 per cent. FeS2 , or iron pyrites. The amount of 
sulphates was determined in several different burnt bricks. A kilo- 
gram of the burnt clay contained on an average 12.76 grams 
CaSO^ . 

Result. A more than t-jjentyfold increase of the whitewashing 
ExPERiME.NT III. Fuel alone contains sulphur. 

Material. Clay free from iron pyrites, but containing much 
carbonate of lime. 

Mode of Burning. Red heat. Fuel, coal, etc., as in Experi- 
ment II. One kilogram of the unburnt clay contained 0.483 
grams CaSOj . One kilogram of the burnt clay contained 16.85 
grams CaSO^ . 

Result. An almost/i^r/yy??/*/ increase of whitewashing sulphates. 
Experiment IV. Clay atid fuel free from iron pyrites (at least con- 
taining traces only). 

.Material. -Same as in Experiment 111. 

Mode oj Burning. Gas furnace. Oxidizing flame. Red heat. 
One kilogram of the unburnt clay contained 0.4S3 CaSO^ . One 
kilogram of the burnt clay con^jijiied 0.621 CaSOj . 

Result. A very slight increase of whitewashing sulphate. 
Experi.vient V. Fuel free from iron pyrites. Clay containing 

great quantities of iron pyrites, hut only traces of carbonate of lime. 

Material. Clay containing large quantities of iron pyrites, but 
almost free from carbonate of lime and other carbonates. 

Mode of Burning. Gas. Oxidizing flame. One kilogram 
of the unburnt clay contained 0.321 grams CaS04 . One kilo- 
gram of the burnt clay contained 0.518 grams CaS04 . 

Result. A very slight increase. 
Experi.ment VI. Fuel a}id clay both contain iron pyrites, but the 

clay shows only traces of carbonate of lime. 

The materials and the results were the same as in Experiment V. 

Conclusion. — -It follows from the above experiments that the 
whitewashing sulphates are formed in large and annoying quantities 
only when sulphurous acids and carbonate of lime, or other car- 
bonates, occur together in chemical action. Sulphurous acid has no 
injurious effect on clays containing no carbonates of lime, magnesia, 
or alkalies. Such clays, accordingly, can be burnt with sulphurous 
coal without any fear of an increase of whitewashing sulphates, 
whilst clays containing carbonate of lime require a fuel free from 




President of tlie Continental Insurance Co., N. V. 

Delegate of New York Hoard of Fire Underwriters «o the Board of Examiners of the 

New York Building Department. 



It is hardly necessary to deal with the foundations of buildings. 
The question is an engineering problem which hardly requires sug- 
gestions from a fire standpoint, and I shall not deal with it here, other 
than to touch again upon the important point of not having wrought- 
iron or steel columns in the cellar or basement, where moisture and 
gas conditions would increase the danger of rust. 


These, as already stated, should l)e of brick, the lower stories 
laid in cement mortar, not less than 16 ins. thick at the top of the 
building and increasing 4 ins. in thickness for every 25 ft. in height 
to the bottom. This would require a 44 in. wall at the grade for a 
200 ft. building. The thicknesses here recommended are for build- 
ings not exceeding 100 ft. in depth. If they exceed this depth with- 
out curtain or cross walls, or proper piers or buttresses, the walls 
should be increased in thickness 4 ins. for every additional loo ft. in 

Brick is the best known resistant of fire. Stone yields readily 
to the combined effect of heat and water, and even terra-cotta or 
burned clay tile cannot be regarded as a perfect substitute for hard- 
burned brick. 

Under no circumstances should the iron framework of a skele- 
ton building be incorporated in thin enclosing walls. No wall that 
has not a cross section sufficient to support itself without the iron- 
work should be allowed, aside from the importance of having it 
thick enough to prevent the passage of hot air from an adjoining 

Curtain walls for enclosing walls supported by the longitudinal 
members of skeleton construction are objectionable ; they are liable 
to be buckled out by the expansion of the framework. The great 
trouble with modern fire-proof structures, even under the New York 
building law, is that while the separating fire-proof floors tend to 
prevent the passage of flame from one story to another, the enclosing 
walls are often insufficient to prevent heat from igniting tlie contents 
of an adjoining building, so that wliat is gained by preventing the 
spread of fire vertically is lost laterally. 

It should be borne in mind tliat the thickness of walls herein 
recommended is not for carrying capacity as bearing walls. Thinner 
walls would answer for that purpose. It is intended to confine the 
heat generated by a fire and should be required in the compact por- 
tions of cities, where every man should be compelled to build with 
reference to the safety of his neighbor. 

Architects and builders generally seem to have in mind only the 
carrying capacity of walls and to lose sight of this important fact. 

As the contents of a mercantile building and its floors burn they 
sink to the bottom, where enormously high temperatures are reached, 
and it is for this reason it is recommended that walls increase in 
thickness as they approach the bottom, on the same principle that 
the walls of smelting furnaces are thicker at the bottom than at the 

It is the generally accepted opinion that a 12 in. brick wall will 
prevent the passage of fire, but a much thicker wall will fail to con- 
fine the heat of a burning building, on the first floor particularly, 
sufficiently to prevent the ignition of combustible merchandise or 
other material in an adjoining building. In a fire which occurred 
in Boston, several years ago, combustible material was ignited 


through a 3 ft. wall, which became so hot as to thus conduct the heat 
into the adjoining building. In an isolated location an owner might 
be permitted to construct his walls with reference only to their carry- 
ing capacity, but where he builds in the compact part of a city, 
storing combustible materials from cellar to roof, he should be re- 
quired to build so that a fire in his premises will not necessarily 
destroy his neighbor's property. He may well observe a regulation 
which, in view of the fact that the buildings of his neighbors out- 
number his own a thousand to one, will ensure that he shall be in 
that proportion the gainer by rules which secure the safety of all 
though imposed on himself. 

I do not believe " skeleton construction " so called should be 
permitted for stores, warehouses, or manufactories in cities, as the 
walls are not thick enough to confine the heat of burning merchan- 

In some of our Western cities, Detroit, Chicago, etc., the practise 
is growing of using hollow tiling, bonded like ordinary brickwork, 
12 ins. thick, for enclosing walls, instead of brick, the exposed steel 
frame being protected by terra-cotta slabs about an inch thick. Such 
a building would burn more quickly than an ordinary wooden-joi.sted 
building properly constructed. The Leonard Building, in Detroit, 
destroyed by fire Oct. 7, 1897, was an example of the great danger 
of this style of construction. It was ten stories high, and as fast as 
the columns or wall girders were warped by the heat the tiling 
dropped out like loose bricks, leaving the entire structure after the 
fire a ragged cage-work of iron with very little of the tiling on the en- 
closing walls and none of the floors intact. The contents were, of 
course, totally destroyed. 


Bond stones should not be allowed in piers, especially in the 
cellar or basement, or in piers vital to the building or carrying great 
weights. Stone yields readily and quickly to the combined effects 
of water and heat and, disintegrating at its edges, gradually releases 
the bricks above it, so as, in time, to destroy the integrity of the pier. 
Bond stones are employed by the mason to steady his work. A green 
brick pier while being laid is frequently unsteady, and a bond stone 
enables him to progress with his work by steadying all below it so as 
to receive new courses of brick. In all cases the bond should be a 
cast-iron plate. If the plate should be cast with holes through it 
about I '^ ins. in diameter, so that the mortar and cement can thor- 
oughly incorporate the plate with the masonry above and below, it would 
be an improvement. Wrought iron is liable to rust and should not 
be used. Where bond stones are used in the outer walls of buildings 
they are less objectionable, but for inside piers they are so dangerous 
that they ought to be prohibited by law. Strangely enough, only stone 
for bonds used to be required by the New York building law, 
and such was the opposition of the stone men to the prohibition of 
bond stones altogether, when later it was proposed, that a compromise 
was reached allowing the use of cast-iron bonds as an alternative of 
stone bonds — an option seldom availed of by architects, builders, or 
owners, however, and construed generally by the public to mean that 
either is good enough. 


It not infrequently happens that a building of otherwise ad- 
mirable construction has its weakest point in the cellar, where a stone 
pillar forms the basis of support of the entire line of columns through 
the building. In case of fire and the application of water these stone 
pillars, no matter how substantial, whether single monoliths or stone 
blocks, will rapidly disintegrate and bring down the entire structure ; 
and inspectors should carefully examine, especially in the cellars, for 
such construction. After the great Boston fire, granite piers were 
shoveled up and carted away like so much sand. It is quite a com- 
mon practise, but a most dangerous one, to employ single stone 
columns, often of polished granite, to support the center of a long 
stone lintel carrying the wall over the ornamental entrance of a build- 
ing. Such a column would surely yield to the effect of fire and 
water and perhaps let down the entire front. In almost any city 

(and New York is no exception) such faulty architecture may be 
observed. The writer passes every day a costly structure on Fifth 
Avenue whose corner is supported by a single granite monolith 
column of this kind. If stone columns are desired for architectural 
effect they should, wherever they carry heavy loads, contain a center 
column of cast iron of sufficient carrying capacity to support the 
superimposed weight. 


The vertical supports, columns, pillars, etc., as already stated, 
should be of cast iron, cylindrical in form, of liberal thickness, 
especially in the lower stories, thoroughly tested as to sand holes, 
thin places, etc. Cast iron columns should be round, and not square. 
In the former shape there is less likelihood of defects in casting, sand 
holes, etc., resulting in uniform sound thickness of the shell. The 
columns should be planed to smooth bearings, so that the entire 
system of columns, from the foundation to the roof, may be securely 
bolted together and form a continuous line with joints for expansion 
and without any inequalities of bearings. Under no circumstances 
should wedges or "shims"* be allowed. This most important 
matter is often neglected. The flanges and corbel brackets for sup- 
porting beams should be cast in one piece with the column and not 
depend upon rivets or bolts. Rivets, aside from the danger of 
shearing strains, are almost certain to rust to the point of danger. 
The beams should l^e riveted or bolted to lugs on the columns, how- 
ever, as a tie between the side walls, holding the entire structure 
firmly and consistently together as one rigid whole and- yet with play 
for expansion. 

Col. Geo. B. Post, of New York, has devised a form of cast-iron 
cage construction consisting of pillars and floor beams of the Hodg- 
kinson pattern the members of which lock into each other, without 
the use of bolts or rivets, forming a very rigid construction and 
saving the cost of mechanics for bolt and rivet work. While I have 
not had an opportunity to examine it, I have great faith in his judg- 
ment; my impression, from his description of it, is that it would be 
very rigid construction and admirably adapted to warehouses six 
and seven stories high. Above this height merchandise should not 
be stored in any kind of a building. 

The factors of safety, in computing strains, should not be less 
than those prescribed by the standard modern authorities. Better 
be sure than sorry. 


All ironwork, columns and pillars, beams and girders, should be 
fire-proofed, /. e., covered with at least 4 ins. of incombustible 
material, terra-cotta or brick. At the floor, and for a height of 4 ft. 
in mercantile buildings, a metal guard should be employed to prevent 
the column from being stripped by collisions with rolling trucks for 
moving merchandise. It ought to be unnecessary to suggest that 
wooden lagging should, under no circumstances, be used to cover 
iron, were it not for the fact that in one of the largest and most 
costly dry-goods stores in New York, the fire-proof covering of the 
iron columns, which had b'een seriously damaged by trucks, was 
being systematically removed in order to substitute wooden lagging, 
when the fault was, fortunately, detected by an inspector of the 
underwriters. 4 ins. of good brick-work is a good covering, but 
porous terra-cotta or even wire lath and plaster may prove effective. 
Where wire lath and plaster is used the column should first be 
wrapped with quarter-inch asbestos bound with wire. This would 
prove reliable and inexpensive. 

It is a fact, showing how common is the neglect to cover iron 
with nonconducting material, that in the State Capitol, Albany, N. Y., 
in the library, is a large plate girder entirely exposed. This girder 
supports the ceiling beams, and there is enough combustible material 
in the oak bookcases, furniture, and flooring to wreck this portion of 
the building by expansion in case of their combustion. The New 

* " Shims '* are pieces of slate or iron inserted to secure a true vertical wliere the two 
surfaces have not been properly leveled or planed. 



^'ork Huilding Law was enacted in this building. The ceilings of 
the Assembly and Senate chambers are of heavy, hard wood, attached 
to the soffits of the iron beams, and they would, if ignited, probably 
warp and expand the beams to a dangerous point. 

A notable instance, showing the necessity of protecting iron- 
work with incombustible material, and the danger of expansion in 
long lines of iron girders or beams, was that of the destruction of a 
fire-proof spinning mill at Burnley, Eng., recently. This mill was 
210 ft. long by 120 ft. wide, six cast-iron girders of the Hodgkin- 
son type, each 20 ft. long, spanned the 1 20 ft. width, being bolted to 
cast-iron columns, and carrying, in turn, cross girders of wrought 
iron. The expansion of these 120 ft. girders (they were unprotected) 
resulted in the disruption of the floor and the destruction of the mill. 
The cast-iron columns, being unprotected, collapsed under fire and 
water. The floors were 10 ft. 6 in. bays. As already stated, beams 
should not be spaced over 5 ft. on centers. Wider spacing results 
in weak arches, liable to be buckled out by heat or punched through 
by the falling of safes or of other heavy articles from upper floors. 

The probability is that if the 20 ft. girders in this building had 
been arranged with provision for expansion, and all the ironwork had 
been thoroughly protected with fire-proof material, little damage 
would have been done. The effect, if the floors had been loaded 
with combustible merchandise, would have been more rapid. There 
was little wood to burn in the contents of the spinning mill, and yet 
the destruction was thorough. Such buildings with uncovered iron- 
work are more dangerous than those of heavy wood construction, in 
which the timbers are 12 ins. or more in diameter, and not more than 
five stories in height. A properly constructed building with protected 
iron, however, is, of course, superior to any other form of building. 
Experienced firemen are afraid to enter buildings supported by iron 
columns unless they are thoroughly fire-proofed, as they are liable to 
snap without warning under the influence of fire and water, whereas 
wooden posts burn slowly and give notice 01 collapse. They will 
stand a severe fire without being charred for more than 2 ins of their 


In mercantile buildings and factories beams, as already stated, 
ought not to be spaced more than 5 ft. apart, no matter what kind of 
arch is employed ; and while many experts claim that a heavy iron 
I beam, thoroughly encased in fire-proof material on three sides and 
having only its soffit or under side exposed, would not be expanded 
enough by the heat of a fire to cause its collapse, it is best to take 
no chances, l)ut to protect the under side with fire-proof material, 
which can be cheaply applied with wire lath and plaster, or by hav- 
ing the skew-l)acks of the terra-cotta floor fillings extend below the 
softit or bottom flange of the beam, and made with lips for protect- 
ing the iron. 


It is a mistake, in my judgement, to dispense with tie-rods, even 
with the kinds of arches which employ wire cables or other metal ties. 
The claim is made that these act as tie-rods, but it should be remem- 
bered that they cannot be relied on during construction, when der- 
ricks for hoisting iron beams and other materials are resting on the 
girders. Dangerous lateral movements and Iwistings of the structure 
may be the result of want of rigidity, which can only be secured by 


It is my opinion — but there are many who entertain a different 
one — that the old-fashioned brick arch is the most reliable for re- 
sisting fire ; that next to this in safety stands the porous terra-cotta 
segmental arch, with end construction, /. e., the blocks or separate 
pieces placed end to end between the beams, instead of side by side 
in what is known as " side construction." This is said to be stronger 
than side construction. It is claimed by many experts that porous 
•terra-cotta is a better non-conductor than brick on account of its 
interior air spaces. The arch should not be less than 4 ins. thick, 

having a rise of at least iX ins.' to each foot of span between the 
beams, and there should be a covering of good Portland cement and 
gravel concrete over this to ensure a waterproof floor. Cinder 
filling will burn — crushed slag from blast furnaces is better, but the 
Portland cement concrete should not be omitted for waterproofing 

There are many patent floor arches for filling between 1 beams 
which have great merit when properly put in, but I doubt if any of 
them are equal to the two I have named, and it should always be 
borne in mind that when employed they should be inserted with the 
same care with which they are prepared for tests. This is almost 
equally true, however, as regards brick and burnt-clay arches, also. 
There is less likelihood of poor installation work, however, with brick 
arches or segmental arches of porous terracotta or burnt clay. 
Arches .should be laid in Portland cement, not lime mortar. Under 
no circumstances should they be laid in freezing weather, and where 
concrete is used the broken stone or gravel should be carefully 
washed, and the cement should be of the best qualitv. 


It is of great importance that the floors of all buildings should 
be waterproof, in order that the volume of water thrown by the fire 
department to extinguish a fire may be carried off without injury to 
merchandise on the floors below. Neglect of these precautions is 
criminal in view of their simplicity and inexpensiveness. 

After the arches have been set between the I beams they should 
be covered, for at least a thickness of i in., with the best Portland 
cement concrete, carefully laid, so that all water will run to the sides 
of the building and be carried off by water vents or scuppers, which 
may be arranged with pipes through the walls, having a check-valve 
which would prevent the influx of cold air and yet admit of the out- 
flow of water. 

All ducts for carrying steam, gas, and other pipes and electric 
conduits should be protected with a metal sleeve going above the 
surface of the floor, and the space between and around the pipes 
should be filled in closely with mineral wool, asbestos, or some other 
expansive and fire-proof material to cut off drafts and flame. 


Floor boards should be dispensed with, if possilile, and asphalt 
or concrete employed instead. It is hardly practicable in office build- 
ings, however, to dispense with wooden floors. Wherever used they 
should be so laid, especially in mercantile or manufacturing buildings, 
that there is no air space to supply a passage for flame and to form a 
harborage for rats and mice, to which these vermin can carry matches, 
oily waste, or other combustible material, to be ignited by steam pipes 
or by spontaneous combustion. 


Various processes, "electric," so called, and otherwise, have been 
patented for fire-proofing wood. They undoubtedly increase the fire- 
resisting properties of wood for interior trim, window casings, etc. 
Whether or not they impair the durability of wood is a matter as to 
which I am not yet informed, and I doubt if sufficient time has elapsed 
for a proper test. The United States Navy has made trials of fire- 
proof woodwork — with what success I am not informed. 


The enclosures of all ventilating shafts, for water-clo.sets, etc., 
light shafts, and dumb-waiter shafts should be constructed in the same 
substantial manner as freight elevator shafts. It is a mistake to use 
thin plaster board or plaster with dovetailed, or other metal, lath, etc. 
No enclosure should be relied upon less than 4 ins. in thickness, well 
braced with angle iron, but brick walls are best, especially in buildings 
over 60 ft. high. The lights should be of wire glass, set in metal 
framework, and ventilators should have metal louvers arranged to 
secure ventilation but not to increase a draft. Slats should be riveted, 
not soldered, to metal framework, and the metal framework should 



flange well over the fire-proof material of shaft on both sides. It is 
possible to finish tin-covered fire-proof doors with wooden trim so as 
to be ornamental, with bead panel-work, etc. 


These should be avoided if the building is to be regarded as 
fire-proof. The Home Building had one 48 by 22 ft. It is almost 
impossible to control a fire starting in the lower floors where a well- 
hole opens through those above. Luxfer Prisms are now used to 
secure light from side windows, it is claimed, with great success. 

A recent fire test of the Luxfer Prism, in Chicago (March, 1898), 
is stated to have been satisfactory to Fire Marshal Swenie, as show- 
ing that these prisms afford material protection from the heat of a 
neighboring fire in an exposing building, and that to some extent 
they are substitutes for iron shutters. 


These should be in hallways cut off from the rooms at each 
story by fire walls and doors, to prevent drafts. It is not so im- 
portant, and is not so practicable, in the case of office and hotel 
buildings as in the case of mercantile and manufacturing buildings ; 
but it is advisable, even in office buildings, to have the staircases, 
elevators, etc., in a separate hallway, the division walls of which 
should extend through and above the roof, and any skylights should 
be covered with glass not less than X 'f- thick. 


It is contended by some that skylights should be of thin glass, 
so that they will break easily and permit the escape of smoke and 
gas. Smoke is ignitible, and when it accumulates in a building 
often spreads the fire from story to story, or blows out the walls by 
the explosion of its gases. But while thin skylights are contended 
for by many expert firemen, it should be borne in mind that nothing 
so facilitates the spread of fire as a draft, and it would be better to 
have the skylights adjusted with appliances for opening them, so 
that when the firemen arrive on the ground, and not before, they 
may be adjusted to permit the escape of smoke and allow the fire- 
men to enter the building to see where to work to the best advantage. 
Under any circumstances a network of wire should be above the 
glass to guard it against flying embers, and another should be sus- 
pended beneath the skylights, so that when the glass cracks and 
breaks with the heat it will not injure the firemen below. 


These should be of brick or tile on all high buildings, the roof 
beams being of iron and, where tanks are supported, of sufficient 
strength to carry many times the actual probable weight of the water 
and the containing tank itself. 


Slate roofs, on very high buildings especially, on street fronts 
are objectionable, as, in case of fire, the slates would crack and, falling 
to the street, injure the firemen. A flat roof of brick tile is better 
■ than any other. 

All water on roofs from rain or melting snow should be drained 
from the front or sides to leaders, so as to avoid drip points, from 
which icicles could be formed. Too little attention is paid to the 
great danger of injury to pedestrians from falling snow or icicles on 
very high buildings. This may not be a suggestion strictly germane 
to this article, but it is a matter so often overlooked as to warrant its 
being referred to in an article intended to deal more or less thor- 
oughly with the subject of fire-proof buildings. 


The electric light installation of a large fire-proof building is an 
important and complicated matter. To insure safety, reference 
should be had to the rules of the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers, which can be obtained, without charge, from the nearest local 
board of underwriters. 

The switchboard should be of incombustii)le material, and no 

steam, water, or sprinkler pipes should pass over or near it where, in 
case of a bursting pipe, water could reach the switchboard and cause 
disaster. This is an important matter almost universally overlooked. 
An admirable floor for a dynamo room is one of deck glass, ^ 
in. thick, on a wooden (not iron) frame. It will insure that the 
attendant upon the dynamos will be, at all times, effectually insu- 
lated. Such a floor will not become soaked with oil, as would a 
wooden floor, and can easily be kept clean. A strip of rubber floor 
carpet stretched over it will prevent slipping. The Continental In- 
surance Company has, probably, the only floor of this kind in the 
country in its large fire-proof ofiice building on Cedar Street, New 


It is sometimes necessary to have communications between ad- 
joining buildings by doors in the fire walls, and it is not always con- 
venient, for changing merchandise from one room to another, to have 
fire-proof doors closed during working hours. It is possible to have 
the fire-proof doors run upon trolleys on an inclined track so as to 
close by the force of gravity, and held open by fusible metal latches 
or links which would release 
them when melted by the 
rising temperature of a fire. 
It has occurred to me that 
this difficulty may also be 
met by erecting between two 
adjoining buildings a separ- 
ating fire-proof hallway of 
brick, which can be utilized 
for containing staircases and 
elevators, and for supporting 
the water tanks of automatic 
sprinklers. The doors which 
open into this hallway should 
not be opposite each other, 
but at opposite ends of it, 
so that fire in one of the 
buildings passing through 
the door would come against 
a blank wall opposite. Even 
if the fire-proof doors to 
these openings should hap- 
pen to be open at the time 
of a fire in one of the two 
buildings, it is improbable 
that it would find access to 
the other. 

The floors should be both fire and water proof, slightly lower 
than those of the two separated buildings, and with water vents or 
"scuppers " for carrying off surplus water thrown by a fire depart- 
ment. Indeed, it is \*all to have "scuppers" on all floors of every 

The walls of this separating hallway or vestibule should rise 4 ft. 
higher than the roofs of the two buildings, and, if there are window 
or door openings near it, its walls should project beyond the line of 
enclosing walls at least I ft. The following diagrams fully illustrate 
the idea. 

The water tank, as already stated, should be supported on pro- 
tected iron I beams, resting on the brick walls, with cast-iron tem- 
plates, so that the tank cannot fall, break down the staircases and 
wreck the building in case of fire. 

It is important always to locate tanks so that they will not be 
over stairways or elevators and endanger them in case the supports 
give way. With a fire-proof hallway of the kind recommended, con- 
taining no combustible material whatever, the tanks being supported 
by iron I beams resting on the brick walls, this would not be an im- 
portant matter, but in all other cases water tanks should be planned 
so as not to endanger staircases, and the supporting iron beams 
should be fire-proofed, that is, covered with fire-proof material. 




It ought to be unnecessarj- to state that there should be no com- 
bustible material whatever in this separating hallway, and that the 

staircase, elevators, etc., 
should be of metal and 


Indeed, such a hall- 
way as this could be re- 
lied upon to separate 
wooden buildings. It 
should, however, for that 
purpose, be at least i o ft. 
higher than the peak of 
their roofs and should 
extend 4 ft. beyond their 
front and rear lines. It 
is probable that the ex- 
tensive frame dairy build- 
ings of ex-Vice-I'resident 
Morton at Ellerslie, which 
burned several years ago, 
might have been saved 
by this simple precaution. 


Where it is not ne- 
cessar)' to 


transfer mer- 
chandise from one building to another and only requisite to have a 
passageway for employees, this may be arranged by an iron balcony, 
like a fire escape, cutting down the window on each side of the sep- 
arating wall for a door, so that communication can be had by the 
balcony. The openings should have fire-proof doors. This would 
be practically safe. It might, with iron ladders, be utilized as a fire 
escape, and so prove of great advantage to firemen in fighting a fire, 
who could hold a hose nozzle at the different windows with perfect 
safety to the last moment. It is practicable, indeed, to have iron 
stairways with roofed balconies entirely outside of storage stores so 
that the floors do not communicate. There is a number of these in 


These should not be of iron, but of wood covered with tin. Solid 
iron shutters or doors are not reliable. Iron doors yield readily to 
flame, resulting sometimes in their warping open when exposed to 
fire in an adjoining building, exposing the one they are intended 
to protect to the full effect of the flames. 

Where window openings are protected by iron shutters on rear 
courts they are almost certain to be opened by a fire in an exposing 
building, and cannot be relied upon. The tin-covered wood shutters 
are alone reliable. There is no recorded instance in which a solid 
iron door, exposed to the full effect of fire in an adjoining building, 
has protected tlie opening, whereas there is, on the other hand, no 
recorded instance in which the " Underwriters'" door has failed to 
serve its purpose — two important facts which are significant and 
ought to settle the question. 

The " Underwriters'" door is constructed of ordinar}- white pine 
lumber, free from knots, of double or treble thickness, according to 
width of opening, the boards being nailed diagonally and covered 
with the best quality of tin, with lap-welded joints. 

It ought to be unnecessary to state that on the exposed side of 
a building, not only the shutter, but the window-frame, sash, etc., should 
be of metal or covered with metal — riveted, not soldered. Where 
it is not possible to use a fire-proof shutter for want of room, wire 
glass in a metal frame will be found a desirable substitute. It will 
probably hold a fire until the fire department can cope with it. 

It is not generally understood or known that fire will travel from 
one story to others above by way of the windows in the outer or en- 

closing walls. Especially where a building has an enclosed court it 
will sometimes reach upper stories in this way, even when the floors 
themselves are thoroughly cut off, the court acting as a chimney. 
This happened several years ago in the Temple Court Building, a fire- 
proof structure in New York. The woodwork on .several floors was 
ignited by the lapping of fire through the windows from the lower sto- 
ries and serious damage resulted. A recent instance was the Livingston 
Fire-proof Building in New York, in January, 1898. All windows on 
e.xposed sides should be protected with fire-resisting shutters. 

It may be well to suggest for the benefit of those who are not 
familiar with city fires that, as heat naturally ascends, the exposure 
of a low building is often much greater to a neighbor higher than it- 
self than to a building of its own height, so that a tall, fire-proof 
structure, surrounded by smaller buildings, .should be provided with 
fire shutters to all openings. These are not necessary where the e.\- 
posing buildings are occupied for offices, and are themselves fire- 
proof, as the amount of heat which escapes from the windows of a 
burning building, so long as its enclosing walls remain intact, is 
seldom sufficient to ignite a fire-proof building or its contents. The 
moment of greatest danger is when a burning building collapses and 
the intense heat caused by its enormous bed of coals exerts its full 
effect upon surrounding structures. In a recent fire in New York 
(Feb. II, 1898), three fire-proof office buildings were more or less 
damaged with their contents, although many feet away from the 
burning building. 

It is to be hoped that some inventive genius will devise a plan 
for simultaneously opening or closing the shutters on any or all 
stories of high buildings by manipulation from the ground floor. 
They are usually left open at night, always in the daytime, and 
might thus be closed in case of a dangerous fire in the vicinity. In 
some cases they are fastened open. 


Tests of fire-proof material, iron beams, pillars, floor arches, etc., 
to be of any value must be conducted under circumstances which 
insure uniform conditions. Otherwise comparisons are unreliable. 
It is quite customary to refer to results of fires in different buildings, 
having differing forms of construction, as supporting theories of 
relative merit; but ordinary conflagrations cannot be relied upon, 
for the reason that in two buildings, side by side, the conditions may 
be widely different. Eddies and currents of air, changes of prevail- 
ing wind, etc., may secure exemption from damage. It happened in 
the large conflagrations of Chicago, Troy, Boston, etc., that the most 
phenomenal escapes were observed. In some instances frame build- 
ings, surrounded by brick structures which were totally destroyed, 
escaped with no further damage than the blistering of paint. 

Even where tests are carefully arranged, especially weight tests, 
obvious precautions are sometimes overlooked. It will be observed, 
for instance, where bricks are piled on a surface of floor arch and 
iron beams to secure a certain weight per square foot, the pile of 
bricks may be so disposed as to have a bearing on both of the iron 
beams and the full weight may not come upon the fire-proof arch 
between them. The lateral bond of a pile of bricks a few courses 
higher than the floor to be tested may have all the effect of a reliev- 
ing arch and materially reduce the strains. In furnaces constructed 
to secure high temperatures, drafts and currents of air should be 
provided for with great care and under the direction of the most com- 
petent and intelligent experts. 

In conclusion it may be well to .state, in view of the general 
misapprehension which prevails with regard to the interest of the 
fire underwriter in the improvement of construction, that it makes no 
difference to him whether a building be fire-proof or not ; his rate of 
premium and the amount which he insures are both based upon the 
characteristics of each building insured. He would make just as 
much money on $100 of premium secured at a rate of 5 per cent for 
$2,000 insurance on a wooden planing mill as on $100 of premium 
secured on $100,000 insurance on afire-proof building the rate of 
which is $1 per $1,000. 



The Masons' Department. 


NEARLY all the standard contract forms which are used in 
formulating agreements respecting building operations con- 
tain a clause providing for settlements of differences between the 
owner or the architect and the builder, and although a very large 
share of power is of necessity conferred upon the architect, and the 
owner and the builder nominally agree to leave, nearly everything to 
his decision, there is always reserved an appeal to supposedly disin- 
terested referees. In theory a referendum of this sort is a per- 
fectly fair way of settling differences. In practise, however, it fails 
very often because of the unwillingness of one party or the other to 
accept the results of the reference, and law suits follow with all their 
attendant evils. A law suit, at the very best, is an unsatisfactory 
way of settling differences. If the parties can only agree to finally 
agree, will only allow disinterested advice to prevail, and will then 
steadfastly refuse to reopen the question, a recourse to the courts 
need very seldom be resorted to. There is an opportunity for the 
master builders' associations throughout the country to accomplish 
a great deal, and win for themselves a large measure of prestige if 
they would use their already considerable influence to in some way 
enforce the value of a referendum, and to put themselves on record 
in such unmistakable manner that the decisions of the properly con- 
stituted board of reference would have the weight which theoretically 
the existing contract forms give to it. Some of the master builders' 
associations have already taken steps looking towards something of 
this sort. One of the largest of these parties recently had under serious 
consideration a by-law which provided for the appointment of a per- 
manent board of arbitration, to which all questions which should 
arise, either between members or with members and some outsider, 
should be submitted for judgment, the association simply offering its 
good services, and standing ready to arbitrate between interested 
parties. Unfortunately, the builders who are honestly desirous of 
fair treatment, even if they are losers thereby, are always in the 
minority, while the number who feel they are free to do just as they 
please, who prefer independence of society control, and who claim 
the liberty to take advantage of every opportunity in their favor, 
rightly or wrongly, are always on the alert to head off anything which 
looks like a restriction of what they assume to be their rights. As a 
matter of fact, however, builders of this sort are the very ones who 
would profit most by a referendum. So long as the struggle for ex- 
istence shall continue there will be more workers than there is work, 
and the minor builders, the ones with limited means, will be those 
who will have to take chances and are likely to be imposed upon by 
unscrupulous owners or by fraudulent subcontractors; and if they 
could lay all their troubles before a properly constituted board, with 
the assurance that they would be fairly treated, and would then have 
the courage to stand behind the award instead of rushing into the 
courts if the judgment goes against them, there is no doubt they 
would in the long run be vastly the gainers thereby. Indeed, the prin- 
ciple can and ought to be carried even farther. The master builders' 
associations are, as a rule, self-respecting, influential bodies, which 
can and should provide opportunities not only for peaceful arbitra- 
tion of differences, but can go farther and make such arbitration 
obligatory upon their members both in the submission of differences 
and the acquiescence in the award, with the penalty of dismission 
from the body if the award is not accepted. 



BECAUSE of the abuse which our quick-setting cements (the 
natural set of which may be in ten or twenty minutes) receive 
at the hand of careless or ignorant users by frequent retempering in 

order to use large batches of mortar extending over a period of sev- 
eral hours, the following tests were made : — 

The proportionate reduction of strength would probably hold 
true for mortars as well as neat tests. 

In the tests a large batch of mortar was mixed up and briquettes 
were molded from it. At the end of one hour the remaining mass 
had become appreciably stiffened and was retempered by adding 
sufficient water and by vigorous working. The same process was 
gone through each hour, but very soon the activity of the cement 
was so greatly killed that the setting would not take place for many 
hours, and very little extra mixing was required. 

The " Quebec Natural," corresponding to such United States 
cements as " Cumberland," " Round Top," etc., has an incipient set of 
about 30 min. and a full set of 2 to 3 degs. The " Peacock Port- 
land " is a sound, well-burnt, but coarse English cement, having an 
incipient set of about 20 min. and a full set of i to 2 degs. 

Quebec Natural. 

Peacock Portland. 


Neat Tensile .Strength 
per square inch. 

Time of 


Neat Tensile Strength 
per square inch. 

I wk. 

I mo. 


I wk. 

I mo. 

2 mos. 

Original test . . 

ist retempering 

2d „ 




5th „ 


3 hrs. 

4 >. 

19 ., 
19 .. 
■9 .1 
21 i. 

.57 lbs. 
■23 ., 

80 „ 
73 I, 
52 .. 
72 >. 

278 lbs. 
210 ,, 
163 ,- 
■53 .. 
157 .. 
■72 .1 
■73 .. 

520 lbs. 
485 „ 
435 .> 
405 .. 
380 „ 
295 .. 
290 „ 
26s „ 

2 hours. 

5 .. 
4 >. 
very slow. 

407 lbs. 
202 ,, 

.84 „ 
.85 „ 

213 .. 
180 „ 
220 ,, 

515 lbs 
34' ,. 

290 „ 
365 .. 
'65 -, 

347 „ 
310 ,. 
332 „ 

596 lbs. 
425 „ 

382 „ 
388 „ 
308 „ 

383 „ 
402 „ 
367 .. 

This table seems to point out two or three' things rather 
clearly : — - 

1. That the first and second retempering do all the injury, the 
subsequent ones being merely the reworking of a mass which has 
not set. 

2. That the strength of retempered cements is roughly one half 
of those not thus treated. 

3. That time does not " heal all wounds," as the strength at 
ten months with the natural cement, and two months with the Port- 
land, has not recovered to any very appreciable extent. This last 
deduction does not agree with the student thesis paper on the subject 
published about two years ago in the Eiii^ineering News, which 
claimed a recovery of strength in course of, say, six months. 

I trust that such a memorandum as this will bring out some dis- 
cussion on the matter from men whose experiences on the subject will 
be of value to the profession. 


THE present manner of laying brick in dead walls gives one the 
impression that the quantity of bricks laid is of far more im- 
portance than the quality of the work done. The only way to obtain 
good solid brick walling is to either flush the joints solid with mortar 
every course or make a shove joint ; the former method takes too 
much time and material, and the latter is very rarely done except in 
very heavy buildings. The custom generally adopted is to spread 
the mortar on the bricks (a portion only of which gets in the joints) 
and lay the bricks on top, each succeeding course being bedded in 
mortar ; l)ut the longitudinal and cross joints are only partially filled, 
the butting joint of the brick receiving a little dab of mortar gathered 
on the point of the trowel by cleaning the surplus mortar from the 
outside joint. Grouting with cement mortar every two courses in 
height might be adopted for basements and first stories of buildings 
when great strength is required. Full headers for face bricks are 
better than clippings and should be specified for all heavy buildings. 
The face bricks are often built up fifteen or twenty courses high 
before the backing up is done, a custom that should not be permitted, 
as it leaves the wall subject to many defects, as it cannot be well 
bonded or tied together sufficiently strong to be able to resist un- 
equal strains successfully. For good strong work the mortar joints 
should never exceed five sixteenths of an inch in thickness. — Cana- 
dian Architect, 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities, and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

Nl'^W YORK. — In spile of all the anxiety and uneasiness 
occasioned by our present foreign troubles, the New York 
building record is as follows : — 

Total number of new buildings, January i to April I, 715 as 
compared with 90S during the corresponding time in 1897. 

Total cost of these buildings, $17,454,325. Cost of the 908 
buildings during 1897, $19,342,550. 

No very large or important buildings have been re])orted during 
the past month, but the general condition of work is good. Too 
much praise cannot be bestowed upon the new Washington Life 
Building, C. L. W. Eidlitz, architect. It is now nearing completion, 
and more than lives up to the promises conveyed in the drawings. 
The stone is of a beautiful soft color, the carvings are unusually well 
disposed, the fenestration is excellent, and it is altogether a success 
and one of our best office buildings. It is not on a prominent 
enough corner to do it full justice, however. 

Among items of new work might be mentioned : Plans have 
been prepared by Henry M. Congdon, architect, for a new editice 
for St. Mark's Protestant Episcopal Church, Brooklyn, to be erected 
on the Eastern Parkway near Nostrand Avenue; cost, $50,000. 

A competition is now being held for designs for the new 
Franklin Bank. The only competing architects are Geo. B. Post, 
R. H. Robertson, and Lamb & Rich. 

Plans have been filed by Clinton & Russell' for the new eleven- 
story Cheseborough building. The materials will be brick and 
stone; cost, $430,000. The work 'of demolishing the old buildings 
upon the site has been commenced. 

Quinby & Broome, architects, are preparing plans for a five- 
story red brick and white terra-cotta apartment and studio building 
to be erected at S3 Washington Place ; 
cost. $30,000. 

McKim, Mead & White, architects, 
are preparing plans for a twelve-story 
fire-proof office building to replace the 
"Nassau Chambers" recently destroyed 
by fire. The owner is ex-Governor Levi 
P. Morton. 

(jlover & Carrel, architects, 
of Brooklyn, are preparing 
plans for a seven-story brick, 
terra-cotta, and stone apartment 
house, 75 by 80 ft., fireproof 
construction; cost, $80,000. 

Architects Cady, Berg & 
.See are preparing plans for the 
new buildings to be 
erected on West 
15 th and 1 6th 
^^^ Streets for the New 

^^^^ York Hospital. 

"^^^ Work will be 

iij^H commenced at 
once upon the new 
building for the 
University Settle- 
ment Society. The 
cost will be about 
$90,000. Stokes 
& Howells, archi- 

Plans are being prepared by Howard & 
Cauldwell for a new residence to be erected 
on the northwest corner of Park Avenue and 
58th Street. It will be four stories and base- 
ment, 28 by 100 ft., with pressed brick and 
limestone front ; cost, $50,000. 

Architects Trowbridge & Living- 
stone are preparing plans for a five-story 
office building to he erected on Beaver 
Street tor the American 
Cotton Oil Company. It 
will be a pressed brick and 
stone fire-proof structure ; 
cost, $95,000. 

Executed in white terra-cotta by the Excelsior 
Terra-Cotta Company. 
Harding & Gooch, Architects. 


The figure is 5 ft. 6 ins. high, located on the building at an 
altitude of 240 ft. from sidewalk. Executed in lerr^i. 
cotta by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 
Harding & Gooch, Architects. 

CHICAGO.— The pos- 
sibility of a war with 
.Spain has had a noticeable 
effect on building projects. 
Capital has been inclined 
to hold back plans for new 
buildings until the uncer- 
tainty be ended. Aside 
from this factor in the sit- 
uation, however, building 
operations are not as brisk 
as those interested would 
like to see them. Many 
architects have been reach- 
ing out into new territory 
for their business and they are hoping that their services will be 
needed more urgently here in Chicago next year than they seem to be 

Architects and contractors in general seem to be in sympathy 
with the new State license law. More than seven hundred architects 
have paid in their twenty-five dollars each, and more than five hun- 
dred of these 
are in Chicago 
alone. Any 
shyster archi- 
tect who could 
swear that he 
was practising 
when the law 
was passed had 
to be granted a 
license. But 
the commission 
has the power 
to prevent un- 
worthy acquisi- 
tions to the pro- 
fession in fu- 
ture, and the 
Business Asso- 
ciation has 
taken up the 
matter in a defi- 
nite way to as- 
sist the Com- 
mission or 
Board of Ex- 
aminers and to 
prosecute viola- ^ 


tion of the law, *• 

,.,,.,. 7, BALTIMORE, MD. 

which, while it ,,,..,-. t- ,. .. ,- 

tisecuted by the Conkhng, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, 
allows to COB' Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 


tractors certain independent privileges in designing their own build- 
ings, will not allow any one to call himself an architect or to give 
out plans for others to bid on unless he holds a license. The 
revision of the building ordinances just made by the Chicago Council 
forbids the granting of permits on plans for any building larger than 
two stories, and 1,200 sq. ft. in area, unless bearing the stamp of a 
licensed architect. 

It is of interest to note that in the revised building ordinances 
referred to the Chicago aldermen have juggled again with height 
limit of buildings. A year or so ago the limit was reduced to 155 
ft., now it stands at 130 ft., or practically ten stories as the limit of 
height for fire-proof buildings. 

This, in the opinion of prominent architects, will discourage 
capital from investing in the best class of buildings. The alder- 
men who brought about this result represent the same public opinion 
which resents concentration of business and is fighting the depart- 
ment stores. 

The annual architectural exhibition is the event at the Art 
Institute at the present writing. The showing was a large one, even 
though the quality was not uniformly the highest. The exhibits 
sent by Eastern architects and by the schools were good, but it 
seems that the most prominent architects of Chicago do not take as 
active part as they might. It must be that we need an Art League. 

One of the interesting features of the exhibition was the work 
of the several groups into which the Architectural Club was divided 
last fall. Its particular projet was selected by each group, and 
the several drawings constituting a design (in one case a scheme for 
an elevated railway station) were the joint work of those in the 
group under the direction of their leader or " patron," himself a 
member of the club. 

One noticeable feature of the exhibition was Dwight Perkins's 
design for one of the Omaha Exposition buildings, accompanied by 


Executediby the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

Loverin & Whelan, Architects. 

models of the groups of statuary designed for the building by R. W. 

In conjunction with the architectural exhibition there was held 
the first annual exhibition of the Arts and Crafts Society, an organi- 
zation made up of artists, architects, people interested in social 
settlements, and others who are trying to raise the standard of ar- 
tistic excellence in the arts and crafts. The exhibit, which in- 
cluded products in wood, metal, and fabric, from jewelry to furniture, 
was surprisingly good both in quantity and quality. 

PHILADELPHIA —The John Stewardson Memorial Scholarship 
has become the goal of the young architectural draughtsman's 
hopes here, even as its older fellows in Boston and New York have 
long been in those cities. It is now six years since the University of 
Pennsylvania Traveling Scholarship in Architecture was established, 
and though never funded, it has sent a student abroad for four con- 
secutive years. The sudden death of John Stewardson created the 
desire among his professional coworkers, admirers, and followers for 
some tangible evidence of their appreciation of the high place he 
had reached, and of the'good he had done towards the advancement 

H. H. Richardson, Architect. 

of architecture. This culminated in their raising a fund sufficient to 
insure for all time the continuance of the yearly scholarship with 
which his name was then coupled. 

The prize has just been competed for by ten men, the program 
of competition proving of unusual interest. One has become so im- 
bued with the understanding that scholarship competitions consist of 
designs for crematories, opera houses, custom houses, imperial villas, 
etc., of the most strictly beaux arts type that to break away at one 
step to " A Farm Steading," as was done this year, seemed quite to 
upset all axioms relating to this class of competitive work. The jury, 
Messrs. Sturgis and Andrews, having been taken, previous to the 
award, through Delaware County, where the farm was supposed to 
exist, had ample opportunity to grasp the nature of the problem, and 
were enthusiastic in their praise of the schemes submitted. The 
successful man is William C. Hays; first mention, Arthur H. 
Brockie; second mention, John Molitor ; third mention, Alfred M. 
Githens, all of whom it appears are draughtsmen in the same office 
in this city. 

Work on a large building for the Philadelphia Press is about to 
be commenced at 7th and Sansom Streets, from plans by T. P. 
Chandler. Mr. Chandler has designed many of the down-town office 
buildings, liut it is some years since his work lay in that direction. 

TI:RRA-C0TTA cap, state normal school, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Executed by tlie Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 

Martinl& Hall, Architects. 



This is to be an example of steel construction with facing entirely of 
terra-cotta, it being found more economical than brick. 

Another large structure is in the office of Wilson Urothers. archi- 
tects, to be put up for the 
newly founded gas com-l 
pany that has leased the 
city's gas works. 

The old blue laws 
against Sunday work 
were invoked against the 
contractor for an office 
l)uilding at Hroad and 
Chestnut Streets, the 
foundations for which are 
just being put in. It 
seems the necessary en- 
croachment on the neigh- 
boring property for the 
purpose of underpinning 
the party wall was ob- 
jected to by the tenant, 
so the wily contractor set 
to work after hours, on a 
Saturday afternoon, kept 
at it all night and all next 

day, and so had the thing completed by Monday morning, to the 
astonishment, if nothing worse, of the aforesaid tenant. The arrest 
for desecration of the Sabbath, which followed, had not much result, 



Executed by the Hurlington .Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

t'ope & Stewardson, Architects. 

as it was proved to the satisfaction of the court that the work was 
one of necessity. 

be commenced for several years, a proposition to levy a tax for that 
purpose having failed to receive the requisite number of votes at the 
last election, and it will be impossible to resubmit the matter for 

more than a year. 

The methods of our 
school board were so un- 
satisfactory that the leg- 
islature, last winter, was 
prevailed upon to pass a 
bill reorganizing the 
same. Later an election 
was held, which resulted 
in the election of a non- 
partisan board, and Mr. 
Wm. H. Ittner was ap- 
pointed Commissioner of 
Buildings. Mr. Ittner 
has just awarded the con- 
tract for five school build- 
ings that prove of especial 
interest, they being the 
first to be erected under 
the new building ordi- 
nance, which requires all 
school buildings to be 
fire-proof, and the cost is less than similar buildings of ordinary 
construction under the old rt^gime. 

The exodus of the city ofificials from the old City Hall, which 
had been promised to occur on the 1 1 th of this month, will be equally 
gratifying to the public and officials, as some encouragement is 
offered that we may eventually have a new City Hall, even if it does 
become old liefore it is finished. 

The building was commenced during the summer of 1890, after 
plans had been selected in a competition not devoid of criticism. 
After numerous delays incident to work of a public character, the 
north and south wings have been so far completed that they may be 
occupied ; but the central portion, which includes the two chambers 
of the municipal assembly and rotunda, are still to be finished. The 
city has been handicapped by the meagerness of the building fund, 
and have been compelled to practise the strictest economy in finish- 
ing the building, which in many cases might be open to criticism. 
This is particularly noticeable in the corridors and stairs. The orig- 
inal scheme doubtless contemplated something elaborate, as the 
ceilings are coffered and richly ornamented, but the walls have been 
finished with plain plastering and Tennessee marble, without the sug- 
gestion of even a molding. 

Hales & Hallinger, .Architects. 

ST. LOUI.S. — -Quite a little activity has been noticeable in build- 
ing circles recently, and no small interest is felt in the pros- 
pects of some of the old landmarks recently destroyed by fire, to 
which reference was made in the February liKUKBriLDEK, being re- 
placed by modern fire-proof structures. 

The G. A. Fuller Construction Company, of Chicago, have been 
awarded the contract for a twelve-story building on the site of the 
old Polytechnic Building, which they promise to have ready for occu- 
pancy by the first of the year. The contract is for $350,000, and the 
building is to be of brick and terra-cotta. Eames & Young are the 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge are preparing drawings for an eight- 
story fire-proof commercial building, on the corner of Broadway and 
Locust Street, to take the place of the old Mermod, Jaccard Build- 
ing, and Isaac Taylor plans for a warehouse on 3d and Locust 

There are a number of other buildings in contemplation, but the 
anticipated war has caused some uneasiness in the money world, and 
negotiations have been suspended in some instances. 

The Board of Trustees of the Public Library recently purchased 
the entire block between i8th, 19th, Olive, and Locust Streets, which 
will eventually be the location of the library. The building will not 



Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 

R. L. Daus, Architect. 



MEMPHIS. — Contrary to the prediction 
of calamity howlers and those who 
considered Memphis doomed after the yellow 
fever scare of last fall, the building outlook for 
spring and summer '98 is exceptionally good. 
Soon after what at first promised to be an epi- 
demic an extra session of the legislature was 
called and the limits of the city extended, certain 
bills being passed to enable the authorities to 
sewer the annexed districts, also a certain portion 
of the old city where the fever wrought the great- 
est havoc. 

As proof positive that confidence has been 
restored, it is only necessary to call attention to 
the clearing-house receipts for February, which 
aggregated nearly twelve millions of dollars, or 
more than the combined receipts of Nashville, 
Tenn., and Atlanta, Ga. ; or more than Nashville, 
Knoxville, Chattanooga, Jacksonville, and Birm- 
ingham combined — an increase in Memphis 
receipts of more than 60 per cent, over February, 
1897. Every precaution known to science in 
the way of sanitation is being taken to safeguard 
Memphis in the future, and, even if brought 
here, there will be no possible chance of the 
dreaded disease spreading. 

Ground will be broken in May for St. Mary's 
Cathedral, to cost several hundred thousands of 
dollars. Work has already begun on the new 
Poplar Street School — contract $100,000 — and 
a syndicate has been formed to build a ten-story 
hotel. There is also a substantial rumor that in 
addition to the City Hospital buildings and 
Market House just completed, the new city ad- 
ministration will build a new City Hall. 

Memphis architects are nearly all busy with 
Mississippi work, which is the most promising 
field in the South for architects. There is a 
vast improvement shown in the character of 
buildings under course of construction, and also some degree of 
attention is being paid to design, probably due to the influence of 
Eastern competition. 



Executed by the New 

.Jersey Terra-Cotta 



The Cleveland Hydraulic-Press Brick Company has this 
season issued an elaborate copyrighted publication entitled " Early Re- 
ligious Architecture of America," containing thirty plates 14 by 1 7 
ins. in size, illustrating subjects especially selected by the company, 
of the ancient missions and churches of America. The work is a 
distinct departure in the line of advertisement. Indeed, except for 
the modest title page and the single advertising sheet at the end, 
the work would be taken to be a professional publication issued 
under the direction of an architect who was not only competent to 
make a wise selection, but was by training and experience enabled to 
know what to choose. The plates reveal a phase of American archi- 
tecture which has been appreciated to a certain extent by some of 
our architects, and yet we imagine to many of them the quality of 
the work here shown will be a very considerable surprise. The 
best of the buildings are naturally from Mexico. Indeed, only a few 
are found within the borders of the United States. The cathedral 
at Chihuahua, and the work at Aguas Calientes are especially inter- 
esting for their architectural merit. The plates are accompanied by 
a very complete description of the several edifices together with a 
considerable amount of historical data relating to them. Altogether 
it forms a publication which will be welcomed by every architect 
and which ought to be eagerly sought for. This issue is by the 
Cleveland Company, and though all of the Hydraulic-Press Brick 

Companies are to a certain extent affiliated and will undoubtedly in- 
directly profit by whatever advertising would result from this publi- 
cation, it is a distinctive product of the Cleveland Company, to whom 
great credit should be given for the excellent manner in which it 
has been gotten up and for the evident intent to not merely produce 
a good advertisement, but to publish a book which shall be of dis- 
tinct worth and interest to every one who has in mind the value of 
American architecture. 

The Atwood Faience Company, of Hartford, Conn., has 
publi-shed an interesting portfolio illustrating a number of the man- 
tels which the company is prepared to furnish in stock patterns in 
enameled terra-cotta. The plates form a collection which will be of 
value to those who contemplate the use of such, product. 


A large quantity of enameled tiling will be done in the new 
Town Hall at Revere, Mass,, the Grueby, Faience Company furnish- 
ing the tiles. 

The Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company, makers 
of the Shawnee Brick, are represented in New York City by Meeker, 
Carter, Booraem & Co. 

Mr. F. P. Plumridge, formerly connected with the Hydraulic- 
Press Brick Company at St. Louis, has associated himself with the 
Evens & Howard Fire Brick Company of the same city. 

Dyckerhoff Portland Cement is used in the new Union 
Station platforms at Providence, R. I., a job of considerable size, 
and also in the sidewalks around the State House, Boston. 

The C. p. Merwin Brick Company, Berlin, Conn., are supply- 
ing the hollow bricks which are being used in Southern Terminal 
Station, Boston, also the new State Capitol building at Providence, 
R. I. 

The Celadon roofing tiles have been specified on the building 
for Mrs. Cole, Copley Square, Boston, of which D wight & Chandler 
are the architects. The Celadon Company is represented in Boston 
by Charles Bacon. 

The Pancoast Ventilator Company are supplying their 
ventilators for a large government building at Fortress Monroe ; 
Empire Building, New York City ; and new round house for the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railway. 

The Brick, Terra-Cotta & Supply Company, Corning, 
N. Y., have the contract for furnishing the architectural terra-cotta 
required for the Kaufman building to be erected at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., Charles Bickel, architect. 

The Grueby Faience Company have been awarded the con- 
tract for furnishing the tiles for the walls of the restaurants in the 
new Southern Terminal Station, Boston. They are to be like those 
used in the Boston Subway stations. 

The Evens & Howard Fire Brick Company have closed 
contracts for supplying 200,000 face brick for the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railway Passenger Station at Minneapolis, 
Minn., Charles S. Frost, oi Chicago, architect. 

Through their Boston representative, Charles liacon, the Ex- 
celsior Terra-Cotta Company will supply their terra-cotta for the new 
Mattapoisett School, Charles lirigham, architect, and for the new 
school at Maiden, Mass.; Whitman & Hood, architects. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company designed and built the 
new buildings for the Morse Wool Treating Company at Norton, 
Mass., and have contracted for building a new power house, car 



barn, and steel bridges for the Port Jarvis Electric Railway Com- 
pany, Port Jarvis, N. Y. 

The Cf.ladon Terka-Cotta Company's roofing tiles have 
been specified on the following new contracts : Residence for William 
Henderson, Chicago (8 in. Conosera); railway stations at Atlantic 
and Iowa City, R. I. & P. Ry. (lo in. Conosera and open shingle); 
school building at Niagara Falls (lo in. Conosera). 

E. P. LiPPiNCOTT & Co., Baltimore agents for the Excelsior 
Terra-Cotta Company, have closed contract for supplying the archi- 
tectural terracotta to be used on the new Columbia Law Building at 
Washington, I). C, and, as agents for the Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta 
Lumber Company, will supply the fire-proofing for the same building. 

The new Jordan Building, Boston, Winslow & Wetherell, ar- 
chitects, will be supplied with the Sayre & Fisher Company's bricks, 
through their Boston office. The same company will also supply the 
enameled bricks to be used in the new Masonic Building of which 
Loring & Phipps are the architects. 

H. F. Mayland & Co., manufacturers' agents, New York City, 
are supplying the Roman buff and gray bricks for several apartment 
houses being erected in New York City and Brooklyn, for which 
W. B. Willis is the architect, and also the bricks that are being used 
in the residence of George Gould, Esq., at Lakewood, N. J., Bruce 
Price, architect. 

The Columbus Brick & Terra-Cotta Company are supply- 
ing their bricks on the following new contracts: Public school 
building. New York City, C. B. J. Snyder, architect; store building, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Ball & Taylor, architects; residence, Newport, 
Ky., Dittoe & Wisenall, architects ; parish house, Pittston, Pa., 
E. F. Durang, architect ; residence at Detroit, Mich., Ba.xter & Hill, 
architects; Phctnix Block, Kno.xville, Tenn., IJaumann Bros., archi- 
tects; stable at Omaha, Neb., Henry Ives Cobb, architect. 

We are in receipt of a very unique paper weight from the 
American Mason Safety Tread Company, consisting of a strip, some 4 

ins. long by 2 ins. wide, of their safety tread. This is handsomely fin- 
ished in brass and nickel, and forms a novel and attractive weight. 
Its broad, flat surface makes it particularly desirable for the draught- 
ing table, and it is the intention of the company to supply each ar- 
chitect's office with one or more of them as a means of keeping the 
American Mason Safety Tread and its merits actively before the at- 
tention of the profession. Parties desiring one of these paper 
weights should send their address to the .American Mason Safety 
Tread Company, 40 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 

A salesman with eight years' experience in introducing goods 
among the architects and builders in the territory east of the .Missis- 
sippi to the coast, wishes to connect himself with a concern dealing 
in a line of building specialties. Best of references furnished. 

Address, SALESMAN, 


A party having several years' experience in selling building sup- 
plies in New England, and with an extensive ac(iuaintance among 
the architects and contractors in the New England territory, desires 
to connect himself with some concern dealing in general building 

Address, C. M. J. 


For Sale. 

One of the largest and finest Clay properties in the States. The 
various clays are suitable for all kinds of manufacture in which 
clays are used. This is a good opportunity for an Eastern party 
who may desire to engage in the manufacture of all kinds of brick. 
The clays and base for fire bricks are the best in the country. The 
property is well developed. For full particulars apply or address, 
JOHN A. EAGLESON, 64 Irving Place, New York. 

Fireplace Mantels. 

The best ones to buy are those we make of 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as good or 
as durable. Our mantels don't cost any more than 
other kinds, and are far better in every way — our 
customers say so. Don't order a mantel before you 
have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch Book 
showing 53 designs of mantels costing from $J2 

Phila, & Boston Face Brick Co.^ 




Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 

Designed by J. H. RITCHIE. Del. by H. F. BRISCOE. Modeled by TITO CONTI. 

We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 

^CSlCJllCO in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified £\88ClTlulCO from standard interchangeable pieces in 
architectural effects. 

ilDOOClCO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 

lPl*C88C0 with great care to give clear-cut outlines and 
smooth surfaces. 

JoUtnCO in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 

any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 

11 11 ^CnCtHl producing all the desirable effects of special 
mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 

,. 166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire-Proofing and General Building Materials. 











Office, 108 Fulton Street, 





LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Architect. 
Tehha-Cotta Executed bv THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 


Manufacturers of 

Architectural Terra- Cotta 



Cheltenham, St. Louis. 


502-503 Century Building. 


White Brick and 

Terra=Cotta Co., 


Manufacturers of Architcctural Tcrra-Cotta m ah colors. 

Superior Quality of 

Soli6 mabite 
^erra* Cotta 

Will Not Turn Green or Yellow. 

A comparison of our goods will manifest superiority 
in execution, vitrification, and perfection of finish. 

Architects' Drawings faithfully reproduced. 







The Northwestern 

Terra- Cotta Co. 

In all Colors and 
according to Special 


Terra- Cotta 

Glazed and Enam- 
eled Work in all 

^'t. ^"t, ^S't, 

Works and Main Office, Corner of 
Clybourn and Wrightwood Aves..,. 

City Office, Room 1118, The Rookery, Chicago. 








NEW ADDRESS, l02 lIlbtlK ^trCCtt "^^^^^^'^^^'^^ ^^^^ Office Square. 




Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. Welsh Quarry Tiles. Shepherd & Gay Lime. 

Atwood Faience Co. Alsen Portland Cement. Bostwick Metal Lath. 

Front Bricks in all colors. Atlas Cement. Morse Wall Ties. 

English Glazed Bricks. Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland Cement. Akron Sewer Pipe. 

Baltimore Retort and Fire Brick Co. Phoenix, Shield, Wedge, and Cleopatra Portland Cement. H. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzo- 

Gartcraig Fire Bricks. Hoffman Rosendale Cement. Ian Portland Cement. 


Waldo, 548 Albany Street. W On N. E. R.R. Tracks, near 

Tudor, I Charles River Avenue. Congress Street, South Boston. 


1294 Boston — 1 1 Boston — 11^ Charlestown. 

Charles E. Willard 

171 Devonshire Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

Terra-Cotta, Fire-Proofing, 
Front Brick, Sheet Metal, Etc. 

New England Agents for 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company 
Webster Fire Brick Company, Mottled Brick 
Darlington Coal & Clay Mfg. Company, 

White, Cream, Gray, and Fire=Flashed Brick 
National Brick Company, I^ed Pressed Brick 
Pioneer Fire-Proofing Company 









~ Molded brick for the entire trim of brick exteriors to ^^^^"^ 
bond witli our front brick. 


874 Broadway, New York. 


Paterson Bank, Paterson. N. J. 


R. GU AST A VINO, Fire-proof Construction, 

Telephone Connections. 

Boston, J 9 Milk Street. New York, U East 59th Street. 

Empire Fire-Proofing Co^, 

Manufacturers and Contractors 
For AU Kinds of 


Hoflow Tile & 

Porous Terra-Cotta 


Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

Room 827 Monadnock Block; Chicago, HI. 





Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

The Only System 
Awarded a 
Medal and 


' Pateoteii Transrerse System of Floor ircli CoDStmciioD Made lii 9, 1 0. 1 2 and 1 5 locli iieDtlis. 

At the 

Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 


For Fire-proofing Buildings. 

R. C. PENFIELD, Pres't. R, W. LYLE, Scc'y and Mgr. J. A. GREEN, Trcas. 




Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 41 CORTLANDT ST. 




Fire=Proof Building 
^ Material, Hard= 
^ Burned Clay and 

Porous Terra=Cotta. 

HOMO \A/ R I O O k' ^ ^" ^'**' E""Pt'<=2'. »°^ Segmen- 
n^^LLWYV D L V^ V>^ Iv O , tal Arches of every Description. 

Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roo&ng. 




1 56 FIFTH AVE., iN t W I UKlV, 

Worlu, LORILLARD (Keyport p. O.). N. J. 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta . . . 


Also, Manufacturers of Plain and ( under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow, Porous, Front, and Paving Brick* 



Eastern Office: Townscnd Building, corner Broadway and 25th St., New York City. 

flil The accompanying illustration is of 

The American Express Co/s Building, 


WINSLOW & WETHERELL . . . Architects. 
GOOCH & PRAY Builders. 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 




....Established 1856.... 


Manufacturers of 

Fire=Proof Building Materials. 

Floor Arches, 

Roofing, Etc* 

Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d ST., 

New York. 



Philadelphia Office, 
18 South rth Street. 

I m, 7 ] \\\ •-' ' 


»* ^ t 

Porous Terra-Cotta 

of all Sizes, 

Flue Linings, 

Etc., Etc. 

James Barnes Baker. 
A rckitcct. 

Nassau and Cedar Streets, N. Y. 



On C. R. R. of N. J. 

C. T. Wills, 


"Excelsiur'" l.Tid-i nii-inn ii-,ii I 1,1 Ar. h (Patented). 
25 per cent, stronger and ligliter tlian any other method. 

The above illustration represents one of the most thoroughly fire-proofed buildings in New York City or anywhere. 

FLOORS. — " Excelsior " end-construction Arches. 

PARTITIONS, etc.. Hollow Tile throughout. 

RESULT — Insurance on structure offered at 5 cents for 5 years. 

Such action speaks louder than words, and justifies our claim that Hollow Tile is unequaled for fire-proofing. 

Send for illustrated catalogue of 1898. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 

Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 

Contractors for Structural Steel, Fireproof Floors, Partitions, etc. 


HENRY E. CREGIER, Architect. WOODBURY & LEIGHTON, Contractors. 

The fireproofing and steel work furnished by 


Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
F. L. DOUGLASS, Tovvnsend Building, 26th Street and Broadway. 


C entral Fireproofing 













874 Broadway, New York* 







Enameled Brick and Tile 
Faience Mantels, 


Displayed and sold by all the leading Tile and 
Mantel dealers. 

Grueby Faience Co. | 


Makers of 


© 164 Devonshire Street, 



-jKBoston. © 

F. W. Silkman, 


Cbemicale, /Bbinerale, 
Clai(>e, anb Colore. 

For Potters, Terra=Cotta, and Enameled Brick Manufacturers. 

Correspondence Invited. 

231 peati Street, IRew l^orh. 


XXV 11 

The Celadon Terra- Cotta Company, Limited, 

Manufacturer of 


Alfred, New York. 

(Under Babcock Patents.) 




The State Hospital for Insane, at King's Park, L. I., I. G. Perry, Archt., Albany; Roman Catholic Protectory for Children, at Fatlands, Pa., Wilson Bros. & Co., 
Archts., Philadelphia; Engine House, Grove Hall, Boston, Perkins & Betton, Archts., Boston; Public School Building, Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., C. Powell Karr, 
Archt., New York; Church of Our Lady of Mercy, Philadelphia, Edwin F. Durang, Archt., Philadelphia; Lackawanna Co. Court House, Scranton, Pa., T. 1. 
Lacey & Son, Archts., Scranton; 4th Ward School Building, Niagara Falls, Orchard & Joralemon, Archts, Niagara; Odd Fellows Orphans' Home, 
Springfield, O., Yost & Packard, Archts., Columbus, O.; Stations for Erie Ry. at Jamestown, N. Y., and Paterson, N. J., G. E. Archer, Archt., New York ; 
Station for C, R. 1. & P. Ry. at Atlantic, Iowa, Supt. of Construction McFarland, Archt.; Union Ry. Station at Columbus, O., D. H. Burnham & Co., 
Archts., Chicago ; Biological Building at Ohio State University, Yost & Packard, Archts., Columbus; Babcock Hall of Science, Alfred University, Alfred 
N. Y., C. C. Chipman, Archt., New York. 

Please Write to any one of these Architects for their Opinions on our Tiles. 

New York Office, 

Suite 1 123-4, 

Chicago Office, 

Suite 1001-2, 














Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Uniori ..... $350 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

MR. E. W. GODWIN, one of the brightest and most artistic 
of the English architects, founded some years ago, shortly 
before his death, the prize which bears the name of the Godwin 
Bursary, providing for a course of foreign travel and study on the 
part of a properly equipped architectural student. Several of the 
men who have held this prize have come to America and have made 
some very interesting and salutory comments upon our national 
architecture, particularly in its constructive manifestations. The 
latest holder of this prize, in his report to the Royal Institute, had 
occasion to consider the skeleton construction which has found so 
much' favor in our larger cities. The apparent flimsiness of it, the 
seeming sham, impressed him quite strongly, and he made a number 
of comments upon it which are in a measure justified, though they 
are inspired very largely by his point of view. We are free to say 
that we do not unreservedly believe in the skeleton construction. It 
is in a way untried, it presents possibilities of failure which might be 
very serious, and it is a species of building construction which has 
been sadly misused. At the same time no intelligent observer can 
deny that as a system of erecting tall buildings it has come to stay, 
and that though we may not use it aright, though it has very decidedly 
objectionable features, at the same time it embodies possibilities 
which give promise of a healthy and an interesting development. 
We have learned a good many structural lessons from it, and we have 
been able to practically solve problems which would be impossible of 
solution with any of the older methods, and yet we can quite under- 
stand how strange, how contradictory, and how altogether bad such a 
system would seem to a foreigner trained in the conservative methods 
of the English school of architecture, and with also a very probable 

lack of appreciation of the practical necessities of which this system 
is an outgrowth. 

In the editorial of last month we had occasion to call attention 
to the ephemeral character of much of our modern architecture and 
to express the hope that we were approaching an era wherein struc- 
tural conditions more approximating those of the Romans might 
obtain. We cannot, however, believe that these solid Roman char- 
acteristics will ever be able to find an enduring place in our street 
architecture, which is necessarily forced into a thinness of construc- 
tion, a minimizing of supporting members, which at once necessitates 
a certain change in the details of expression. It is the custom to 
characterize the architecture of this period as retrospective. We 
borrow nearly all of our architectural baggage, and it is not strange 
that when we attempt to apply historic forms to skeleton construction 
the result should seem to a stranger incongruous and often shoddy, 
especially if that stranger does not thoroughly understand the causes 
which have led up to the particular manifestations in design. Given 
the necessity for the least possible area of supporting members and 
the greatest amount of light in the wall surfaces, and we have a con- 
dition of affairs so different from anything which obtained during 
previous historic periods that, though we may use the forms of the 
Greeks and Romans or copy most directly many of the motives of 
the Renaissance period, the result is bound to be different, and in the 
process of assimilation we have very naturally not yet been able to 
thoroughly unite the details of expression to the general idea. But 
there is one thing which surely can be said with truth about the tall 
structures. They are not commonplace, and there is far more hope 
for a hopelessly bad design than there is for one which is hopelessly 
commonplace. Up to the time of the Centennial our architecture as 
a whole was both hopelessly bad and hopelessly commonplace. We 
have gotten bravely over the latter defect and it looks as if we were 
developing out of the former. 

Theoretically there are two schools of designing a building, one 
which considers that all the ornamentation of the exterior, the dis- 
position of the parts, should make manifest the constructive lines, 
while the other considers the ornamentation purely as a matter of 
decoration, not holding that it is necessarily a part of the construc- 
tion. The former has a more logical sound ; and yet with all the 
logic which has been expended upon this subject, including such 
poetic analysis as men like Ruskin have been able to bring to it, it is 
fair to say that there has yet to be designed a modern commercial 
building which really honestly shows its construction. Surely none 
of the skeleton constructions have in any way been able to show 
what they are built of, and however the theory may be, in fact we 
construct as best we may, and then proceed to apply ornamentation 
to the exterior. It goes without saying that as a young nation, as 
one that is only just beginning to feel its artistic possibilities, we 
use our ornament blindly, we copy our historical precedents often at 
random and without reason, and the baldness of our constructive 
decoration may appeal to a stranger as it evidently has to the God- 
win Bursar. And yet this seeming inchoate condition is so essen- 
tially an element of development that it is not altogether to be 
deplored. The conditions of growth were the same during Ro- 
manesque development, and, for that matter, during the early Re- 
naissance period. So long as our architecture is not commonplace 
we can afford to be incoherent, and by sticking to the main motives, 



by trying to improve along the lines of least resistance, a develop- 
ment is bound to come even if it is not already here ; and though we 
may not appreciate it until it has arrived or even until after we have 
gone to the other extreme, we can at least take example from the 
past, and by keeping at one line of development can be pretty sure 
in the end to arrive at architecture which is both coherent, reminis- 
cently correct, and is at the same time true to the essential conditions 
of construction. We shall not achieve development by startling 
manifestations in design or by endeavor to arbitrarily make our con- 
struction fit our ideas of decoration, but rather by working out our 
construction just as it naturally comes, and then trying to clothe that 
with forms which seem to produce beauty and fitness, keeping always 
within safe limits. A very successful architect used to tell his 
draughtsmen that the best advice he could give them in designing a 
building was to look through the files of the architectural papers un- 
til they had found about the kind of structure they wanted to make, 
and then go to work and do the same thing, only better. One of our 
prominent architectural clubs has made a practise in its monthly 
competitions, of re-designing public buildings, choosing some promi- 
nent structure, and asking its members to see wherein it could be 
improved. It is exactly along these lines that lies our greatest hope, 
and it does not make any difference if we do borrow our baggage 
from Rome or Greece, we have the bones. If we consistently and 
continuously try to improve on the expressions that have already 
found utterance, using, if we wish, the same forms, the same details 
of decoration, but striving to make them a little better, a little more 
fit, a little more approaching our ideas of beauty, the end cannot be 
in doubt: and though our skeleton constructions, carried out on these 
lines, may seem thin and unsatisfactory, though the reasons for what 
we do may appeal only to ourselves, and not be really clear to our 
own eyes, so long as we design with a definite purpose, and try hon- 
estly to cover our architectural forms with as much beauty as we 
know how to use, we are producing architecture which is certainly 
above the commonplace, and which is bound to take rank as develop- 


AFl'I.ATURE of modern commercial structures which has only 
within recent years received any attention is a proper pro- 
vision for cleaning the glass in wihdows without endangering life or 
limb. There have been a number of patented devices put upon the 
market permitting both the appearance and the conveniences of the 
ordinary double-hung sash, but with the mechanism so arranged that 
the sash can either be reversed and washed from the inside or can be 
swung in like a casement. .Xs far as we are aware, however, Chicago, 
which has been the pioneer in so many of the modern developments 
of commercial architecture, is the first to recognize the necessity for 
provision for safety in tall buildings. The following is an extract 
from the ordinance passed March 28, 1898: — 

" Section 198. — In all buildings of Class I., II., IV., and V., the 
Windows above the second story shall be so constructed as to permit 
the cleaning of them from the interior of the Building, unless suita- 
ble stationary platforms, balconies, or porches admit safe access to 
the outside of such windows. 

" Skctio.v 65. — As a means of reference in this ordinance, 
Buildings erected within the fire limits (sheds and shelter sheds as 
before described being excepted; shall be divided into classes as fol- 
lows : — 

"Class I. — In this class shall be included all buildings devoted 
to the sale, storage, or manufacture of merchandise, and all stables 
over 500 square feet area. 

"Class II. — This class shall embrace all Buildings used as 
residences for three or more families, all hotels, all boarding or lodg- 

ing houses occupied by twenty-five or more persons, and all office 

" Class IV. and V. — These shall include all Pjuildings used as 
assembly halls for large gatherings of people, whether for purpose 
of worship, instruction, or amusement." 

Such action as this is certainly to be commended on every 
ground, for while there are plenty of men who are willing to risk 
their lives by climbing out on a narrow ledge ten or fifteen stories 
above the sidewalk, to clean the outside of the glass windows, their 
willingness does not excuse the risk which they run, which risk, we 
imagine, the owners of property, no less than the building inspectors, 
would he glad to provide against. 


NUMBER eleven of the series of brick and terra-cotta fire- 
place mantels, of which J. H. Ritchie is the designer, is 
illustrated in the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., page vii. 

The residence of Edmund Hayes, Esq., at Buffalo, N. Y., of 
which Green & Wicks were the architects, is illustrated in the ad- 
vertisement of the Harbison & Walker Co., page xv. 

A spiral staircase (Guastavino construction), extending through 
five stories of the Paterson Bank, at Faterson, N. J., Charles 



— 1 














Work executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

R. \V. Gibson, Architect. 

Edwards, architect, is shown in the advertisement of R. Guastavino, 
page XX. 

The Boston Fire-proofing Company illustrate in their advertise- 
ment, on page xxii, the American f^xpress Company's building at 
Boston, Winslow & Wetherell, architects. 

A view of the skeleton construction of the new Westminster 
Chambers, Copley Square, Boston, of which Henry E. Cregier, Chi- 
cago, is architect, is shown in the advertisement of the Fawcett 
Ventilated Fire-proof Building Company, page xxiv. 


E. G. W. Dietrich, architect, has removed his office from 18 
Broadway to 1 5 West 28th Street, New York City. 



Woodruff Leeming, architect, has removed his office from 
726 Fulton Building to 617 Constable Building, New York Cily. 

The firm of George & J. P. Kingston, architects, Worcester, 
Mass., has been dissolved. John P, Kingston will continue the 
business at 518 Main 

Edgar S. Belden 
and Augustus B. Hig- 
ginson have dissolved 
the partnership under 
the firm name of 
Belden & Higginson 
and will henceforth 
practise the profession 
of architecture indepen- 
dently. Both have 
taken offices at 164 La 
Salle Street, Chicago. 

The third exhibi- 
tion of the National 
Sculpture Society 
opened May i, in build- 
ing of the American 
Fine Arts Society, 215 
West 57th Street, New 
York City. 

On Monday eve- 
ning, May 2, Mr. Theo- 
dore M. Pietsch, lately 
returned from the Ecole 
de Beaux Arts, Paris, 
addressed the members 
of the Chicago Archi- 
tectural Club on " Stu- 
dent Life in Paris," 
special reference being 
made to those studying 
architecture. Wednes- 
day evening, May 4, was 
devoted by the club to 
Architecture, it being 
one of the series of 
lectures given under 
the auspices of the 
Central Art Associa- 
tion. At this meeting 
the following gentlemen 
spoke : Mr. George R. 
Dean, " Some Modern 

Ideas of Architecture " ; Mr. Frank M. Handy, " A Plea for 
More Honest Living"; Mr. Robert C. Spencer, Jr., "Is there an 
American Style of Architecture " ; Mr. Dwight H. Perkins, " Criti- 
cism of Architecture by the Public"; and an informal talk by 
Mr. Louis J. Millet. On the morning of May 5 Mr. Frank Wright 
delivered a lecture on " Art in the Home." At the same session 
Mr. William Ordway Partridge spoke on " The Relation of y\rt to 
Practical Life." 

The series of five discourses on " Architectural History " given 
by the Detroit Architectural Sketch Club at the Museum of Art 
has been a great success. 

Norman and Gothic (illustrated), by Mr. J. E. Scripps, and 

R. Norman Siiaw, .-Architect, London. 

Renaissance (illustrated), by Mr. A. Kahn, of Nettleton & Kahn, ar- 
chitects, completed the course. The large attendance showed the 
general appreciation and benefit of these papers. They will be re- 
peated in a similar way next season. On March 28 M. B. Burrows 
was elected a director and J. A. Gillard, secretary, to succeed A. 


The T Square 
Club, Philadelphia, 
held its regular meet- 
ing on Wednesday eve- 
ning, April 20, at which 
the criticism and award 
of mentions on the draw- 
ings submitted in com- 
petition for the cover 
for the Club Syllabus 
for the coming season 
of 1898-99 was taken 
up. First mention was 
awarded to Nicola 
D ' A s c enzo ; second 
and third mentions, to 
Horace H. Burrell. 

The annual meet- 
ing of the club was 
held on ' Wednesday 
evening, May 11, at 
which there were pres- 
ent forty-eight members. 
The treasurer's report 
showed the club to be 
on a secure financial 

The medals for the 
competitions held dur- 
ing the past year were 
awarded as follows : 
Gold medal, Nicola 
D ' A s c e n z o ; silver 
medal, Horace H. Bur- 
rell ; honorable mention, 
Charles Z. Klauder. 

The following 
officers were elected for 
the ensuing year: Pres- 
ident, Edgar V. Seeler; 
vice-president, Adin B. 
Lacey ; secretary, Her- 
bert C. Wise ; treasurer, 
Horace H. Burrell; ex- 
ecutive committee, 
David K. Boyd, Walter 
Cope, and James P. 
Jamieson; house com- 
mittee, Nicola D'Ascenzo, George B. Page, and Frederick M. 




LL men who have studied architecture at Cornell University, 
no matter what their age may be, are requested to send their 
names and addresses to Prof. A. B. Trowbridge, Ithaca, N. Y., in 
order that they may receive data relative to the new Traveling Fel- 
lowship, the existing Graduate Fellowship, the new Two-Year Special 
Course in Architecture, the Illustrated Annual, which is soon to ap- 
pear, and the competition for an Alumni Hall, which will probably be 
held in the near future. 




The American Schoolhouse. VII. 


IN the Latin and English High School of Boston, begun in 1877, 
is found the first important application of sound principles of 
architectural planning to the school buildings of this country. The 
design of this building was in the main based upon that of the best 
Vienna schools, and while some of the features which here appeared 
are bettered in the later development of schoolhouse planning, it 
still remains an excellent building of its class, and in respect to the 
dimensions of its schoolrooms, 24 ft. in width and 14 ft. in height, it 
is superior to most schoolhouses since built. It will be seen from the 
plans that the lighting of its schoolrooms is almost wholly from one 
side, while light is also borrowed from the corridor windows. The 
provision made for hanging of pupils' clothing is not satisfactory, 
closets for this purpose being placed under the windows. Mr. E. P. 
Seaver, the Superintendent of Public Schools of Boston, writes : 
" These were not high enough to hang a coat in, and to fold a wet 
coat and stuff it into such a closet is bad for the coat. After a short 
e.xperience with these cupboard-s, they were abandoned, except for 
caps, books, and other small articles. For overcoats, were 
provided, which stand in the corridor or in the schoolroom, as may 
be found more convenient."' .Separate wardrobes on the same floor 
with schoolrooms, or individual lockers in the basement, are, of 
course, preferable to this arrangement. 

The heating and ventilating system is much less satisfactory in 
this building than in later 
schools of its class. In 
fact, it is absolutely the 
reverse of the system now 
adopted, by which the air 
is made to pass from the 
corridors to the rooms. 
In the Latin and English 
High School the passage 
of air is from the rooms 
to the corridors. The 
heating is by the indirect 
system alone, and not by 
direct radiation, while 
heated fresh air for ven- 
tilation is supplied by a 
plenum fan, the system 
now recommended by the 
highest authorities. In 
this building a supply of 

but 8 cu. ft. per minute for each pupil was contemplated, while to- 
day the laws of Massachusetts require at least 30 cu. ft. per minute 
for each pupil. This requirement of air delivery marks the notable 
progress made in the heating and ventilation of our schoolhouses in 
a generation, for it should be remembered that this building was 
generally considered, when built, to be the most perfect in all its 
features of any schoolhouse in the country. Judged by the crite- 
rions of its day, the only just criticism this building received was that 
in regard to the lack of proper provision for the storage of pupils' 

The Latin and English High School was designed by the then 
city architect, who worked in conjunction with Dr. John D. Philbrick, 
at that time superintendent of Boston public schools. In a descrip- 
tion of this building Dr. Philbrick said : — 

" The great fire, which came so near being disastrous to the 
project, turned out to be one of the causes of its ultimate success, by 
necessitating delay in building. Had the work gone forward with 
dispatch, as intended, the edifice erected would have been, without 
doubt, a substantial and costly one, and fully up to the standard of 
the best in the country; but it would not have been up to the stand- 
ard of the best schoolhouses in the world, as this building is, for 

Cliamberlin & Austin, Architects. 

the simple reason that the knowledge requisite did not exist in this 
country. The most of the pupils in the public schools of Boston 
had better accommodations than those of any large city in the world ; 
but we had no one schoolhouse equal to the best in the world. The 
characteristics of the best schoolhouses in this country were well 
known to me, and I had some knowledge of school architecture 
abroad ; but it was not until I visited the Akademische Gymnasium, 
in Vienna, at the time of the Universal Exposition of 1S73, that I 
was able to picture in my mind the image of such a building as we 
wanted in Boston for these two schools. The study there Ijegun was 
followed up by visits to other first-class high-school buildings, not 
only in that city of wonderful schools, but in all the principal cities 
of Germany. In this way a valuable collection of views, plans, and 
descriptions of the best specimens was obtained. 

" In respect to school architecture, while we made a better show- 
ing than any other American city, we were quite eclip.sed by some 
of the European cities ; that is, in some of the foreign cities school- 
houses have recently been erected which are architecturally and 
pedagogically superior to anything we have to show. The city of 
Vienna has individual school buildings vastly better than the best in 
Boston; but if you take all the school buildings in Vienna, the good 
and bad together, the average accommodations afforded to all the 
children of the city are perhaps not equal to the average of the 
accommodations provided for the children in Boston. What I mean 
to say is this: that Vienna knows how to build, and has built school 
edifices which are more durable, more safe, more convenient, more 
costly, and more beautiful, than any Boston has yet built, or is likely 

to build in the near fu- 
ture. The reason of this 
is, that in Vienna, when 
a schoolhouse is planned, 
it is done by the com- 
bined science and wis- 
dom of the most accom- 
plished architects and the 
most accomplished ped. 
agogists. No mere whim 
of a schoolmaster, and 
no mere whim of an in- 
experienced and unedu- 
cated architect is allowed 
to control the design." 

" In its general ar- 
rangements the block 
plan consists of a paral- 
lelogram 423 ft. long by 
220 ft. wide, the longest 
sides, or main buildings, fronting on Warren Avenue and Montgom- 
ery Street, the Latin School occupying the former, and the Englisli 
High School the latter. 

" There are two courts within this block, of equal size, the division 
between the two being made by the location of a central building 
which is connected with the two main street fronts by means of a 
transverse corridor. These courts, as the plan shows, not only afford 
the most desirable advantages of light and air, but also serve the 
purpose of separate playgrounds for the pupils of each school. 

" Across the easterly end of the block and connecting its two 
sides are located the drill hall and gymnasium ; and across the 
westerly end, fronting on Dartmouth Street, a building, as shown on 
the plan, is proposed to be erected hereafter, as has been mentioned, 
for the accommodation of the school board and its officers. 

Each of the street fronts of the main buildings is divided into 
three pavilions, — one central and two end pavilions, — the central 
pavilion being more pronounced in its proportions as to width and 
height. The main buildings have three stories and a basement, the 
latter being a clear story facing the courts. 

"The arrangement of the plan is simple; longitudinal corridors 
extend the full length of the main buildings and parallel with the 



street fronts. In the central pavilions, opposite the ends of the 
transverse corridor, and at its intersections with the longitudinal 
corridors, are placed the two grand entrances, one from each street. 
These entrances are a feature in the design, both internally and ex- 
ternally, ample space being given at the intersections of the grand 
corridors where they are located for the placing of statuary. There 
are also four other entrances from the streets, two in each main 
building, at the terminations of the longitudinal corridor, one being 
in each end pavilion. 

" There are eight staircases, one in each end pavilion, connecting 
with the entrances at the terminations of the longitudinal corridors, 
and two in each of the central pavilion, right and left of the grand 
entrances respectively. 

"The drill hall, another 
feature in the design, is on the 
street level. It is 130 ft. long 
on the floor by 62 ft. wide and 
30 ft. high ; above the galleries, 
which are at the ends, it is 160 
ft. long. The seating capacity 
of floor and galleries is sufifi- 
cient for twenty-five hundred 
persons. It has four broad en- 
trances : at the ends, from 
Warren Avenue and Montgom- 
ery Street; at the sides, from 
Clarendon Street and the east- 
ern court. The floor is of thick 
maple plank, laid in a solid bed 
of concrete. It is finished in 
natural materials, and is so 
treated as to get a construc- 
tional effect of open timber 
work, the wood being of hard 
pine, shellacked and varnished, 
and the interior walls of Phila- 
delphia face brick, laid in 
bright red mortar, and trimmed 
with buff sandstone. 

" There are forty-eight 
schoolrooms, twenty being on 
the first and second floors re- 
spectively, and eight on the 
third floor ; twelve receive their 
light from the courts, the re- 
maining thirty-six occupy the 
street fronts. The typical 
schoolroom of this building is 
intended for thirty-five pupils, 
but will accommodate forty or 
more, according to the mode 
of seating and the size of the 
pupils. It is 32 ft. long and 24 
ft. wide and 14 ft. high. It is 
lighted by four windows 9 ft. 
6 ins. by 4 ft. 6 ins., placed on 

the longer side 6 ins. from the ceiling and 4 ft. from the floor, and 
equally spaced, with transom sashes hung, as shown in the cut, above 
the sliding sashes. It has, on the side opposite the windows, two 
doors opening from the corridor; over the doors are top lights for 
ventilation, and between them two high lights hung on hinges. The 
pupils face the platform at one end of the room, and receive the 
light on their left. Under the windows are cabinets for coats and 
caps, there lieing no separate rooms for tiiis purpose. There is a 
closet sunk into the end wall, where the platform is, for a teacher's 
wardrobe. This description applies to most of the rooms, and where 
there is a variation from it the difference is not essential. 

" The assembly halls are on the third floor, in the central pavil- 



ions, are 82 ft. long by 62 ft. wide, and 25 ft. high, each having a 
seating capacity for eight hundred and fifty pupils, with the amphi- 
theater arrangement. 

" The library rooms are on the first floor, on the right and left 
from the transverse corridor in the central building, each being 54 ft. 
long and 32 ft. wide, with octagon ends to catch the light at differ- 
ent angles. They are furnished with bookcases against the wall on 
all sides, excepting the door spaces, made of light oak, about 6 ft. 
high, with glass doors. The windows come down to the top of the 

" Over the libraries, and of the same size and shape, on the second 
floor, are the lecture halls for the natural sciences. Each of these 

has two conveniently connected 
rooms — one for physical ap- 
paratus and the other for speci- 
mens of natural history. 

" Near the principal en- 
trances, on the first floor in the 
central building, there are for 
^ each school a teacher's confer- 
ence room, with an adjoining 
reception room, a head master's 
office, and a janitor's room ; on 
the second floor adjacent to the 
transverse corridor are two 
suites of apartments, each hav- 
ing four rooms,- for janitors' 
dwellings, each suite being con- 
nected with the basement by a 
separate staircase. 

" In the central pavilions, 
at convenient locations on each 
floor, there are ample dressing 
rooms for the accommodations 
of the teachers. The water- 
closets and urinals for the pupils 
are located in four sections 
winged out from the principal 
staircases in the central pavil- 
ions, and are arranged in tiers, 
there being two stories of 
closets to each story of the 
building, one of which is en- 
tered at the corridor level, and 
the other from the half landing 
of the staircase above. There 
are six of these tiers in each 
section, which are connected by 
a spiral staircase in a round 
tower at the exterior angle run- 
ning from the basement to the 
roof of the building, the top of 
which is surmounted by a large 
ventilator. By other means in 
addition to this the closets are 
completely ventilated. There 
are two spacious drawing rooms for each school on the third floor — 
one for model drawing and the other for copy drawing, both having 
side and skylights at either end ; at either end is a room for the safe 
keeping of the models and copies. 

" In connection with the drill hall there are two rooms for the 
military officers, and an armorer's room, furnished with a work bench 
and the requisite tools. 

" The extensive basement, besides the space necessary for the 
steam boilers and the storage of fuel, affords a covered playground 
for the pupils. 

"A part of the English High School basement has been fitted 
with every desirable convenience for the occupancy of one of the 



branches of the Public Library. It is to be hoped that one or two 
of the basement rooms may be utilized as a refectory where the 
pupils may obtain a wholesome lunch at a moderate price. 

" No chemical laboratory was supposed to be needed by the Latin 
School, and hence none has been provided ; but the provisions for 
the instruction in chemistry on the English High School side are 
believed to be as near perfection as has yet been reached, having 
regard to the objects and grade of the institution. The portion of 
the block appropriated to this purpose is architecturally a detached 
building located at the east end of the high school building and 
facin" Montgomery Street, and between it and the southerly end of 
the drill hall, being separated from the rest of the edifice by fire- 
proof walls, as far as convenience of access would allow. 

"The lower floor is occupied by a lecture room 35 by 40 ft., 
and capable of seating about one hundred pupils. The room is 
constructed with rapidly rising tiers of benches and is fitted with a 
lecture desk and the ordinary appliances of a chemical lecture 

" On the second floor are the laboratory and accessory rooms. 
The former is of a general rectangular shape 35 by 30 ft., with an 
alcove 27 by 7 ft., and is surmounted by a dome-like roof, from the 
center of which rises a short steeple or cupola. Of the interior 
arrangements the work- 
ing benches of the pupils 
are the chief feature. 
These occupy the middle 
area of the room and 
will accommodate forty- 
four boys at any one 

"Connecting with 
the laboratory are two 
small side rooms. One 
is for storage of appa- 
ratus, and can be dark- 
ened for spectroscopic 
experiments. The other 
is a preparing room, but 
.is fitted with working 
desks and drawers, and 
is used also as a store- 
room for chemicals. 

" Practically the 
buildings are fire-proof 

throughout. The corridors are all constructed with iron beams and 
brick arches, and laid with a finished floor of black and white square 
Italian marble tiles. The under sides of the arches over the corri- 
dors are plastered upon the bricks, and the beams covered with a 
heavy coating of Keene's cement upon wire network, these corridors, 
in themselves, dividing the whole block into four fire-proof sections. 
The several apartments are separated by brick walls, and all the 
floors and the spaces between the furring upon the walls are filled 
with fire-proofing. The staircases are wrought or ornamental iron- 
work, built into the brick masonry. 

" The floors and the platforms of the rooms, with the e.xceptions 
already mentioned, are of Southern hard pine, while the standing 
work is of the best white pine, grained and varnished, with the ex- 
ception of the corridors, where it is painted in parti-color." 

In a closing generalization Dr. Philbrick speaks of the leading 
characteristics of the building and notes features unique in American 
school architecture. 

1. The arrangement of interior light courts. 

2. The hall for military drill. 

3. Toilet rooms on each floor. 

4. Fire-proof construction. 

Dr. Philbrick was inclined to the opinion that there could not 
be a first-class schoolhouse of any considerable size in which the 
interior court plan is not applied. This cannot be readily accepted, 

George A. ('lough, City .\rclulect. 

for while the court plan has many merits, it requires great depth of 
lot if any important rooms are to receive their light therefrom. 

Other features are noted as unique at that time in the school- 
houses of this country. 

1 . The detached location of the chemical building. 

2. Sufficient separate room set apart from gymnastic exercises. 

3. The provision for conference rooms for teachers, and ofiices 
for head masters and janitors. 

4. The iron staircases with rubber mats. 

Dr. Philbrick's defense of the size of schoolroom adopted is as 
follows : — 

" It remains now to specify with distinctness the leading char- 
acteristics of this edifice, which in their combination constitute its 
superiority over other school buildings heretofore erected in this 
country, and render it so interesting as a stud)' both by school men 
and architects. 

" I . A mere glance at the plans reveals at once to the eye of 
the expert the capital peculiarity of this block, which of itself renders 
it unique in American school architecture, namely, its arrangement 
around interior courts. This, I believe, is the first instance of the 
realization of this court plan or idea on a considerable scale in any 
school building in this country. The most serious defects in our 

large schoolhouses have 
resulted from the igno- 
rance or disregard of this 
idea by our architects. 
This idea is distinctly 
foreign in its application 
to schoolhouses. It is 
Mr. Clough's great merit 
that he is the first to 
give it a practical ap- 
plication in this country. 
The principle may be 
thus stated : So plan 
the building that it shall 
be in no part wider than 
the width of a school- 
room with the width of 
the corridor added. 
We have college and 
other educational build- 
ings with wings at right 
angles to each other, 
but not planned in accordance with this principle. The superiority 
of this court plan over what may be called the solid plan, which has 
hitherto prevailed, is found more especially in the advantages it 
affords for light and air. So important do I consider this idea in 
.schoolhouse building that I doubt whether there can be a first-class 
schoolhouse of any considerable size in which it is not applied. 
The disadvantages of the solid plan may be appreciated by com- 
paring our two most conspicuous examples of it, the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and our Girls' High School, with this 

" 2. The perfection of the schoolrooms is another of the more 
important characteristics. It has l)een said that the rooms are 
not large enough. One might as well say that a bushel measure 
is not as large as it should be. The rooms are as large as they 
need be for the objects in view in planning them; and, in fact, a 
margin was allowed for a change of views with a change of manage- 

" My conclusion, then, is that the schoolrooms of this edifice, 
taken as a whole, considering their size, proportion, ventilation, and 
lighting, place it without rival in this respect among schoolhouses of 
its class." 

The foregoing description makes evident how important the 
building was in the history of American school architecture, and 
it will be recognized that many of the features developed in its 



construction have greatly influenced schoolhouses subsequently 

It would have been well if the relatively narrow schoolrooms of 
high stud here built had been generally adopted in later school- 
houses. The schoolhouses recently built in New York City have 
these desirable characteristics. 

We will consider again the Cambridge High School, in which is 
found a building preeminently distinguished not only for the beauty 
of its design, as previously noted, but for the excellence of its plan. 
The exterior walls of the basement of this building are of Milford 
granite, and the first story is of Amherst stone, the second and third 
stories are of light red Perth Amboy terra-cotta brick with trimmings 
and cornice of Amherst stone. The design and material used in this 
building are richer than is generally found or is generally advisable 
even in a high school house. This fine building was built by the city 
in recognition of the generous public gifts of a former citizen, among 

physical apparatus as the pupils personally use, and a working table 
for the teacher and for advanced pupils or special students. 

" 3. A chemical laboratory with one hundred and twenty- 
eight lockers, .so that each pupil may have his own equipment 
and be held responsible for its care. The room contains a chem- 
ical hood where a dozen pupils may work at once with noxious 
gases, also shelves for the storage of such supplies as are in daily or 
frequent use. 

" 4. A smaller connecting room with shelves and cases for 
supplies, books, balances, and the various materials used in chemical 
study. This room contains a table supplied with gas and water, and 
is intended for the use of the teacher or of special students under the 
teacher's immediate guidance. 

" 5. A small, dark room, with sink, shelves, gas, and electric 
lamps for photographic purposes. 

" 6. A large lecture room with a raised floor, and chairs for from 



these gifts being the site for this school. A notable feature of the 
plan are the " emergency " or " hospital " rooms for use in case of 
sudden illness. These rooms are provided more especially for the 
girl pupils. The office of the head master, the library, and the office 
of the secretary of the board are placed in conjunction, and all these 
rooms are arranged for library purposes. The books are all placed 
on open shelves, so that the free use of the library by the pupils is 
encouraged. The library is not only used as a place for study, but 
it is sufficiently large to serve at the same time for a recitation room 
for advanced classes. 

In his report the head master of the school gives the following 
description of the laboratory accommodations : -- 

"I. A physical laboratory, with a demonstration table for the 
teacher, chairs with writing-arm attachments for a class when seated, 
tables with supports for apparatus and lockers for storage, side tables 
with gas and water. 

" 2. A smaller connecting room, with shelves and cases for such 

one hundred to one hundred and fifty pupils, each chair having a 
shelf to facilitate the taking of notes. Here the teacher of physics 
or chemistry, or, in fact, of any subject, may assemble pupils in 
larger numbers than usual for talks, lectures, and such experiments 
as are better performed for the pupils than by them. This room 
contains closets for storage, cases for lecture table apparatus, a well- 
appointed demonstration table, a stereopticon screen, and a porte- 
lumiere. Its windows may be darkened at short notice. This room, 
as well as the five rooms just described, is provided with hot and 
cold water. 

" In addition to the six rooms'already described there is a botani- 
cal room, with drawers for the school herbarium, cases for botanical 
specimens, window shelves for plants and water ; also a mineralogi- 
cal room and a spacious drawing room, the latter to receive the 
tables, models, screens, and other equipment of the evening drawing 

The school has a capacity of 692 desks. 






WK have taken it for granted that the architect and engineer — 
individually or jointly, directly, or through capable repre- 
sentatives — have studied the necessary points of contact between 
terra-cotta, steel, brick walling, and such other materials as chance 
to intervene. We shall further allow it to go unchallenged that they 
have agreed upon what appears to them a ver)' satisfactory arrange- 
ment. It does not by any means follow that there is no room for 
improvement, or that it is not open to many, it may be, very serious 
objections when examined by the terra-cotta maker from a manu- 
facturer's, or by a practical mechanic from a builder's point of view. 
We have good reason to know that the underlying facts do not fur- 
nish an adequate basis for such a hopeful assumption on their be- 
half. In fairness, however, 
to members of the profes- 
sions referred to, let it be 
said that they do not all 
lay claim to a monopoly of 
the inventive faculty, or to 
an unerring judgment as to 
everything connected with 
building practise. The 
more distinguished of the 
number would, we suppose, 
be as ready to disavow any 

share in such pretensions fk;. 53. 

as they are to acknowledge 

and act upon duly accredited suggestions. Speaking from an active 
experience of many years, we can say without hesitation that an ar- 
chitect's success is usually about equal to the use made of his un- 
rivaled opportunities for obtaining the exact measure of things that 
may look well on paper, or sound plausible as an abstract theory. If 
he is true to himself and to his client, he will not allow such inesti- 
mable advantages to pass unimproved. 

A noteworthy indorsement of all this was made a short time ago 
by the father of skeleton construction, Mr. W. L. H. Jenney, a man 
whose right to be heard on such a subject will not he disputed by 
either architect or engi- 
neer. One pregnant sen- 
tence will suffice: " It is 
desirable, whenever prac- 
ticable, to consult with 
the terra-cotta company 
before the details are 
finally settled, as they 
must furnish and set the 
material, and sometimes 
very valuable suggestions 
can be obtained from 
them contributing to its 
stability and economy." 
Men of assured position 
can afford to do this, in 
the way indicated, with- 
out the least fear as to 

their professional dig- '''f'- S4» 

nity. The ablest and 

cal side of anything on which he is engaged, particularly so while he 
reserves to himself the undisputed prerogative of apjiroval or disap- 
proval. As applied to the recent development of steel and terra-cotta 
construction, these remarks have a special significance. It is a new 
problem, and one of unusual complexity, but the best solution will 
be found in an unbiased interchange of workable ideas. 

The manifold evils resulting from an opposite line of procedure 
are often costly, and nearly always vexatious. When, for example, 
an engineer has a balcony or other projecting member to support, he 
usually sets about it with the uncompromising directness to which he 
has been accustomed in work of a purely engineering character. 
The balcony in question, though not a strictly utilitarian adjunct to 
the building, may be prized by the architect as a somewhat desirable 
feature in his design ; therefore craving a more ornate treatment 
than would be expected on a mere fire-escape. To that end the iron 
anatomy must be concealed — probably embellished — by the use of 
a material in which it is possible to obtain a higher degree of archi- 
tectural form and finish. 


The engineer himself 
would, doubtless, concede 
as much (in theory) should 
the point be presented in 
that light, yet if called 
upon to modify a precon- 
ceived idea, or to depart 
from an established prac- 
tise, his leanings would, 
we fear, be found strongly 
conservative. To make 
the use of iron or steel 
subordinate to that of any 
other material is to him a doctrine of doubtful validity and one 
which he is not inclined to encourage. His early training and sub- 
sequent associations run in an opposite direction, becoming, in time, 
a habit of thought not easily overcome. In his eyes the building 
itself takes the form of a huge cantilever set on end, from which 
these platform supports must be projected only on approved engi- 
neering principles. A certain priority as to the progress of execution 
enables the contracting engineer to forge ahead unmindful, it may 
be, of subsequent embarrassments from which he will not, in all 
probability, be called upon to suffer. Nor is this the only fortuitous 

advantage, on his side, 
of which he is naturally 
disposed to make the 
most. Fellow-contractors 
less favorably situated 
may have reason to com- 
plain of his lack of co- 
operation, in these re- 
spects, but as to them he 
calmly assumes that, 
" W'here sits McGregor, 
there is the head of the 

Left to himself, an 
engineer would provide 
for the needs of a terra- 
cotta balcony after the 
manner shown in Fig. 53. 
Not only would he frame 
his triangular support in 

most successful among them gladly avail themselves of a privilege 
which, if enjoyed at all, is not shared to the same extent by the 
members of any other profession. It is the fledglings and failures 
that get hopelessly lost, while posing upon a pedestal of unapproach- 
able superiority, making up in supercilious airs what they lack in 
solid acquirements. There can be no loss of dignity on the part of 
an architect in seeking to know as much as may be about the practi- 

that fashion; the chances are that, unless restrained by imperative 
orders, he would likewise make permanent riveted connections be- 
tween it and the structural framing, thus manifesting an utter indif- 
ference to the claims or requirements of any other material. Indeed, 
we have known this to be done by an eminent member of the frater- 
nity referred to, in the erection of a building on which a number of 
such balconies occurred, notwithstanding a warning to the contrary 



sent by way of anticipation. How tliis steel triangle was to be in- 
serted in a terra-cotta bracket without first cutting away all the in- 
terior partitions and thereby reducing it to a mere shell was an 
important detail that did not seem to concern him. This was one 
of the things which he did not understand, and about which he would 
not take the trouble to inquire until his attention had been called to 
the oversight by a superintendent of unusual firmness and intelli- 
gence. He would not allow the terra-cotta bracket to be mutilated, 
or its strength in any way impaired, and so the trouble (in this case, 
at leastj recoiled upon those who had caused it. In fact, the heads 
had to be cut off the rivets, and the steel bracket taken apart so 
far as to allow the diagonal strut to pass easily through the slot 
provided for it. The connections were then fastened again — this 
time with bolts instead of rivets — just as the terra-cotta maker had 
requested in the first instance. 

One other notable circumstance may be mentioned in this con- 
nection. It was noticed that while two men were at work undoing a 
dozen or so prematurely 

fastened triangles, two 

other men working for 
the same firm were as 
persistently engaged (at 
another part of the same 
building) riveting similar 
brackets in position. 
They, too, were in turn 
taken apart for the same 
reason, to be recon- 
structed exactly as the 
first. The man in charge, 
when spoken to about 
this curious coincident, 
explained that they had 
been "got out that way 
at the works," and that 
he would keep on rivet- 
ing until his present 
orders had been counter- 
manded. It would seem 
that " some one had 
blundered," for though 
there were a score or 
more such balconies on 
the building, he stuck to 
his text, doing and un- 
doing until the end of the 
chapter. This was a 
case of unmitigated red 
tape plus a predilection 
for rivets. 

The construction of 
these balconies was in the main quite practicable, and had it been 
taken up in a spirit of mutual helpfulness neither side would have 
had any reason to complain. It but required reasonable forethought 
and intelligence to determine the readiest way in which the several 
parts of the two materials could be assembled so as to accomplish 
the final result aimed at by the architect. Work of this kind resolves 
itself into a well-considered compromise between different materials, 
each of which has some compensating advantage. To this end there 
must be mutual concessions, together with a total absence of preju- 
dice on the part of those whose business it is to make the best possi- 
ble disposition of available resources. 

In the particular case under notice we think that these terra- 
cotta brackets could have been reenforced by a simpler and much 
less expensive method. Into the upper chamber of each we would 
have inserted a 3 by 5 in. I beam, the end of which could have 
extended to within i yi ins. of the face of bracket. The re- 
maining cavities having then been filled with concrete, the brackets 

+ Plant at ylB. 

would have been bonded into the i ft. 4 in. wall without further ado. 
The projection would, of course, be shored up until a sufficient 
countervailing weight of walling had been built on the other end. A 
balcony so forined would be capable of sustaining at least ten times 
the weight ever likely to be placed upon it. 

In the last example a stone platform was used as a matter of 
choice, rather than one of necessity. At Fig. 54 we show a some- 
what different arrangement, terra-cotta being the material used 
throughout. The brackets are strengthened in the manner described 
in last paragraph, not that they really needed any auxiliary support, 
but as an extra margin of safety. A 5 in. I beam is laid on the top 
bed, the ends of which extend a foot or so into each jamb of win- 
dow above. To this is attached the 4 by 4 in. I beams inserted in 
joints of platform, the blocks themselves forming the fulcrum. 
These blocks are made with raised joints and a wash towards out- 
lets in the base under balustrade. In each baluster there is a ^ 
in. rod which passes through a X by 3 in. continuous bar, for which 

provision is made in 
bottom bed of capping. 
This bar enters the dies, 
returning at right angles 
into main wall, thus 
securing the whole balus- 
trade against lateral de- 

Turning to Fig. 55, 
we have a platform over 
an entrance, calling for 
another scheme of con- 
struction. It, like the 
preceding example, is 
one in which the terra- 
cotta manufacturer had 
something to say, and 
that at the invitation of 
an architect who believes 
in the principle of co- 
operation for which we 
have been contending. 
In this case it became 
necessary to provide for 
a cantilever at every 
joint, the blocks being 
molded to fit snugly on 
the flanges. Considera- 
ble leverage is obtained 
by placing a 5 in. I beam 
on top of the cantilevers, 
and across the window 
FIG. 55. openings above, each 

end extending into wall 
far enough to receive all the cantilevers. The whole of the blocks 
having been adjusted to line, resting the while on a level staging, 
the cellular top bed was then filled solid with concrete graded 
towards outlets, and floated off in granolithic cement. 

Terra-cotta being the material used above the granite base 
(Fig. 56), the architect, on that account, preferred using it for the 
platform also. This was quite apart from the question of cost, 
though the difference between it and stone would have amounted to 
a substantial item. These ten separate blocks, joined together in 
the manner indicated, became a monolith of considerable strength, 
which, being free from joints on the finished surface, could be made 
to shed water at will in any direction. The principle of composite 
construction embodied in this example, in which steel and cement 
are made to supplement the limitations of terra-cotta, is capable of 
the widest application in modern building practise. Where one is 
weak the other two are strong, and so the sources of strength out- 
number the elements of weakness at the ratio of two to one. How 



to obtain the nearest approach to an equation of strength between 
the several components is an epitome of the whole question. It 

FIG. 56. 

will be answered best by those who study the physical properties 
of each, and who have also had a close practical acquaintance with 
the use of them under exacting diversified conditions. 


CORNELL UNIVERSITY is offering a traveling scholarship 
to its graduates. "Since," as they say, "there are many 
objections to the prevailing method of conducting foreign scholar- 
ships, viz., that of traveling and making measured drawings, and 
since there is as much opposition to the idea that Americans must go 
to France for an architectural education, the Faculty of the College 
of Architecture has decided upon a course which is at the same time 
a departure from and a compromise between these two systems." The 
value of this scholarship will be 52,000. It will be awarded by 
competition to men under thirty years of age, and the winner will be 
required to spend two years in advanced studies at Cornell and in 
Europe under the direction of the faculty. The first of these prizes 
will be awarded this fall, and others, it is expected, will be awarded 
on alternate years thereafter. The course pursued differs somewhat 
from that usually taken in regard to these traveling scholarships. 
Instead of spending the time in traveling and making measured 
drawings, or going to France, entering the L'Ecole des Beaux Arts, 
the holder of the fellowship will spend the first eight months of each 
year at the university pursuing advanced studies, and four months on 
a European tour. For the award of this scholarship two competi- 
tions will be held. The first has for its purpose the selection of 
candidates for the second or final competition. The first problem will 
be one that can be executed at home in ten days, so restricted in size 
of sheet and elaboration of details that the average competitor can 
readily prepare his drawing in ten evenings. The second will be ex- 
ecuted in four weeks at Cornell University in the College of Archi- 
tecture. Seven will be selected from the first competition who may 
compete in the second, and here will be awarded the prize to the 
successful candidate, and a first and second mention to the two next 

Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 



" A sea 
Of glory streams along the Alpine height 
Of blue Friuli's mountains." — Chihle Haiohl. 

New Roads to Venice — The Fusterthal — Innichen — Dolomite 
Mountains — Heiligenblut — Kotschach — Kirchbach — Gail 
Thai — Hermagor — Ober Tarvis — Predil Pass — Gorizia — 
Aquileja — Grado — Udine — Pordenone. 

TO those who wish to find new roads to old haunts let me recom- . 
mend the road to Venice described in this chapter. A more 
interesting way for any one who has already travelled through Lom- 
bardy to Venice cannot be desired. It affords a sight not only of 
charming scenery, primitive people, and churches of some interest, 
but gives an opportunity for a visit to Aquileja, Grado, and Udine, 
all of them places well worthy to be known by all lovers of archi- 
tecture. Leaving the IJrenner railway at Franzensfeste, we made 
our way first of all to Innichen. Here I found a very fine Roman- 
esque church which, placed as it is not very far to the north of the 
distant mountains which one sees from Venice, and full as it is of 
Italian influence in its general design, may well be included in my 
notes. It is a cruciform church with a central raised lantern, three 
eastern apses, a lofty south-western tower, and a fifteenth-century 
narthex in front of the rest of the west end. The nave is divided 
from the aisles by columns which are, (i) ten-sided, (2) four half 
columns attached to a square, and (3) octagonal. The first and third 
are massive columns decreasing rapidly in size from the base to the 
capital. The central lantern has an octagonal vault upon very sim- 
ple pendentives, and the apses have semi-dome roofs. A fine south 
doorway has the emblems of the four Evangelists, sculptured around 
Our Lord in the tympanum. Innichen is a small and unimportant 
village, but boasts, I think, of no less than five churches; and fine 
as is the mother-church, I suppose most travellers would agree with 
me in thinking the background of mountains to the south of it, the 
most delightful feature of the place. Truly I know few things more 
lovely than the evening view of the church and village, with the tall 
fantastic peaks of the Dolomite Drei Schuster behind, lighted up 
with the glowing brilliancy which is so characteristic a result of the 
Dolomite formation, by the last rays of the setting sun. Below all 
was gloomy, dark, and shaded ; above the whole series of towering 
peaks seemed to be on fire, and most unearthly did they look. The 
attraction of such sights as I had seen l)efore compelled me to give a 
day to an excursion southwards to the Kreuzberg pass, to have a 
glimpse, at any rate, of the Auronzo Dolomites, and I had no reason 
to repent the day so spent. 

Leaving Innichen and going eastward, we went first to Lienz; 
then, after a dc'tour to Heiligenblut, we crossed from the Pusterthal 
to the Gail Thai, and from thence across the Predil pass to the 
Adriatic at Gorizia. From Innichen till we reached the Italian sea- 
board, we saw and were much interested in a series of churches, 
generally of the fifteenth century, and all built apparently by the 
same school of German architects. They are small mountain 
churches, and are mainly remarkable for the complicated and ingen- 
ious character of their groined roofs. They have usually aisles, 
columns without capitJs, and no distinct arches between them, but 
only vaulting-ribs. The panels between the ribs are often orna- 
mented with slightly sunk quatrefoils, or in some cases regularly filled 
with tracery. 

One of the best of these churches is that at Heiligenblut, in 
Carinthia. Here, where the main object of every one is the explora- 
tion of the mountains grouped around the beautiful snow-peak of the 
Gross-Glockner, it is not a little pleasant to find again, as at Innichen, 
a remarkable church just opposite the inn-door. This was built as a 
pilgrimage church to contain a phial of the sacred blood, and is ex- 



tremely interesting architecturally as a church, built with a regular 
system of stone constructional galleries round the north, south, and 
west sides of the nave. The aisles are narrow and divided into two 
stages in height — both groined — and the upper no doubt intended 
for a throng of people to stand in, and 
see the functions below. Now, how- 
ever, just as in most modern galleries, 
raised tiers of seats are formed in them, 
and their effect is destroyed. A pretty 
Retable at the end of the north gallery 
suggests that originally perhaps they 
were built in part to make room for side 
altars, but this was clearly not the pri- 
mary object. The fronts of the galleries 
are covered with paintings of no merit, 
which illustrate the beautiful legend of 
S. Briccius, who is said to have brought 
the phial of blood from the East, and 
to have perished with it in the snow 
just above Heiligenblut. There is a 
crypt under the choir, entered by a flight 
of steps descending from the nave ; a 
grand Sakramentshaus north of the 
chancel where the holy blood is kept 
(not over the altar) ; and there is a lofty 
gabled tower and spire on the north side 
of the chancel, whose pretty outline adds 
not a little to the picturesqueness of the 

From Heiligenblut, looking at churches by the same hands on 
the way at S. Martin Pockhorn and Winklern, we made our way back 
to Lienz, and thence, crossing the mountains, descended on Kotschach 
in the Gail Thai, passing a good church on the road at S. Daniel. 

Kotschach is in one of the most charming situations for any one 
who can enjoy mountains of extreme beauty of outline, even though 
they are not covered with snow to their base, nor are more than some 
nine thousand feet in height. 
To me this pastoral Gail Thai, 
with its green fields, green 
mountain sides, wholesome air, 
and occasional grand views of 
Dolomite crags, among which 
the Polinik and Kollin Kofel 
are the finest peaks, is one of 
the most delightful bits of 
country I have ever seen. At 
Kotschach the architectural 
feature is a fine lofty gabled 
steeple with an octagonal 
spire. It is very remarkable 
how German these Germans 
are ! Here, close to the Italian 
Alps, we have a design iden- 
tical with those of the fine 
steeples of Liibeck, and as 
vigorously Teutonic and un- 
like Italian work as anything 
can possibly be. 

From Kotschach a pleas- 
ant road runs down the valley 

to Hermagor, another charming little town beautifully placed, and 
with — no small attraction — a capital hostelry. On the road, at 
Kirchbach, the drivers of the country waggons in which we were 
travelling pulled up their horses, to my no small delight, in front of a 
most interesting medi;i-val church yard-gate ; this is a simple archway 
overshadowed by a shingled pent-house roof, to whose kindly guar- 
dianship we owe it that a fifteenth-century painting of S. Martin 
dividing his cloak with the beggar, and several saints under craftily- 



painted canopies, are still in fair preservation on the wayside gate, 
making one of the most lovely pictures possible on the road. 

At Hermagor, where the grand and massive mountain range of 
the Dobratsch to the east, and the Gartner Kogel to the west, give 

never-failing pleasure to the eyes which- 
ever way they turn, there is another fine 
church, very much of the same char- 
acter as that at Heiligenblut, but with- 
out galleries. 

Between Hermagor and Ober 
Tarvis the churches are not important, 
but one in the village of S. Paul has the 
unusual feature of a cornice under the 
external eaves effectively painted in the 
fifteenth century, with elaborate and 
very German traceries in red and buff, 
which are still fairly perfect. 

At Ober Tarvis the Predil Pass is 
reached ; and starting from thence in 
the morning, passing on the ascent the 
pretty Raibl See, and on the descent 
some of the most stupendous and aweful 
rocky precipices I have ever seen, we 
reached Flitsch to sleep, and on the 
following afternoon emerged from the 
mountains at Gorizia, not far from the 
head of the Adriatic, after a long and 
beautiful drive down the valley of the 
It is a drive of about a couple of hours from Gorizia to Aquileja. 
The country is perfectly flat, but teeming with vegetation, and it is 
not until the end of the journey is reached that one realizes under 
what baleful conditions life or existence is endured here. A Roman 
capital and a fragment or two of Roman columns or mouldings are 
all that one sees at first to show that one is driving into one of the 
greatest of the old Roman seaports. Here, where before its destruc- 
tion by Attila in a.d. 452 the 
population is said to have been 
about a hundred thousand in 
number, there are now only a 
few poor houses, and a sparse 
population, pauperized and in- 
valided by fever and swamps 
on every side, whilst the sea 
has retreated some three miles, 
and left the place to its misery 
without any of the compensat- 
ing gains of commerce. Cer- 
tainly Torcello is a degree 
more wretched and deserted, 
but these two old cities have 
few compeers in misery, and 
I advise no one but an an- 
tiquary to make the pilgrim- 
age to Aquileja, who is not 
quite prepared to tolerate dirt, 
misery, and wretchedness with 
nothing to redeem them. 

The one great interest in 
the city now is the cathedral. 
This is a great cruciform basilica, with a central and two small apses 
east of the transept, and eleven arches between the nave and aisles. 
The arrangements of the apse are interesting ; two flights of steps 
lead up to it from the nave, and in the centre of the east wall is the 
patriarch's throne of white marble, well raised on a platform above 
the seat which goes round the apse. The whole arrangement is sin- 
gularly well preserved, and looks very well in spite of the destruction 
of most of the mosaic pavement with which originally no doubt the 



floor was laid, of which only a few tessers now remain, and in spite 
also of the modernization of the rest of the apse. This throne ap- 
peared to me to be not earlier than circa 1 1 50, though the church is 
said to have been built between toiQ and 1042. These dates must, 
1 think, be taken with large allowance for alterations. With the 
exception of the apse and the crypt under it, 1 believe the greater 
part of the church was rebuilt in the fourteenth century; for though 
the Roman capitals (which were everywhere ready to the hand) were 
used on the ancient columns, the arches carried by them are pointed, 
and the clerestory is evidently of the same age. This combination 
of Classic columns and sculpture with pointed arches is so very 
unusual, that it is quite worth while to give an illustration of the 
interior. The columns, capitals, and bases are of varied shapes and 
sizes, and evidently a mere collection of old materials which happened 
to be handy for the builder's use ; the arches are rudely moulded, 
and the clerestory of cinquefoiled windows, each of a single light, is 
as insignificant as po.ssible, and yet withal there is so grand an 
area inclosed that the effect is good and impressive. The nave is 
divided from its aisles by eleven arches on each side, and measures 
about one hundred and fifty feet in length, by one hundred and five 
in width. The aisle roofs are modern, but the nave still retains its 
old roof, a fine example of a cusped ceiling, boarded and panelled 


in small square panels. The whole of this ceiling is painted, and 
with extremely good effect, though the only colours used are black, 
white, and brownish yellow. Each panel is filled with a small painted 
hexagon filled with tracery painted in black and white, and all the 
ril)s and leading lines are yellow and black. The purlines, which are 
arranged so as to form the points of the cusps, are very decidedly 
marked with black. Simple as the treatment is, the effect is admira- 
ble, and it appeared to me to be owing to the large amount of white 
in the panels. Near the west end of the north aisle is a singular 
circular erection, which is said by the cicerone to be the receptacle 
for the holy oil, but which without this information I should have 
taken for the baptistery. It is a perfectly plain circular mass of 
stonework about fifteen feet across, with a doorway on the west side, 
a moulded base and cornice, and above the latter a series of detached 
shafts carrying a second cornice of marble. A square projection on 
the north side abuts against the aisle wall, and seems to have been 
the special receptacle for the vessel which held the oil. At present 
it seems to be as little used and understood by the people of Aquileja 
as it would probal)Iy be if it were in some country beyond the Roman 
pale; a remark by the way on old church arrangements which one 
finds oneself making almost everywhere, when one contrasts the in- 
tentions of the old builders with the uses to which more modern 
ideas — reformed or deformed, whichever they may be — are in the 
habit of applying them. 






IN the preceding parts of this series I endeavored to give some 
explanation of the manner in which the white efflorescences on 
clay products are produced during manufacturing, and I found the 
main sources of the same to be contained in the iron pyrites resident 
in the clays and in the fuels used, but I considered only the case 
in which the bricks themselves contained the efflorescing salts. 
Experience, however, shows that even bricks that come from the 
kilns perfectly free from such salts subsequently exhibit efflorescence 
either in the finished building or even after long storage. Before 
proceeding to the remainder of my discussion, therefore, I will give 
a brief explanation of this phenomenon, and for the sake of clear- 
ness I will distinguish (1) efflorescences which appear during storage, 
and (2) efflorescences which make their first appearance in the 


In most brickworks the bricks are stacked in the open places 
round aliout the factory; and since these places are commonly 
very uneven, and often lie lower than the factory itself, they are 
usually filled in with ashes and broken bricks. But coal ashes con- 
tain large quantities of sulphurous materials, as even the uninitiated 
will understand from what has already been said, if he but reflect 
that coal ashes usually contain much lime, magnesia, and alkalies, 
which, on the combustion of the coal and of the sulphur in the 
pyrites, are converted into sulphuric or sulphurous salts. The fact is 
that magnesium and calcium sulphates are to be found in consider- 
able quantities in coal ashes. When, therefore, perfect brick are 
stacked on places filled in with ashes, that part of the salts in the 
ashes which is dissolved by the rain or the moisture of the ground 
will penetrate into the lower layer of the porous bricks and will be 
carried thence gradually from brick to brick until the whole pile is 
thoroughly saturated with the salty solution. After the evaporation 
of the water the salts will be left upon the surface of the products. 


For the appearance of efflorescence on perfect brick in buildings 
we have to seek a different cause. Here the mortar is at fault. 
Many mortars contain alkalies; that is, carbonate of sodium or 
potassium in small quantities. These' are dissolved by the rain, 
penetrate into the porous brick, and after the evaporation of the 
water are deposited on the surface, where the evaporation is most 
energetic. This is very frequently noticeable in buildings where 
colored mortars are used. The coloring matter oftenest used for the 
coloration of mortar is oxide of iron, which is mainly prepared by 
the roasting of iron pyrites. This oxide of iron always contains 
easily soluble salts of sulphur — principally ferrous sulphate. These 
sulphuric salts, on coming in contact with the above-mentioned 
alkalies in the mortar, are converted into sulphuric alkalies, and 
these in solution are absorbed by the porous bricks and precipitated 
on the surface. All these salts, which are very readily soluble in 
water, are easily washed off by the rain, and, on the bricks becoming 
dry again, are redeposited on the surface. Here a careful analysis 
of the mortar and coloring matter is necessary. 

Frequently the salts contained in the soil on which the building 
stands are the cause of the efflorescence under consideration. These 
salts are most commonly produced by the putrefaction of organic, 
ammoniacal substances, — for example, the urine in cattle and horse 
stables, — and the eftlorescences in question have actually been 
oftenest noticed in such buildings. By slow putrefaction nitric 
ammonium is first formed, which, on coming in contact with the 
lime in the mortar, is converted into nitric calcium, and so gives rise 
to the well-known "wall-saltpetre," a name by which many brick- 
makers still characterize all white efflorescences whatsoever on 



bricks. Also the environing atmospliere (for the air sometimes con- 
tains ammonium) may be the indirect cause of these efflorescences. 

With the foregoing the sources of white efflorescences are prac- 
tically exhausted. I will now speak of the modes of origin of the 
green and yellow colorations on buildings. These are almost exclu- 
sively found on light-colored bricks. They may be either organic 
or inorganic in character. When organic, they are caused by vege- 
table micro-organisms, microscopic Algs, which find their nutriment 
in the water of the brick, and consequently grow and increase only 
where their natural element, water, is present, that is, on parts of 
buildings which are always more or less moist. They impart to the 
bricks a green or greenish-yellow appearance, similar to the moss- 
covered rocks of nature ; but the Algas excrescences are infrequent. 

More commonly the green colorations are caused by mineral 
salts. Their characteristic tint renders them particularly noticeable 
in the case of buildings constructed of white or light-colored bricks. 
The coloring passes with time gradually from a yellowish green into 
a dark green, and finally into blue. It is a serious defacement of a 
structure, and impairs its appearance greatly. 

These green efflorescences have been long known and various 
explanations of their origin have been given ; but the interesting 
researches of Professor Seeger, of Berlin, first shed light upon what 
seemed to be an inexplicable mystery.^ Seeger was the first who 
accurately determined the chemical nature of the green efflorescences 
caused by mineral salts. They had been thought to be soluble 
salts of iron, cobalt, and combinations of chromium, but the color- 
ing element had never been determined definitely. In some cases 
combinations of chromium have really been discovered, and Seeger 
also found such. But Seeger first determined beyond a possibility 
of doubt that the majority of the green efflorescences in question 
were produced by the presence of vanadic acid salts, which" are not 
decomposed by the heat ordinarily maintained in the kiln. Seeger 
procured large quantities of these saline efflorescences and carefully 
analyzed them. His analysis yielded the following results : — 

Vanadiate of potassium 44.38 

Potassium sulphate 9.01 

Calcium sulphate 7.97 

Magnesium sulphate 10.02 

Molybdate of sodium 1.62 

Chloride of sodium . . 4.47 

Silicates 3.82 

Water 18.25 

Insoluble 0.46 


In addition to the small quantities of molybdate of sodium, it is 
principally the large quantities of vanadiate of potassium that pro- 
duce the green efflorescences we are considering. Why this exceed- 
ingly rare element should just happen to occur in light-burning clays, 
and what its combination is in the unburnt clay, has not yet been 
ascertained. So much only can be said with certainty, that every 
bright-burning, fire-proof clay belonging to the carboniferous forma- 
tion contains more or less vanadium. Noteworthy is it that in the 
green clay this vanadium is not found as a soluble salt. I lixiviated 
several pounds of green clay with water and diluted acid, and after 
evaporation sought to determine the vanadium in the solid residuum. 
I was unsuccessful. The vanadiates seem to be first formed during the 
burning of the brick. They may be present in the green clay as a 
metal or oxide. 

Further discussion of these green efflorescences will be given 

In conclusion I would state that the greenish vanadiates, owing 
to the minimal quantities in which they appear, have no disintegrat- 
ing effect upon the brick, whereas the white efflorescences impair not 
only the appearance of the brick, but also injuriously affect their 
structure and strength, for their capacity for crystallization gradually 
induces disintegration. 

' See Seeger : Gesammelte Schriften, " Griine mid gelbe A iisschliige an Ver- 
blendsteinen" ; " Vanadmverbindtmgen am Brennkohlenihone." 






IN the development of industrial, and even in scientific progress, 
men have always shown a tendency to make an occasional halt 
in their onward march, and at such times to treat partly developed 
theories as finalities, and to ignore propositions which, after but 
another forward step or another forward glance, would have been 
recognized as axioms. In the light of subsequent discoveries these 
halts seem to have been altogether unaccountable, while still greater 
marvel attaches to the tenacity with which otherwise enlightened 
and progressive men frequently adhere to the positions taken at 
these times of arrested development. After the forward movement 
has been again taken up it seems quite incredible that a fetish 
worship should have been accorded by enlightened beings to crude 
and half-developed theories, and to the still cruder incorporations of 
these crude theories into active practise ; and it seems still more 
strange to note the mechanical paradox of an apparent increase of 
inertia which seems to be in direct proportion to the length of time 
consumed in any one of these halts. At such times the progressive 
energy which until then made for continuous movement toward 
betterment of practise seems to be converted into tenacious adhesive- 
ness to the attained position, and all capacity for carrying out or 
even entertaining a forward impulse seems to be lost. 

In the development of the science and art of fire-retardent con- 
struction we have successfully passed one such halting place only to 
have arrived at another, upon which the forces which originated and 
developed the known processes of burntclay fire-protective covering 
are resting in placid contentment with the progress attained, reluctant 
to attempt farther flights into the realm of attainable approach to 
perfection, and scornful of those who attempt such approach by the 
aid of other means than those which the tile-maker has already 

For many years after the first appearance in building practise of 
iron pillars and beams it was believed that a building could be made 
really "fire-proof" by substituting iron pillars and beams and brick 
arches for wooden posts, girders, joists, and floors. Disastrous fires 
at London, Hamburg, Berlin, New York, and Chicago demonstrated 
the untenability of that assumption. Among the facts brought out 
by these fires were, first, that combustible chattels and furnishings 
placed within an incombustible structure still retain their combusti- 
bility, and may, if stored in sufficient quantities, be kindled and 
fanned into an exceedingly hot and fierce blaze; second, that iron, 
though incombustible, is not indestructible by fire, and that its 
deterioration under the effects of a hot fire causes results quite as 
disastrous as would be the burning of wooden structural members 
supporting the blazing combustible contents of the building of which 
they are part. 

It seemed, then, in all cases where there were conditions which 
precluded the use of brick or stone piers and vaultings, to be 
Hobson's choice between the use of wooden structural members 
which add fuel to the flames of burning contents of buildings, and 
that of metallic structural members which expand, soften, and col- 
lapse under the effects of the heat of burning goods and chattels 
surrounding them ; for in either case the destruction of a building 
appeared to be a foregone conclusion, if but a fire once obtained a 
good headway among its contents. 

This led thinking and progressive constructors to conceive the 
idea of completely encasing the structural members of a building 
with substances at once slow to conduct heat and incapable of 
destruction or even serious injury by fire. 



Almost from the very beginning burnt clay in various forms 
became the preferred encasing material. It was easy to mold it into 
the required shapes ; it could be made light of weight in the course 
of its manufacture ; it had been exposed to higher temperatures than 
those of a blazing building; it could be applied by ordinary building 
artisans at moderate cost and in all weathers. For these and other 
reasons it took and held possession of the field for many years with 
but little molestation. 

It finally came to be believed that if only burnt clay were used 
to some extent as an essential part of a " system " of alleged " fire- 
proof" construction, building and contents were certainly secure 
against destruction and probably safe from serious injury by fire. 
But now this belief is assailed by reports of the damage suffered in 
the course of fierce and long-continued fires by buildings in which 
burnt clay had been used as fire-proofing material, and still more by 
fierce and persistent attacks upon burnt clay made by the advocates 
of other, more recently invented " systems " of " fire-proof " construc- 
tion, which are so new as not to have had the opportunities of sub- 
jection to test in actual conflagrations which have fallen to the lot of 
older methods. 

This tendency toward an anti-burnt-clay heresy may be fought 
in either of two manners. The first, peculiar to the state of halting 
and rest upon the road to perfection, is to fall back upon the incon- 
trovertible statement that clay tiles of all kinds, having once been 
subjected to furnace heat, are indestructible by fire; that the present 
methods of manufacture and application of clay fire-proofing materials, 
being sanctioned by nearly a quarter century of practise and expe- 
rience of manufacture and application, have achieved a status like 
that of the Thirty-nine Articles or Magna Charta or the Constitution, 
an attempt to alter which is synonymous with sacrilege, heresy, and 
treason; and that if there are observed facts which show that there 
may be buildings so constructed that the burnt clay used in them 
fails of making them fire-proof, why, then so much the worse for the 
facts. Fortify this ])osition with a circumvallation built up of desires 
to save innumeral)le obsolete, rusty, rickety manufacturing plants, 
which have earned their first cost over and over again, but which are 
carried on manufacturers' inventories at their first cost together with 
all repairs and tinkerings since their first origin upon the plain of 
-Shinar, and the champions of burnt-clay fire-proofing processes may 
make a defense as stubborn as that of ThermopyLx', but their cause 
will be lost and their territory overrun and despoiled by the 

There is another, less sentimental and less romantic, way of 
facing the attack and of reestablishing and maintaining the claim that 
burnt clay is in most instances the most reliable material that can be 
used as a fire-protective covering of the structural members of build- 
ings. In organizing and marshaling the forces of the burnt-clay 
industries in the offensive-defensive warfare which its friends must 
wage until their former position is reconquered, there is no room for 
maudlin, self-laudatory memories of the bloodless victories won in the 
past, of the hundreds of buildings, the square miles of floors, the hun- 
dred thousands of pillars and beams in and upon which burnt clay 
has been used as a fire-proofing material in the days when none other 
had been thought of; nor is it allowable to consider tenderly and 
reverentially the perpetuation of the plans and plants, the machines 
and dies, the processes and instruments by means of which the burnt- 
clay fire-proofing industry was established and maintained before its 
wicked and unscrupulous enemies had had the temerity of proposing 
the substitution of materials and processes wrongfully, of course, but 
yet plausibly, vigorously, and persistently vaunted as superior to 
burnt clay in its every shape. Nothing should be thought of but the 
aim to so profit by the lessons of the past as to eliminate from burnt- 
clay fire-proofing practise every imperfection developed by experience 
and incorporate in it every improvement suggested by thoughtful in- 
genuity and aggressive enterprise. 

As the battle stands now, the age and general adoption and 
application of the various processes of burnt-clay fire-proof construc- 
tion have become an element of weakness, while the apparent strength 

of other systems and processes appears to lie chiefly in their novelty 
and in the comparatively limited range of their practical applica- 
tion to actual building operations. The number of instances in 
which the former have been exposed to the destructive efforts of 
fire is necessarily much greater, and therefore, also, the number of 
opportunities for showing the existence of weakness and imperfec- 
tion, than can in the nature of things be the case with the more 
recently developed systems, whose champions, however, are quick 
to observe and expose every tendency to failure under stress of 
actual use of the older material, the reputation of which they aim to 

If those interested in the maintenance of the not yet altogether 
destroyed preference for burnt clay as a fire-proofing material will 
read and learn the lessons taught by the exposure of their material 
to fire under varying conditions and methods of attack, it will give 
them a great advantage over their newly arisen rivals, whose ma- 
terials and processes will, ere long, begin to show in the light of sub- 
jection to actual conflagrations many shortcomings and failures to 
attain ideal perfection, as is the lot of all that is created by the 
spirit and the hand of man. By the time the conduct under fire of 
the newer materials and processes will have begun to amaze and 
horrify their friends, there will have been many corrections of de- 
fects which the e.xperience of years will have shown, and which the 
criticism of rivals and enemies will have pointed out as latent in 
burnt-clay fire-proof construction, and this industry will have been 
established on a firmer footing than ever before. 

But before the arrival of that day there will be many exasperat- 
ing experiences. There are dozens of buildings, particularly in 
New York, in which hollow-tile arches have been used for floor 
construction, in which pillars, girders, and beams have been left ex- 
posed in whole or in part. There are scores of buildings through- 
out this country in which the burnt-clay coverings of bottom flanges 
of beams, or the enclosures of pillars are inadequate, and fully as 
many in which the integrity of the fire-protective covering of im- 
portant structural members has been seriously impaired by the 
manner in which wooden grounds, and blocks, and conduits, and 
insulators made of highly inflammable materials have been applied 
and introduced. There are altogether too many instances of acres 
of floor space supported by burnt-clay protected pillars and beams, 
but covered by inflammable fixtures and chattels, and enclosed chiefly 
by sheets of glass in wooden frames, unprotected by shutters and 
exposed to attack by fire from without. There cannot help but be 
many more cases of serious injury to the fire-protective covering of 
such structures, and these will be considered as condemnatory of 
the material burnt clay and not of the manner in which it is applied, 
unless the friends of burnt clay begin to combat erroneous and in- 
judicious use and application of their materials even more earnestly 
and vigorously than they may fight the efforts to substitute other 
materials and processes for their own. 

It is, therefore, essential that thoroughgoing study be made of 
the damage which the ordeal of fire has inflicted upon clay fire- 
proofing materials, of the causes of such damage, and of the means 
by which it be prevented in the future. Of the injuries noted, some 
were due to the introduction, as in the building of the Chicago 
Athletic Association, of wooden strips between the individual blocks 
of hollow tile ; others, to absence of protection upon important 
structural members, as was the case in the Western Union Building 
of New York ; or, again, as in the Home Building, at Pittsburg, the 
harm suffered seems to have been due to an effort apparently made 
to combine a maximum of exposure to attack of fire from without, 
with a maximum aggregation of combustible material within the 
building, and the opposition to this of a protective covering of burnt 
clay barely sufficient to meet the minimum of fire danger charac- 
teristic of the ordinary office building. That the Home Building 
remained, for the most part, structurally intact is, therefore, in itself 
a victory for burnt clay, even if the general design of this building 
intended to be "fire-proof" was a disgrace to its author. 



The Masons' Department. 


THE average building contractor is so accustomed to look out 
for liimself, and, we must admit, is so perfectly able to dq so, 
that we do not always bear in mind some of the rights which are un- 
doubtedly his, but which are very often not insisted upon ; and the 
scramble for work, especially in these dull times, is so pronounced 
that we imagine an architect can easily fail to appreciate how much 
it means for a contractor to be spending his time week after week 
figuring new work, none of which may come his way. There have 
been at different times a few spasmodic attempts to so alter the 
present system for making tenders for work that there would be an 
opportunity for some compensation to be awarded to unsuccessful 
bidders. At one time it was proposed that each of the contractors 
who were invited to figure should add a certain percentage to his 
bid, the one to whom the contract is awarded to divide this percent- 
age among the unsuccessful contestants. One of the strongest of 
the trade associations in this city has, if we are rightly informed, 
carried such a scheme into practical effect for a number of years with 
eminently satisfactory results. But as this particular association 
limits its work to a technical portion of building operations and in- 
cludes in its ranks practically all who follow this line in this city, it 
is easier to regulate such a practise than it would be in the case of 
the general contractors, who often have to compete with every one, 
and on all sorts of terms and conditions. It would really be fair 
that when a contractor is called upon to spend several days in care- 
fully estimating the cost of a structure, the owner, who thereby gets 
the benefit of selection from several bidders, should be willing to pay 
a small compensation for the opportunity, though just how this can 
be brought about is a question which is not easily solved. There 
are a few considerations, however, that would certainly lighten the 
task of the unsuccessful bidder, without laying any serious burden 
upon either architects or owners. 

It ought to be an inflexible rule with an architect that no con- 
tractor should ever be allowed to change his bid after it has once 
been submitted in writing. If the builder is to feel that the owner, 
by applying moral suasion, can expect him to cut off five, ten, or 
fifteen per cent., he will, if he is human, add__that"amount to his bid in 
the first place, and take his chances on being the lowest, and it is 
believed that by adhering strictly to a rule of this sort the architect 
would get lower bids in the first place, and would take a higher rank 
in the opinion of the competitors. 

Another slight] act of courtesy can make relations much more 
pleasant. Ordinarily when a builder submits a tender for work he 
thereupon goes his way and may not know for weeks, or even months, 
who is to do the work. Just as soon as any decision is reached, each 
one of the bidders ought to be notified that the contract has been 
awarded to so and so under certain conditions, and appreciation ex- 
pressed of the services of the bidder in figuring. This is not money 
compensation for estimating, but it is a matter of courtesy between 
the architect and the builder, which one owes to the other. The 
architect cannot build a building without a builder, though the 
builder might put up a structure without an architect, but anything 
which brings the two more closely together is of unquestionable ad- 
vantage. The line between architect and builder is at best a faint 
one, and the amenities of civilization can well be studied as a branch 
of architecture. 


A SUBSCRIBER submits the following query to The Brick- 
builder for an answer : " Will you kindly inform me 
through your journal as to the bearing strength of concrete, or the 
proportionate thickness to the width ? " 

This query is somewhat indefinite in form, and it. must be an- 

swered as two separate propositions, one as to the compressive 
strength of concrete, and the other as to the necessary proportion of 
width to thickness. 

Some recent tests of the strength of concretes, prepared from 
different cements and aggregates, have been conducted by the En- 
gineer Department of the District of Columbia, and the results are 
published in the Report of the Operations of this Department for 
the year ending June 30, 1897, and may be found in full on p. 165 
of that report. A synopsis of these results is given in the following 
table : — 


No. Composition of Concretes, by Volume lo days. 45 days. 3 mos 6 mos. i year 


6 parts average concrete stone .... 

3 parts average concrete stone, 3 parts 

4 parts average concrete stone, 2 parts 

6 parts (% average concrete stone, H 


6 parts average gravel 

6 parts coarse concrete stone (no fine) 


6 parts average concrete stone .... 

3 parts average concrete stone, 3 parts 

4 parts average concrete stone, 2 parts 

6 parts (K average concrete stone, ^ 


6 parts average gravel 

6 parts coarse concrete stone (no fine) 




















1 15,200 





Additional information is also contained in Baker's Treatise on 
Masonry Construction^ p. 109, from which it appears that hydraulic 
concrete, made in various ways with natural cement, may have a 
compressive strength of from 65 to 85 tons per square foot in cubes 
at an age of six months, and with Portland cement a strength of 
from 144 to 219 tons, results which do not differ largely from those 
obtained in Washington. 

The necessary relation of thickness to width of any concrete 
mass cannot Ije fixed by any general rule, but is dependent upon 
the particular conditions under which the concrete is used. If the 
concrete is to form the footing for the support of a wall or pier, 
the relation of thickness to width will depend upon the nature of 
the soil or foundation upon which the concrete is laid and the 
amount of load that it is to carry. Each particular case must, 
therefore, be considered by itself. For piers for the support of 
heavy machinery the concrete may be several times thicker than 
wide, whereas, as a base for pavements, it may be made many times 
wider than thick. For any particular case the relation can be deter- 
mined from the strength of various concretes previously given. 


AT the last meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 
Mr. L. L. Buck stated, as reported in our last issue, that 
limestone in concrete, applied to iron or steel surfaces, would cer- 
tainly cause deep corrosion of the metal wherever the stone came 
in contact with the metal. In the anchorages of the Niagara rail- 
road suspension bridge, the strands of the inain cables were imbedded 
in a concrete made with limestone, and wherever the spalls touched 
the wires the latter were badly eaten and sometimes entirely severed. 
This is a matter of such importance that it deserves careful atten- 
tion, particularly in view of the use of limestone in concrete laid in 
connection with the structural metal work of large buildings, where 
corrosion can be detected only with much difficulty. There is a wide 
variation in limestones, and it may be that some grades will act cor- 
rosively and others not ; it is desirable that this point should be 
borne in mind in discussing the subject. — Eng. Record. 

^ There being such a great difference in the crushing of the two cubes, tlie strength of 
each cube, and not the average, is given. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities, and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK.— There seems to be an impression in all parts 
of the country that business in New York is entirely sus- 
pended and that the greatest uneasiness and excitement prevails. 
Such, however, is not the case, and it is really surprising, in view of 
existing circumstances, that everything is running along so smoothly. 
There Is naturally some excitement and business is '< quiet," but not 
suspended by any means. The exchanges are very active in buying 
and selling and a healthy tone prevails. Of course, most large build- 
ing enterprises are being tem- 
porarily postponed, but owing 
to recent encouraging reports 
and the prospects of an early 
cessation of hostilities it can- 
not be for long. The work on 
smaller buildings and resi- 
dences seems to be progressing 

A great source of annoy- 
ance at the present time is a 
strike among the stone-cutters 
which has been in force for 
several weeks. It has almost 
caused a cessation of work on 
the great thirty-story Ivins Syn- 
dicate Building, on Park Row, 
which it is intended to have 
ready for occupancy in Sep- 

The National Sculpture 
Society is now holding its third 
annual exhibition in the Fine 
Arts Society Building, 215 
West S7th Street. This is by 
far the most ambitious exhibi- 
tion which the society has yet 
attempted, and should be of 
great interest to the general 
public as well as to architects 
and sculptors. The growing 
friendliness and cooperation 
between architects and sculp- 
tors is very gratifying and gives 
promise of future works in 
which the two arts will be 
jointly represented, each en- 
hancing the beauty of the 
tems of news among architects 

five-story brick dwellings to be erected on 76th Street, at a total cost 
of $160,000. 

Carrere & Hastings, architects, havej planned a five-story 





Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta 


Pcabody & Stearns, Architects. 

other. Among the few important 
may be mentioned : — 

Plans have been prepared by York & Sawyer, architects, for 
a new building for the Franklin Savings Bank to be erected at 65S 
Eighth Avenue. The building will be of brick and stone, and will 
cost $200,000. 

Ludlow & Valentine, architects, have prepared plans for a 
five-story brick and stone store and office building to be erected on 
East Ninth Street ; cost, $200,000. 

Edward H. Kendall, architect, has planned an eight-story brick 
and stone office and printing house for the Methodist Book Concern. 

N. C. Mellen, architect, has planned a four-story brick and stone 
dwelling to be erected on Madison Avenue ; cost, $130,000. 

Cleverdon & Putzcl, architects, have prepared plans for four 



Executed by the Perth .Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 

R. L. Daus, Architect. 

brick and stone dwelling to be erected on Fifth Avenue, near 72d 

Dehli & Chamberlain, architects, have planned a new building 
for the Church of the Good Shepherd, Brooklyn. It will be a 
brick and stone structure and will cost about $40,000. 

CHICAGO. — The writer knows of a building enterprise in New 
York which, a few months ago, could have obtained on its 
exceptional security a loan of $30,000 at ^l4 per cent. Now, how- 
ever, operations are suspended until the money market can determine 
its own emotions on the war with Spain. Similar conditions prevail 
in Chicago. Recently a loan at 4^ per cent, was announced on prop>- 
erty located, it was noted, outside of the business center of the city. 
Not long afterward a better loan on property in the heart of the 
business district was held up at 6 per cent. As this indicates, many 
building projects are awaiting the outcome of the war. 

About a year ago the Chicago Architectural Club gave up its 
club house and moved into the Art Institute Building. They and 
the Caxton Club (an organization of book cover connoisseurs) were 
the first to take advantage of the new policy of the Art Institute, to 
gather within its walls a group of clubs interested in art. Now the 
Illinois Chapter of the Institute of Architects has done likewise, and 
without any cost save the taking out of membership tickets in the 

■m^^mi lit III 111 ']ir m iii A ^ 


Executed by the Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 
Clough & Reid, Architects. 



Art Institute for each member of the Chapter. It possesses head- 
quarters in our temple of art, which, with its art school of twelve 
hundred, its fine galleries of painting and sculpture, its school of 
architecture, and close affiliation with the Armour Institute of Tech- 



McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

Elevation shown on plate 34. 

nology, and, finally, its group of art clubs, ought certainly to be the 
center of a strong art influence in the West. 

In the line of building news there is not much at present con- 
cerning tall office buildings. One fourteen-story building, 50 by 68, 
is to be erected on the site of a building recently burned. 

Holabird & Roche have a business building 100 by 100, two 
stories high, "chiefly glass." Some important manufacturing plants 
are in the prospective stage. Wilson & Marshall have in hand ex- 
tensive alterations to Hooley's Theatre. The question of a new 
court house is being agitated again. Some new public schools and 
city pumping stations are projected. The showing of the building 
operations for April is less, based on the permits, than for the pre- 
vious month, or for the corresponding month last year. 

Active measures are being taken by the Central Art Association, 
in behalf of the trans-Mississippi Exposition, " to erect, furnish, and 
decorate a modern $10,000 house containing ten rooms, wherein will 
be used the most approved building material of the present time. 
The following committee of architects, Geo. R. Dean, Frank L. 
Wright, and R. C. Spencer, Jr., has been selected by the Central Art 
Association to design a home which may be considered typical of 
American architecture." It is to be hoped that this project will be 
successful in every way, and that material dealers will contribute 
generously to make it so. 

Apropos of a scandal referred to last month concerning an im- 
properly constructed building which recently burned, it is interesting 
to note that the new city building ordinances hold architects respon- 
sible thus : " Any architect having charge of such building, who shall 
permit it to be constructed in violation of this ordinance, shall be 
liable to the penalties herein provided and imposed." However 
much architects may be overridden in matters of taste, they should 

be held fully responsible as professional men in matters of con- 

PITTSBURGH. — ^ After the general complaint of the scarcity of 
work which has come from architects and contractors so far 
this year it is rather surprising to learn at the office of the building 
inspector that during February, March, and April three hundred and 
fifty-seven permits have been issued against three hundred and 
seventy-nine during the same period of last year, while the valuation 
of the work of this year has been nearly half again as much as that 
of the same period of 1897. 

The first exhibition of the Pittsburgh Chapter of the American 
Institute of Architects was opened at the Carnegie Art Galleries on 
Saturday evening, April 30, by a reception to members and friends. 
The exhibit is a most excellent one and comprises most of the best 
drawings seen in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago this year. 
Its general excellence is not due, however, as one of our daily papers 
would have us believe, to the large size of the drawings; this paper 
remarks that it is very impressive, " many of the drawings being 
quite large, many as large as 8 by 2 ft. ! " Everything is being 
done to have the exhibition visited by the public, as it may be made 
an important factor in the education of the architectural taste and 
criticism of the community. Among some of the most attractive 
drawings may be mentioned Cope & Stewardson's drawings for 
the Pennsylvania Institute of the Blind ; the designs for the 
National Academy of Design Buildings, by Babb, Cook & Wil- 
lard ; the drawings of the Mt. Aloysius Academy at Cusson, Pa., 
by Alden & Harlow; the interiors by Nicola d'Ascenzo; and the 
exhibits from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the 
University of Pennsylvania. There are also many attractive 
sketches, notably those of Frank A. Hays, the pencil sketches by 
H. A. Woodbury, a charming sketch of a suburban residence by 
Howard Shaw, and the pen and ink drawings of Joseph Pennell. 
There are also shown the drawings received in the competition 
lately given by the Pittsburgh Chapter for an entrance to Schenley 
Park. The prize, $500, to be expended in a year at some archi- 
tectural school, was awarded to C. C. Mueller. 

The opening exercises were also made the occasion of the un- 
veiling of a life-sized bronze bust of the late J. D. Bernd, a promi- 


Executed in gray terra-cotta by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 

W. H. Hume & .Son, Architects. 

nent merchant of Pittsburgh, who left the Carnegie Library some 
$20,000 to be expended on architectural books. 

Among buildings now in process of construction or soon to be 
commenced may be mentioned the new department store for Kauf- 
mann Brothers, to be built of brick and terra-cotta, Charles Beckel, 




Showing Guastavino system ceiling. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 

architect; the First United Presbyterian Church, to be built in 
Oakland, Thomas Boyd, architect ; the large new Mother House 
for the Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis, of brick and stone. 

S. F. Heckert, architect. Mowbray & Uffinger, of 
New York, have made plans for the new East End 
Bank, to be built of white marble, cost about $70,000. 
Alden & Harlow have recently let the contract for 
a Carnegie Branch Library and are at work on two 
more, one to be built on Wylie Avenue and the other 
on the South Side, estimated cost of each about 

D. H. Burnham, of Chicago, was awarded the 
first place in the competition for the Union Trust 
Company Building, and is at work on the drawings. 
The same architect is also preparing plans for a new 
Union Station for the Pennsylvania Railroad, to cost 

HAVING illustrated from time to time in our 
other pages various interesting problems in 
the (juastavino system of cohesive construction, 
large domes, floors for heavy loads, roofs, etc., it is a 
pleasure to note the increasing tendency in this strictly 
masonry system towards architectural and artistic 
effect in the construction itself. By means of im- 
proved material there has been a continuous advance 
along this line of making the masonry its own deco- 
ration, and we can see some of its capacities in the 
vestibule ceiling of the main entrance of Paterson 
City Hall, Carrere & Hasting.s, architects, illustrated 


St. Louis Sewer Pipe Manufacturers have been figuring 
on three hundred car loads of sewer pipe for Guadalajara, Mexico; 
also a large contract for city of .Mexico. 



JCxecuted by the Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

A. W. Scoville, Architect. 

DvcKERHOFF PORTLAND Cement was used to cover the As- 
sabet Bridge, at Northboro,, built by the Metropolitan 
Water Board. The bridge is 329 ft. long by 189 ft. wide. 

The Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Company 
are supplying the terra-cotta for twelve houses for F. A. Potter & 
Son, at Philadelphia, H. E. Flower, architect. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company have just completed 
for the Conway Electric Street Railway Company, at Conway, 
Mass., a steel bridge 300 ft. in length, to carry their electric line 
across the Deerfield River. 

Waldo Brothers are furnishing the face bricks for a resi- 
dence front at Worcester, Mass., L. E. Gironard, contractor. These 
bricks are manufactured Ijy the Ohio Mining and Manufacturing 
Company, .Shawnee, Ohio. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East Berlin, Conn., 
have just completed a fire-proof boiler house for the Hendey Ma- 
chine Company, of Torrington, Conn. ; also a new fire-proof casting 
shop for the Whitin Machine Company, of Whitinsville, Mass. 

The contract for the Lincoln Trust Building, 7th and Chest- 
nut Streets, St. Louis, has been let to McArthur Brothers, of Chi- 
cago, D. H. Burnham, Chicago, architect ; cost about $400,000. 
Face bricks are called for. 

Waldo Brothers report that they are supplying Atlas Port- 
land cement for municipal work in the following cities : Boston, 
Providence, Worcester, Haverhill, Quincy, Somerville, Brookline, 
Everett, Melrose, Maiden, and Medford. 

The lining of the easterly walls of the Scollay Square station 



of the Boston Subway has been awarded to the Grueby Faience 
Company. This makes the fourth station of the Subway in which 
their goods have been used. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company will 
supply, through their New York agents, Meeker, Carter, Booraem & 
Co., the enameled brick and glazed terra-cotta in the new Post- 
Office building at Paterson, N. J., Mcllvaine, Unkefer & Co., 

The Standard Terra-Cotta Company are supplying the 
architectural terra-cotta for the Press Building, Philadelphia, T. P. 
Chandler, architect ; also for the new building for the Union Gas 
Company, at Point Breeze, Philadelphia, Wilson Brothers & Co., 

The Winkle Terra-Cotta Company is furnishing the terra- 
cotta work for interior and exterior of Ohio, Minneapolis & St. 
Paul Railway Station, Minneapolis, Minn., Charles S. Frost, archi- 
tect. They are also making terra-cotta for Lincoln Trust Building, 
St. Louis, Eames & Young, architects ; George A. Fuller Company, 

Meiers Puzzolan Cement (Waldo Brothers, New England 
agents) is being used in the Somerset Hotel, Commonwealth Avenue, 
Boston, A. H. Bowditch, architect ; and in the Westminster Hotel, 
Copley Square, Boston, Henry E. Cregier, architect. This cement 
is also specified for the light stone work on Back Bay Station of 
the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. 

The Brick, Terra-Cotta, and Supply Company, M. E. 
Gregory, proprietor, Corning, N. Y., have closed contract for the 
brick and terra-cotta required for Mrs. S. L. Gillett's residence, 
Elmira, N. Y., Pierce & Bickford, architects. They also have con- 
tract for the terra-cotta required for Parochial School, Elmira, 
N. Y., J. H. Considine, architect. 

The Boston Fire-proofing Company are fire-proofing the 
following new buildings in Boston : Store building, corner Bedford 
and Chauncy Streets, Winslow & Wetherell, architects ; George A. 
Fuller Company, contractors; building for the Boston Electric 
Light Company, Whidden & Co., contractors ; American Express 
Company's new building, Prescott & Sidebottom, architects ; L. P. 
Soule & Son, builders. 

Among the new buildings recently supplied with brick by the 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company are : Stores and apart- 
ment house for George H. Matchett, at Cleveland, Ohio, Robert 
Crabb, architect; theater and music hall at South Bend, Ind., 
Dirham & Schneider, architects; new high school building at Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, D. Riebel, architect ; and residence at Columbus, 
Ohio, for W. Y. Miles, J. E. Elliot, architect. 

The following buildings have just been equipped with the 
" BoUes Revolving and Safety Sash": New York and New Jersey 
Telephone Building, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; New York Telephone Build- 
ing, 15 Dey Street, New York City; New York Telephone Building, 
18 Cortlandt Street, New York City; Cushman Building, Broadway, 
New York City. The sash for the tallest office building in the 
world (Park Row Syndicate Building) is now being fitted with the 
Bolles fixtures. 

The Standard Terra-Cotta Company, through their New 
England agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., have recently secured con- 
tracts to furnish the terra-cotta for the following buildings: The 
Science Building, Springfield, Mass., Gardner, Pyne & Gardner, 
architects; a business block at Holyoke, Mass., Clough & Reid, 

architects ; Taylor's Theater, Worcester, Mass., Fuller, Delano & 
Frost, architects ; Thomas Barrett, builder ; Wilder and Moore 
Halls, Dartmouth College, Lamb & Rich, architects. 

The Queen Sash Balance Company, of 150 Nassau Street, 
New York City, whose overhead window pulleys have gained a 
world-wide reputation, are finding great success in placing on the 
market an improved window stop adjuster which they have just 
patented. The adjuster consists of a small bronze cup with a cor- 
rugated base having an oblong opening, and a corrugated washer to 
fit the corrugated base, which allows a screw to pass through it and 
thus holds the stop bead absolutely rigid. Samples and catalogue 
will be furnished upon application. 

The Cleveland Wire Si-ring Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
are placing upon the market a line of patented steel wall ties 


for bonding pressed or enameled brick facings, hollow walls, terra- 
cotta blocks, etc., which will, we believe, find favor among archi- 
tects and builders as being practical and valuable. The claim is 
made that, being perfectly flat and the formation such, — without 
spring, — they form a direct lock that bonds perfectly. The ac- 
companying illustrations give a good idea of the exact manner in 


which these ties are used. The same company has also an improved 
wire snow guard for slate and shingle roofs. Catalogues which 
include price-list will be sent on application. 

Vessels of the United States Navy are being equipped with 
the Mason Safety Tread, the Department having approved of this 



m aterial as being well adapted to secure protection to the sailors 
under conditions where, to the ordinary danger of slippery treads, is 
added the instability caused by rough seas and constant motion. 
Among the vessels for which orders have been given for entire or 
partial equipment with Mason Treads are, the Brooklyn, Iowa, 
Indiana, Minneapolis, Columbia, Kcarsarge, Kentucky, Bancroft, 
Lancaster, Lebanon, and Southery. Mason Treads prevent wear 
and slipping whether on land or sea. 

The Dagus Clay Manufacturing Company shipped up- 
wards of five hundred thousand bricks during the month of March. 
Among contracts recently closed is a residence for George B. 
Ensworth, Warren, Pa., C. M. Marston, architect; to be built of 
dark buff with dark pink trimmings ; residences for William V. 
Eisenberger, Lancaster, Pa., and G. L. Lawrence, New York City, 
Dagus fire-flashed Pompeian tile ; a building of light buff brick for 
John Westenberger, Lancaster, Pa. They are working up^n an 
order of mottled pink for John W. Reith, Lancaster, Pa. They 
also furnished dark gray brick for a barn for Dr. John A. Ritchie, 
Oil City, Pa., and have delivered to the 15. N. McCoy Glass Works 
one hundred and fifty thousand light buff brick for an addition to 
their factory building at Kane, Pa.; also forty-seven thousand dark 
red front brick for Thomas W. Poy, Kane, Pa. They report the 
season as having opened fairly well with prospects of continued 
trade excellent. 

J. B. Colt & Co., who for many years were located on Nassau 
Street, near Ann Street, New York City, removed May i to Nos. 3, 
5, and 7 West 29th Street, corner of Fifth Avenue, where they have 
considerably more room than heretofore, in a very much better 
neighborhood, and with very much better facilities of all kinds. 

It is the leading firm of the United States engaged in the 
manufacture and sale, at wholesale and retail, of educational and 
scientific projection apparatus, electric focusing lamps, etc. 

Since acetylene gas became a factor in illuminating work, 
Messrs. Colt & Co. have made a special feature of acetylene genera- 
tors, and for such appliances they are now recognized as headquar- 
ters. They have very completely equipped acetylene gas show 
rooms at 125 West 37th Street, corner of Broadway, where the capa- 
bilities of the new illuminant are being fully set forth to a multitude 
of visitors every day. 

The business of the house was originally founded in 1870 by 
Mr. James Bennett Colt, the present senior partner. In 1888 Mr. 
Charles Goodyear became a partner, and these two gentlemen con- 
stitute the present firm. The firm has branches in Chicago and 
San Francisco, and its business e.xtends literally to all parts of 
the country. 

Fine Clay Property and Factory Sites. 

Twenty-five hundred acres, within six miles of Baltimore, 
Md. K large part is underlaid with clays of fine quality and 
great variety, suitable for making red, buff, and other kinds of 
Bricks, Tiles, and Terra-Cotta. A railroad, running through the 
property, connects it with Baltimore and Washington. Water 
connection with Baltimore and Chesapeake Bay by channel 
fifteen feet deep. Good water power on property. Fine sites 
for Factories. Parts of property are suited for suburban devel- 
opment and parts for truck farming. For sale, as a whole or in 
lots to suit, on reasonable terms. 

Also a small FACTORY, equipped for making roofing tiles 
and bricks. 

Apply to Curtis Creek M. F. & M. Co., 12 St. Paul Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Fireplace Mantels. 

The best ones to buy are those we make of 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as good or 
as durable. Our mantels don't cost any more than 
other kinds, and are far better in every way — our 
customers say so. Don't order a mantel before you 
have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch Book 
showing 53 designs of mantels costing from $J2 

Phila, & Boston Face Brick Co»^ 




The demand for our goods has induced certain parties to imitate our trade-marks for the 
purpose of fraudulently deceiving our customers and profiting by our reputation. We 
recently brought suit against the New York Metallic Paint Co,^ Fred* Lederer and Walter 
T, Klots, respectively^ the President and Treasurer of said company, to restrain such fraudu- 
lent practises* This case was tried, and the following is a part of the findings which have 
just been signed by Judge Gaynor, viz* : — 

** That] the said defendants (the New York Metallic Paint Company) entered into the 
manufacture of said pigments and adopted the words ^Metallic Clinton PaintV printed upon 
the representation of a barrel head, for the fraudulent purpose of causing the customers of the 
plaintiff in particular, and all others, to confound the defendants^ pigment with that of 
the plaintiff, and thereby enable the defendants to get the trade of the plaintiff/^ 

A similar finding was also made with respect to ^^ Clinton Hematite Red/^ 

Judge Gaynor also decided that we were entitled to an injunction restraining the defend- 
ants from using the words ^^ Clinton Hematite Red *^ and ^^ Metallic Clinton Paint '^ printed 
upon the representation of the head of a barrel, or any colorable imitation thereof , as well as to all 
profits of the defendants upon goods sold by them, bearing imitations of our labels and trade- 
marks, and to such damages as we may have '^suffered by reason of the defendants^ unlawful 
use^^ of our labels and trade-marks* The public and the trade must decide for themselves 
whether it is desirable to purchase goods from manufacturers who, under the findings of the 
Court, began business ^th the deliberate intention of fraudulently palming off their goods 
as those of a reputable manufacturer* 

In purchasing our goods, kindly see to it that they bear the words ^^ Metallic Clinton 
Paint ^^ or '^Clinton Hematite Red^^ printed upon the picture of a barrel* 

We will consider it a favor if our friends will notify us if any infringements of our rights 
come to their knowledge* 

Clinton, N* Y* 

May 16, J898. 







Schools, Churches, Mills, and Factories, 


The Pancoast Ventilator Co. 


Main Office, 316 Bourse Bldg:., PHILADELPHIA. 

Hade in all Sizes, 

From 2 inches to 10 feet. 

Guaranteed to give' 

The Best Ventilator for the 
Least Money. 

Mi'i.hrt \ ii:\v 


To those who are tired of applying two 
or three coats of linseed oil to their brick 
walls every two or three years, and to those 
who would like to avoid the expense which 
this triennial application entails, 


is recommended as an article that will water- 
proof brickwork thoroughly with one coat 
(or with the most porous bricks, two coats,) 
at a less cost per coat than oil, and which 
the test of time has proved to be permanent . 
It is an indestructible, insoluble compound 
which never requires renewal. A preven- 
tive of the white efflorescence. 

SAMUEL CABOT, Sole Manufacturer, 

70 Kilby Street, Boston, Mass. 








The Western Review of Commerce (one of the most 
reliable commercial papers in this country), after a thor- 
ough and complete examination of the 37 leading 
bicycles of the world, to determine "Which is the best 
bicycle," said editorially : "The unanimous verdict was 
in favor of the Lxjvell 'Diamond,' manufactured by the 
John P. Lovell Arms Co. of Boston, Mass." 








Lovell "Diamond" .... $50.00 

Models 34, .t.i, 36. 

Lovell "Diamond" .... $75.00 

Moilcl»4U, 41. 

Lovell Racers $85.00 

Lovell Tandems $125.00 

Lovell Excel, w in.h . . 

Men's and Women's 

Lovell Excel, 26 imii . . 

Youths' anil Misses' 

Lovell Excel, -24 in<ii . . 

Hoys' anil Girls' 

Lovell Excel, -20. inch . . 

Boys' and Girls' 


All Lovell "Diamond" Bicy- 
cles have been made in our own 
factory at South Portland, Me., 
since Jan. ist, 1897. 

Agents almost everywhere. 
If there is none in your town 
write to us. Our catalogue, 
" Famous Diamonds of the 
World," free for the asking. 

1840-John P. Lovell Arms Co.-"898 

131 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 


Providence Pawtuckct Woonsocket Worcester Portland Bangor 

A Complete Line of Bicycle Sundries. 


O. W» Peterson & Co. 



i 78 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. For.. 

New England Agents 

Telephone 484. .fi^Ji^Ji^^ 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company, Perth Amboy, n. i. 
Mosaic Tile Company, zanesviUe, ohio. 

DagUS Clay Manfg* Co*, Front Brick Manfrs., Ridgway,Pa. 

^^ a^*' c^^ ^* fl^^ ^* ^^ 

A full line of Plastic Mud and Semi-Dry Press Brick in all Shades, 
Shapes, and Sizes. 

O. W. KETCHAM, XLena^Cotta, 

Supplies ^\^ •" 


v*0 £namelc6 

Builders' Exchange, />^ V Hf^'Tt^l? 



Every Description. 

Telephone, 2163. 

H. F. MAYLAND &. CO., 



Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 






Rocky Hill, N.J. 





> ^g^ ^^^^ ^g^> ^g^^ ^g^^.^g^> ^g^^ ^g^^ ^g^^ ^g^^-^^^t ^^^^ ^^^t ^S^t ^^^t ^S^t ^^fc ^Sl& ^S^t ^^^fc ^^^fc^li 


New York Office; 

105 E. 2 2d Street. 

HARDING & OOOCH, Architects. 


Broad Street, New York City. 

W. A. & F. E. CONOVER, Builders. 

Architectural Tcrra-Cotta Executed by the 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 

Boston Representative: CHARI^ES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 


Conkling, Armstrong 
^ ^ Terra-Cotta Co, 

J. ^1 

11! T i 
i| )l l!j 

W. «. G. AUDSLEY, Architects, New York, 

. • Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Quality • • 


Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA. PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 


Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Perth Amboy, N, J. 


Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

J 60 Fifth Avenue* 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 1 02 Milk Street* 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 


New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 


John Hancock Building, Builders Excliange, Builders Exchange, 




Something New 

In Brick and Terra -Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 

Designed by J. H. RITCHIE. Del. by H. F. BRISCOE. Modeled by TITO CONTI. 

We are now prepared to furnish an entirely new and complete line of Fireplace Mantels 
^CSIQI^^O in classical style to produce rich, yet dignified £\8SC1TIDIC0 from standard interchangeable pieces in 

architectural effects. 

ilDOOClCO entirely by hand in the highest perfection 
of the art. 

any desired combination, thus giving a 
great variety of size and detail with no 
additional cost. 

iprCSSCb with great care to give clear-cut outlines and II H gCnCtHi producing all the desirable effects of special 

smooth surfaces. 

JoUtnCb in a suitable variety of soft, rich colors. 

mantels, made to order, without their 
excessive cost, or their uncertainty of 

166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dealers also in Architectural Terra-Cotta and Building Bricks in all colors known to clay working. 

Fire-Proofing and General Building Materials. 









Office, JOS Fulton Street, 





Manufacturers of 

Architectural Terra- Cotta 



Cheltenham, St. Louis. 


502-503 Century Building. 


LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Architect. 

Tebh*-Cott* Executed by the winkle TERRA-COTTA CO. 


White Brick and 

Terra=Cotta Co., 


Manufacturers of Architcctural Tcrra-Cotta in ah colors. 

Superior Quality of 

Qolib mabite 
tTerra* Cotta 

Will Not Turn Green or Yellow. 

A comparison of our goods will manifest superiority 
in execution, vitrification, and perfection of finish. 

Architects' Drawings faithfully reproduced. 







The Northwestern 

Terra- Cotta Co. 

In all Colors and 
according to Special 


Architectural. . 
Terra- Cotta 

Glazed and Enam- 
eled Work in all 

^T. ^''■9, ^-r. 

Works and Main Office, Corner of 
Clyhourn and Wrightwood Aves.... 

City Office, Room 1118, The Rookery , Chicago. 


' ARCIilTEG 1' 





NEW ADDRESS, 102 .lIIJIIR ^tlTCCtt ^^^^^^''^^^'^^ ^^^^ ^^'^^^^"^'■^• 




Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. Welsh Quarry Tiles. Shepherd & Gay Lime. 

Atwood Faience Co. Alsen Portland Cement. Bostwick Metal Lath. 

Front Bricks in all colors. Atlas Cement. Morse Wall Ties. 

English Glazed Bricks. Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland Cement. Akron Sewer Pipe. 

Baltimore Retort and Fire Brick Co. Phoenix, Shield, Wedge, and Cleopatra Portland Cement. H. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzo- 

Gartcraig Fire Bricks. Hoffman Rosendale Cement. Ian Portland Cement. 


Waldo, 548 Albany Street. W On N. E. R.R. Tracks, near 

Tudor, 1 Charles River Avenue. Congress Street, South Boston. 

1294 Boston — 11 Boston — 11^ Charlestown. 

Charles E. Willard 

192 Devonshire Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

Terra-Cotta, Fire-Proofing, 
Front Brick, Sheet Metal, Etc. 

New England Agents for 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company 
Webster Fire Brick Company, Mottled Brick 
Darlington Coal & Clay Mfg. Company, 

White, Cream, Gray, and Fire=Flashed Brick 
National Brick Company, f^ed Pressed Brick 
Pioneer Fire-Proofing Company 








'~; Molded brick for the entire trim of brick exteriors to 
bond with our front brick. 


■ pagi^ 874 Broadway, New York. 


Fire-proof Construction. 

BOSTON : 19 Milk Street NEW YORK : 1 IJEast 59lh Street. 



Empire Fire-Proofing Co., 

Manufacturers and Contractors 
For AU Kinds of 


Hoflow Tile & 

Porous Terra-Cotta 


Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

Room 827 Monadnock Block, Chicago, 1D» 





Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 

The Only System 
Awarded a 
Medal and 


Our Patemeil tmmm System of Floor ircli CoDstmcnoo Made U 9, 1 0. 1 2 Md 1 5 incli iieDtls. 

At the 




Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 


For Fire-proofing Buildings. 

R. C. PENFIELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. [. A. GREEN, Treas. 




Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 41 CORTLANDT ST. 




Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 


Ur^I F 0\A/ RI Or^k'Q For Flat, Elliptical, and Segmen- 
rlwLLLyVV DL W V> 1\. O , tal Arches of every Descriptio n . 

Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous RooAng. 




1 56 FIFTH AVE., 1^ E YY I UIVIV, 

Worlu, LORILLARD (Keyport p. 0.). N. J. 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manvfacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta . . . 


Also, Manufacturers of Plain and ( under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow, Porous, Front, and Paving Brick, 



Eastern Office : Townsend Building, corner Broadway and 25tli St., New York City. 

The accompanying illustration is of 

The American Express Co/s Building, 


WINSLOW & WETHERELL . . . Architects. 
GOOCH & PRAY Builders. 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 




....Established 1856 


Manufacturers of 

Fire=Proof Building Materials 

Floor Arches^ 

Roofing, Etc, 

Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d ST., 

New York. 

Philadelphia Office, 
18 South rth Street. 

Porous Terra-Cotta 
of all Sizes, 

Flue Linings, 

Etc, Etc* 



On C. R. R. of N. J. 

James Barnes Baker. 
A rchitfct. 

Nassau and Cedar Streets, N. Y. 

C. T. Wills, 

'■ Excelsior " Knd-Constructioii Flat Arch (Patented). 
25 per cent, stronger and lighter than any other method. 

The above illustration represents one of the most thoroughly fire-proofed buildings in New York City or anywhere. 

FLOORS. — " Excelsior " end-construction ArcFies. 

PARTITIONS, etc.. Hollow Tile throughout. 

RESULT.- — Insurance on structure offered at 5 cents for 5 years. 

Such action speaks louder than words, and justifies our claim that Hollow Tile is unequaled for fire-proofing. 

Send for illustrated catalogue of 1898. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 

Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 

Contractors for Structural Steel, Fireproof Floors, Partitions, etc. 


HENRY E. CREGIER, Architect. WOODBURY & LEIGHTON, Contractors. 

The fireproofing and steel work furnished by 


Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES I). LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
F. L. DOUGLASS, St. James Building, 26th Street and Broadway. 


r] entral Fireproofing 













874 Broadway, New York* 








Enameled Brick and Tile 
Faience Mantels, 


Displayed and sold by all the leading Tile and 
Mantel dealers. 

Grueby Faience Co. 

Makers of 


J 64 Devonshire Street, -ir^Boston. 

F. W. Silkman, 



Cbemtcale, /Ibinerale, 
Claipe, anb Colore. 

For Potters, Terra=Cotta, and Enameled Brick Manufacturers. 

Correspondence Invited. 

231 pearl Street, flew l^ork. 


VOL. 7. NO. 6. 

,,..„> f,iMUIllliaw//7,5^/-/-/^ A-^omiui/VAVVtM^AVI/WAAAVVlAV/ UIIHtU\ailUMllU4TOl«y<^ 

Ufii'«w/-.ijv\a'w.<u//t-MAMi ttiJnJLiM£r<K ii *M tf ai nia ti warn 

A. W. LOr 



VOL. 7. NO. 6. PLATE -13. 


A. W. LONGFELLOW. Jr.. Architfct. 


VOL. 7. NO. 



Cass Gilbert Architect 


VOL. 7. NO. 6. PLATE 47. 


3t Pauu MlNNCaCTTA 

^LAue *t INCH — I Foot 

^5/-^<;'-r /-^Ki Nr.^D-rLj\«/r=.<::-T- r> c a i cr c-r-yvTc^ Vr^ ^"^Va/KIPI^S . 


VOL. 7. NO. 6. PLATE -IC 

Front Elevation. 


CASS GILBERT, Architect. 


PLATES 45 and 46. 

:hamberlin owner 



VOL. 7. NO. 6. PLA'lb; -M. 

•ilWtTIQ?! TKnOVGrf-SUOW.VNftflDOW- 

r ;7'-'*J" "- 6K-cTr<S-i -THRoyOM tWTRAVi OEB 





IN 1388, 


Charles T. Harris, President. 
Henry S. Harris, Vice Pres. 
Will R. Clarke, Sec. and Tres. 
Alvord B. Clarke, Superintendent. 

Main Office and Factory, 


Eastern Office, New York, 
Room 1123, 156 Fifth Ave. 
Western Office, Chicago, 
Room iooi, 204 Dearborn St 


At a meeting of the Stockholders of the Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., held at Alfred, 
N. Y., on the loth day of May, the lease held by Charles T. Harris for a term of years on the 
plant, property, patents, and equipment of the Company was terminated by mutual consent. 
The business will be carried on hereafter by the Company under the management of the 
officers named above. 

All the different interests having been centered as indicated in the present management, 
it is hoped that the good will and patronage given so liberally to the Lessee will be equally 
extended to the Company, which is now in a position to serve the roofing tile interests of the 
country better than ever before. All contracts and guarantees entered into by the Lessee will 
be carried out by the Company, to whom all communications and billings should hereafter be 


June 1, 1898. CHARLES T. HARRIS, Lessee. 

IN 1893. 







(jj JUNE §> 


No. 6 



6TREET «! 





Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3. 50 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 


No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 


THE city of Boston has been on the whole quite fortunate in re- 
gard to its building ordinances ; which, with very few excep- 
tions have been drawn up under expert advice, and in some cases 
were directly prepared by some of the best architects and builders 
in the city. Alterations of these ordinances have in general been 
pretty carefully considered by experts before being presented to the 
legislature ; but opposition which such well-considered improvements 
of existing laws invariably encounter at the hands of politicians and 
selfish property owners is of course not peculiar to Boston, but is a 
condition which our city shares with every large municipality, and 
the latest proposed change has come in for its full share of unreason- 
ing, selfish opposition. As the laws at present stand, the so-called 
down-town district, including all of the business portion of the city, 
and a considerable portion of what is known as the Back Bay, which 
is now residential, but which is rapidly becoming a business section, 
is restricted so that no wooden structure except wharves, etc., can be 
built therein. It has now been proposed to extend the so-called fire 
limits so as to include a very considerable portion of Roxbury and 
Charlestown immediately adjoining on the south and north. The 
change in the law apparently comes at the suggestion of the under- 
writers, and of those who have the best interest of the city as a 
whole at heart ; and it is an improvement which appears to be sup- 
ported by the best architects and builders as well as by the majority 
of the building inspectors, but it seems to encounter a very unanimous 
opposition on the part of all real-estate owners and operators. The 

proposed changes, if put into effect, would, in general, prohibit the 
erection of wooden buildings of any description throughout the whole 
of the city proper, and a considerable portion of the suburbs, and 
it is this prohibition which seems to be viewed by the real-estate 
people as unnecessary, tending to reduce the valuation of the city of 
Boston, and as a usurpation of the people's rights. 

It is taking long generations for this country to appreciate the 
innate wastefulness of cheap construction, and the traditions of 
wooden dwellings have been so rooted in our ideas of constructive 
possibilities that it requires a very determined effort to overcome the 
Irfnd of arguments which are put forward against such a bill as has 
just been described. The dangers to a city from the closely contig- 
uous suburban district built up of inflammable construction have been 
demonstrated so often, and the results of such conflagrations as will 
arise from time to time in a wooden district are so tremendous, that 
it would have seemed to be unnecessary to urge the adoption of more 
restrictive methods. Indeed, we believe that the principal remon- 
strants to this bill were actuated more by an unwillingness to add 
any restrictions whatever to their individual plots of land than by 
any conviction that the proposed law would not in the long run prove 
an advantage to the city as a whole. And however strongly oppo- 
nents might argue against brick structures for other people, we have 
no doubt that if a personal matter were made of it, they would much 
prefer to live in a residential quarter built up of properly designed 
masonry houses than to live even upon the borders of a wooden 
house district. The argument that wooden houses are cheaper than 
brick ought not to count at all in the consideration of this proposed 
law. There are very few large cities that are not already possessed 
of far too many cheap houses, and if a low expense is to be con- 
sidered, it can be shown by a very simple computation that, taken 
through a course of twenty-five or thirty years, a well-built brick 
house is cheaper, costs less money, and will rent for more than one 
built following the ordinary methods of wooden construction. If 
we are to have inexpensive residences, they can be built as a more 
permanent investment, will yield in the long run a better return on 
the capital, and can be made in every respect more habitable if prop- 
erly" constructed of brick than if of any [other material, while the 
saving in insurance rates and the indirect saving in the exemption 
from large conflagrations, ought to be considered as of so much pub- 
lic value that private desire for exemption from restrictions would 
not weigh at all. There seems to be an unfortunate idea that a brick 
house can only be built as one of a block, that if we are not to build 
wooden houses we must perforce build long, dreary blocks of brick 
structures. If this were the inevitable consequence of the extension 
of this law it would certainly l)e deplorable ; but we believe if such a 
law were to go into effect, we would see quite as many isolated houses, 
the city would have more real value, and so far from the houses being 
more congregated, we believe there would be quite as much isolated 
construction, and probably more, for in the same districts, given a 
necessity for a slightly more expensive construction in the first cost, 
the probabilities are that such structures as are put up would be 
owned by those who could afford more land around their houses. It 
seems to us there is every reason for, and no fair, valid reason against, 
the reasonable extension of the limits wherein nothing but masonry 
structures should be permitted, and this condition applies to every 
city in this country. 



At one of the hearings on the opposed bill a suggestion was 
made by Mr. William Atkinson, an architect of this city, which as a 
compromise measure is certainly deserving of careful consideration. 
Recognizing the reluctance of property owners to yield to limitations 
upon their property, he suggests that the act be in such form that 
structures of wood must be separated from each other by a consid- 
erable distance, not less than twenty feet, so that the conflagration of 
large blocks of wooden structures can be avoided, and the fire loss cor- 
respondingly diminished. Mr. Atkinson expressed a belief that under 
such a law as this the property owners would find it cheaper to build 
of brick and cover more of their land, and that the final result of 
this law would be in time the same as if nothing but brick were to 
be allowed. This amendment is a good one, though we feel that the 
quicker a great city can arrive at a basis of reliable, fairly fire-retard- 
ing construction, the better it will be for both the individual property 
owner and the city at large. 

A FIRF, occurred at night, April 2, in the new building of the 
American .Soda Fountain Company, 278 Congress -Street, Boston. 
The night watchman, in going his rounds, noticed that a sprinkler 
had opened, and, being entirely ignorant of the fire, rushed to section 
valve on first floor and closed it. The sprinkler alarm was ringing 
but was unheard by the watchman, it being located in a closed room 
on the first floor. The floors were constructed of concrete, and sup- 
posed to be waterproof, but allowed the water to run through and 
caused damage to be done to four stories. The action of lime (in 
concrete) with water passing through caused silver-plated ware to be 
turned black, necessitating replating and polishing. 

The American Institute of Architects has leased the Octagon 
House, perhaps better known as the " Tayloe Mansion," Washing- 
ton, D. C, as a permanent home for the Institute. The building is 
an interesting specimen of brick colonial architecture, both in its 
detail and well-studied plan. A committee has been appointed to 
put the building in thorough repair and make needed alterations. 
It will] in the future serve as the regular gathering place for annual 


W. Douglas Hill, architect, has removed from Fottsville, Pa., 
to Newport News, Va. 

H. A. Betts, architect, Milwaukee, Wis., has removed his office 
from the Goldsmith Building to the Colby & Abbott Building. 

Charles E. Dawlev, architect, has opened offices in the Bush- 
nell Building, Springfield, Ohio. 

The Tenth Annual Exhibition of the work of the pupils of 
the Detroit Museum Art School was held in the east gallery of the 
Detroit .Museum of Art from June i to 5. 

The Washington Architectural Club held its annual 
meeting Saturday, June 4, and elected the following officers for the 
ensuing year : President, Edward W. Donn ; secretary, Arthur B. 
Heaton; treasurer, W. D. Windom; directors for two years, T. F. 
I^aist and W. J. Marsh ; for one year (to fill unexpired term) T. J. D. 

After the election, the constitution of the Fine Arts Society 
of the District of Columbia was accepted and the following dele- 
gates to that body were elected : T. F. Laist, W. D. Wood, T. J. D. 
Fuller; and as alternates, W. D. Windom, P. C. Adams, and E. R. 
Crane. Frank Upman and Harry Dodge Jenkins, of the Chicago 
Architectural Club, were admitted to membership. 


THE accompanying illustration, representing the " Good Samari- 
tan," is a panel in terra-cotta executed by the New York 
Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

Number twelve of the series of " Brick and Terra-Cotta Fire- 
place Mantels," of which J. H. Ritchie is the designer, is illustrated in 
the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., page vii. 

The residence of James G. Pontefract, Esq., at Allegheny, Pa., 
of which Longfellow, Alden & Harlow were the architects, is illus- 

Thic New York chapter of the American Institute of Architects 
has submitted the following names to Mayor Van Wyck for appoint- 
ment on the commission to formulate a new building code for 
Greater New York : George B. Post, Louis de Coppet Berg, Cyrus 
L. W. Eidlitz, L. F. J. Weir, R. W. (Gibson, and George Keister. 

The Thirty-second Annual Convention of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects is to be held In Washington, D. C, on Tuesday, 
Wednesday, and Thursday, November i, 2, and 3. The local com- 
mittee of arrangements consists of Messrs. Glenn Brown, Robert 
Stead, and Edward Donn, Jr., all of Washington. 

The Rotch Scholarship for 1898 has been awarded to Mr. L. 
C. Newhall, of Maiden, Mass., a draughtsman in the office of Mr. 
Arthur H. Bowditch, of Boston. Mr. Newhall is the fifteenth holder 
of the scholarship. 

New York insurance companies are willing to insure the new 
thirty-two story fire-proof syndicate building on Park Row, New 
York City, for $675,000, for five years, at a total premium of $675. 

The vacation traveling scholarship, instituted a year ago by the 
Boston Architectural Club, has been awarded for the present year to 
Mr. Albert C. Fernald. 

The new building ordinance of Chicago limits the heights of 
buildings to ten stories and 130 ft. 

trated in the advertisement of the Harbison & Walker Company, 
page XV. 

A staircase (Guastavino construction ) in the open shaft of an 
eight-story hotel is shown in the advertisement of R. Guastavino 
Company, page xx. 

Two views of the plant of the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, at 
Alfred, N. Y., one of the factory in 1888, and the other of the plant 
as it is to-day, are shown in the company's advertisement on page 


PLATES 41 and 42. Phillips Brooks House, Harvard College, 
Cambridge, Mass., A. W. Longfellow, Jr., architect. After 
the death of Bishop Brooks his classmates decided to erect a build- 
ing as a memorial to him and to his unlimited interest in the religious 



life of Harvard. It was decided to raise $300,000 and to call the 
building Phillips Brooks House. The endowment was to be applied 
under the direction of six trustees, of whom no more than two were 
to belong to the same 
religious denomination. 

The com m i 1 1 e e 
raised much less than 
was expected (only about 
$50,000), and so the 
original broad plans of 
erecting a building 
" dedicated to the com- 
fort and succor of all in 
the college world who 
were in trouble, sorrow, 
need, sickness," had to 
be given up, and only 
the chief purpose, afford- 
ing a home and work- 
shop for all forms of 
spiritual activity and be- 
nevolent action in the 
university, could be 

The building is to 
be on a line with Hol- 
worthy and behind 
Stoughton in such a way 

as to form, with Holden Chapel in the center, a pendant to Harvard 
Hall, and to give a generally symmetrical arrangement to that por- 
tion of the yard. Its position has been further emphasized by a 
colonial treatment of red brick with light stone trimmings in keep- 
ing with the design of Harvard Hall and the other old brick build- 
ings. The same height of cornice has been followed, and the feeling 
of the old work has been preserved as far as possible. 

It has been found necessary, from an architectural point of view, 
to reconcile the building to its position by a frank treatment of the 
triangular space in front. This has been made into a forecourt by 
means of a wall on the east running to the street, and by carrying 
along the front a fence of iron with brick posts and an ornamental 
gateway in keeping with the Harvard gates. This fence, if con- 

■■■;, If'"-' .. •: 


'****" "^ -— ^* ■«3t-'«^*j5v^' 

- ' 'r 

Recently leased by the American Institute of Architects for permanent headquarters. 

Plate 44. Building for the Lutheran Publication Society, at 
Philadelphia, Pa., Frank Miles Day & Brother, architects. 

Plates 45 and 46. The Bowlby Building at St. Paul, Minn., 

Cass Gilbert, architect. 
It is built of cream- 
white terra-cotta. The 
figures of the boys in 
frieze, and the circular 
panels back of them 
are done in color, and 
are finished in enamel 
in some parts, and 
glazed in others, the 
enamel lieing an opaque 
material, and the glaze 
being transparent, show- 
i n g the terra-cotta 

Plate 47. Ware- 
house building for T. 
Blood & Co., at St. 
Paul, Minn., of which 
Cass Gilbert is the ar- 
chitect. The Boston 
Northwest Real Estate 
Company are the own- 

Plate 48. Business 
block, St. Paul, Minn., Cass Gilbert, architect. The facade of this 
building is made particularly interesting by the color scheme intro- 


tinued on either side in the future, will serve to reconcile the building 
still further to its position. The court in front is designed as a small, 
quiet garden to be laid out with vines and formal planting toward 
the street, and a stone seat against the wall at the widest part. 

Plate 43. Detail of porch and front entrance, Phillips Brooks 
House, at Cambridge, Mass., of which A. W. Longfellow, Jr., is the 



duced. It is built of a reddish-brown brick in two shades, the color 
being arranged in patterns, as indicated in the illustration. 



The American Schoolhouse. VIII. 


IN the sketch plans submitted in competition for the Providence 
High School, the central window generally placed in the wall 
opposite the teacher's desk is omitted. This is a method of fenestra- 

William C. Brocklesby, .\rchitect. 

tion often found in French schoolhouses. In the Brookline High 
School (for plans see second paper of this series) there are no win- 
dows in the walls facing the teachers' desks, in that following the 
method generally found in German schoolhouses. 

In the Brookline High School toilet rooms are arranged in mez- 
zanines of the first story. These rooms are accessible from the stair- 
case landing and give a compact and convenient arrangement. In 
this school appear also features which, I believe, were novel when 
the building was built, but which have since become well-nigh con- 
stant in large high schools, — a bicycle run to basement, and storage 
room for bicycles. 

In our latest high schools we find the lunch room no longer a 
makeshift arrangement, but that it has become one of the customary 
and carefully considered requirements of such buildings. This fea- 
ture was well provided for in the Cambridge High School, and again 
in the Brookline school, as it is in nearly all the large high schools 
built during the past few years. 

It will be remembered that Dr. Fhilljrick speaks in his report 
of his desire that such a lunch room should be established in the 
Latin and English High School of Boston. 

The Cambridge and Brookline schools have separate wardrobes 
adjoining each schoolroom. In the Brighton High School (see plans 
in second paper of this series) the pupils' clothing is kept in individ- 
ual lockers in the basement. This later method of clothing disposal 
was, I believe, first introduced in the schools of Cleveland, Ohio, 
whence the idea came for its in the Mechanic Arts High School 
in Boston. It was later used in the Brighton High School, and is 
that adopted in the designs of several new high school buildings 
which are about to be built in Boston. This method of disposing of 
the pupils' clothing permits more economical planning than the 
arrangement of separate wardrobes for each schoolroom. It is found 
to be entirely unobjectionable, and since it dispenses with the sepa- 
rate wardrobes, a feature developed from the necessities of discipline 
of the graded schools, it would appear to be the most desirable 
arrangement for high school pupils. 

The lockers are made of ash with floors, and top and bottom 
panels of the doors of strong wire netting. If it is necessary to 
economize space, the floor area of each looker need not exceed i6 
by 1 6 ins., and it would seem feasible, if closer arrangement were 
found to be necessary, to arrange the lockers in two tiers, with 
access given to the upper tier by a ladder running on a track, an ex- 
pedient sometimes 
used to reach the 
upper shelves of a 
high bookcase. The 
lockers may be fitted 
with inexpensive 
combination locks, 
in which case the 
janitor keeps the 
record of the com- 
binations, or each 
pupil may be pro- 
vided with a key, the 
janitor having a 
master key. The 
rooms in which 
these lockers are 
placed should be 


T 1 





the room ventilated through the 
lockers than to have the lockers 
ventilated through the rooms. 

The " hospital " or " emer- 
gency " rooms were, I believe, 
a feature first introduced in 
the Cambridge High School. 
These rooms are provided in 
the Brighton High School and 
the New Britain school. 

This last-mentioned school 
is a remarkably compact and 
well-planned building. It has 
all the essential requirements 
of the very latest high schools. 
The rooms for pupils' cloihing 
are placed upon each story, and 
does not follow the grammar 
grade method of separate ward- 
robes adjoining each school- 





Stone, Carpenter & Wiilson, Architects. 

The library is becoming a 
more important feature in high 
schools and in grammar schools 
also. This room may be given 
a northerly exposure. This ex- 
posure is that most desirable 
for drawing rooms. It is requi- 
site that physical laboratories 
should have one wall with ex- 
posure to the sunlight. The 
room for storage of physical 
apparatus should be made as 
secure from the admission of 
dust as is possible. 

As the methods of instruc- 
tion in high school houses ap- 
proximate more closely to that 
pursued in our colleges, it 
would be possible to effect con- 
siderable economy in the con- 




The only later-day feature which appears to be lacking in the 
New Britain school is a bicycle run to basement. The central light 
shaft is designated upon the plan as a " courtyard." This is a 
misnomer, as the dimensions of this feature do not warrant such a 
title ; indeed, the space here assigned would appear to be even too 
scant to light satisfactorily those rooms on the first floor which gain 
their light from this source. The gymnasium has a running track in 
the gallery which is served by two staircases. Lockers for both sexes 
adjoin the gymnasium, receiving light from the central light shaft. 

struction of high schools if, instead of providing schoolrooms to accom- 
modate between forty and sixty pupils, large rooms for one hundred 
pupils were given. Such rooms are generally provided in English and 
French schoolhouses. This arrangement would make a large number of 
recitation rooms desirable. Recitations of small classes may, however, 
be conducted in these large rooms without disturbance to those who 
are at their studies. Such a method would appear to tend towards 
the goal of the most enlightened educators and the development of 
increased self-reliance at least among pupils of the high school. 



Architecture of Apartment Buildings. 


APARTMENT buildings offer about as great variety in plan as 
do the ordinary city residences, up to and including even the 
more expensive detached houses. It is due in great measure to 
structural necessity that the various stories of an apartment building 
repeat, with slight variation, the chord (or discord) struck in the prin- 
cipal story. It is through no such necessity that house after house, 
in block upon block, drums monotonously on one note. This is due 
in part to lack of imagination in the designer, — which is a mis- 
fortune ; but in greater part it is due to the general desire of specu- 
lative builders to give little and receive 
much, — which is a fault. This misfor- 
tune has led in apartment buildings to a 
deal of trivial and inconsequential plan- 
ning, and the fault has so overcrowded 
the ground, to the exclusion of light and 
air, as to bring it under the ban of State 
and municipal authority and make the 
tenement house and the apartment build- 
ing in crowded centers of population sub- 
jects for serious consideration to the 
philanthropist and social reformer. 

If lack of imagination, with its re- 
sultant dreary commonplaceness, is in- 
deed a misfortune, no less so is untamed 
imagination, with its e(iually trivial and 
perhaps more harmful emanations. Gen- 
erally, however, where a too vivid imag- 
ination seeks to play about a problem 
affecting returns from financial invest- 
ment it will meet restraint in the conserv- 
atism of the investor, voicing what he 
believes to be public opinion. 

Unfortunately, this conservatism 
makes against innovation wrought out by 
trained skill acting under guidance of 
cultivated imagination almost as effectu- 
ally as it curbs the playful antics of the 
untutored mind. It is this conservatism 
which makes difficult the first step be- 
yond the bounds of what is (and being 
h, supposedly, is right). The reformer 
moves, and laws embodying sanitary 
measures appear; he may move again, 
and laws are enforced. The philanthro- 
pist takes up the work, and sanitary tenements arise amid wholesome 
conditions; but real estate investors as a body are neither reformers 
nor philanthropists, and do not move except as pul)lic opinion im- 
pels. One, adventuresome, takes a step in advance, or the step 
may be taken in meeting a certain contingency ; should the result 
prove popular, others follow. This statement is in no way made to 
hold the investor up to blame either because of his seeming timidity 
or because of what really may be a reasonable conservatism, but it 
is made simply as a statement of fact which in itself explains the 
apparent slowness in the development of the medium type of real 
estate and apartment house, and shows sufficient reason why the 
many radical ideas in which their authors see naught but good (and 
which indeed they may contain) are not on the instant realized in 
permanent building materials. 

Yet none the less, in spite of conservatism and ingenuity lacking 
in real vitality, the apartment building has developed in plan till now 
numerous and distinct types exist side by side. It is the purpose of 
this article to present for comparison and for contrast various of 
these types. 

riGVPx 5 



The relative importance of apartment buildings and single or 
private houses in modern social and domestic economy needs not to 
be discussed here. The apartment is here and will develop as long 
as men crowd into the existing centers of population or create new 
centers. The apartment is very much in evidence in modern domes- 
tic economy, for it was the necessity for economy which first sug- 
gested it ; and the idea of economy will not separate itself from the 
idea of the apartment for some time to come. The economical 
housing of the multitude within the gates must be as thoroughly 
and as scientifically studied as is the economical transportation of 
this same multitude. Economical, safe, and rapid transit to economi- 
cal, safe, and quiet domicils is the ideal to be sought in the great 
cities. It may be too much to expect that rapid transit ever shall be- 
come so much of a pleasure that people shall find luxury in the per- 
sonal employment of its means ; but it 
is not too much to expect that the apart- 
ment shall be as convenient in its ar- 
rangement and as complete as any house, 
and while being economical in mainte- 
nance, present at the same time high pos- 
sibilities of taste in its plan and general 
decorative treatment, so that the ideals 
of economy, privacy, convenience, and 
beauty shall be realized. 

In even a superficial study of the 
development of the apartment building 
its lower form, the tenement house, must 
be noted ; for here the struggle for 
decency and hygienic conditions began 
and was fought bitterly, to the outcome 
that many of the tenements of to-day 
are better planned as to light, air, and 
privacy than many of the more recent 
medium-priced apartments in highly re- 
spectable neighborhoods. The first 
move in tenement-house reform was to 
bore wells down through the roof and 
various stories, and so relieve the dark 
inner chambers which had been utterly 
devoid of fresh air and daylight. In 
many tenement houses chambers were in 
series four or more deep, the second 
borrowing its light and air from the first, 
the third from the second, the fourth 
from the third, and so on. Not infre- 
quently was entrance to the farther com- 
partment to be effected only through the 
nearer. The " toilet room," to use so un- 
offensive a name for so hideously offen- 
sive a thing, was but a black stench hole, and running water was to 
be drawn on but one floor. Municipal regulation framed and en- 
forced by philanthropists and reformers mitigated much of all this 

That which, next to greed and carelessness, most contributed 
to this state and still makes the problem of light, and air, and 
economy of construction a serious one even in the better class of 
apartments, is the form of the city lot with its long, narrow propor- 
tions. The problem of the tenement house was not solved until two 
or more adjacent lots, even to the extent of a city block, had been 
utilized for one scheme of building, and, by means of the court- 
yard, sometimes amounting almost to a park, all light wells had been 
banished, and all rooms, for what purpose soever, furnished with 
light and air direct. It is probable that the highest type of apart- 
ment building is to develop along this line, that is, about a court- 
yard or garden. This is the continental idea even where the 
comparatively narrow lot is to be contended with. 

The process of development as regards utilization of ground 
area may be seen at a glance by referring to Figs, i to 4 for the single 




narrow lot, and to Figs. 5 to 8 for double lots. Fig. i shows how 
absolutely light and air were excluded from the interior portions of 
the building in many metropolitan tenement houses not many years 
ago and previous to enforced use of wells, which were sunk as in 
Fig. 2. The scheme presented in Fig. 2 and its modification, as in 
Fig. 3, are in use to-day in apartments commanding fair rents, in com- 
paratively respectable neighborhoods of our greater cities, and in 
many instances without the individual shaft for bath and toilet 
rooms which is indicated in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. It would be un- 
profitable to argue with a sane man for a hygienic principle in these 
enclosed areas for light and air, and all well-wishers of the multi- 
tudes who are forced to dwell in 
apartments look forward hopefully to 
the day when it will be equally futile 
to argue their financial benefit to an 
owner. In many cases this area, 
where it occurs in the center of a 
double building, is covered with a 
skylight at the roof and inadequately 
ventilated, which indeed would be the 
case were the skylight removed en- 
tirely. The roofing by skylight of 
shafts which give light and air to 
chambers or living rooms is barred 
by law now in every city which has a 
building code, and the practise must 
soon become a thing of the past. 

The great step toward agreeable 
and sanitary conditions was made 
when the scheme suggested in Fig. 4 
was adopted, and this scheme is now 
at the base of the plan of the great 
majority of better class apartment 
buildings in our city blocks. Of 
course the ideal sanitary condition is 
far away, while the batli rooms of 
more than one apartment give upon 
the same enclosed shaft, and is not 
reached until bath rooms open to the 

free air; but the court, unenclosed at one end and free from ground 
up, is a great advance, and depends only on its width and direction 
toward the sun to be ideal, from the sanitarian's point of view. 
Figs. 5 and 6 show possible combinations of the scheme in Fig. 4 
on a double lot. The combination shown in Fig. 5 on a double 
inner lot is to be employed in general only under the necessities of 
strictest economy, for unless additional light from neighboring lots is 
assured, or the double lot itself is more than customarily wide, the 
divided court is insufficient for first-class apartments. In the scheme 
in Fig. 5 there is a great economy in walls and foundations, and if 
the bath rooms are placed on the inner shaft, cost of plumbing and 
sewers is reduced ; but this latter saving is not commensurate with 
the advantage in sanitation and privacy which is gained by placing 
the bath rooms on the open court. 

Figs. 7 and 8 present other schemes for the introduction of light 
and air into buildings on double lots. The idea in Fig. 7 is to 
shorten the narrow light courts and more effectually cheer the inner 
portions of the structure. To make an effective faqade, the courts in 
this scheme should be wide enough to form a terrace or garden. 
Fig. 8 presents a continental scheme with apartments fore and aft, 
and a court sufficiently extensive to be capable of an attractive treat- 
ment in its gardening, and effective in architectural surroundings. 

In discussing in detail the possibilities of arrangement within 
various outlines, any scheme possible within the outlines laid down 
in Figs. I, 2, and 3 may be ignored as unworthy of further study, for 
no plan can be considered seriously in which living rooms give upon 
an enclosed shaft, or even upon an enclosed court, unless that court 
be more than ordinarily ample, so ample indeed as to amount to a 
free air space. One can conceive of a court entirely hemmed in, 

riGVRE 9 

which by its size and condition shall be open to the rays of the sun, 
and so be more sanitary than some long, narrow, open courts into 
which the sun hardly can penetrate; but however courts may be 
employed, shafts on which open other than stairways or subordinate 
toilet rooms are to be shunned. 

Also to be set aside as unworthy of consideration are all types 
of plans in which chambers, or living rooms, or general toilet rooms 
are to be reached only by passing through other rooms. To main- 
tain the dignity and at the same time preserve the privacy of the 
family life has been the study of the best designers of apartment 
buildings in recent years. It is a comparatively modern and alto- 
gether American idea that the chambers and toilet rooms of an 
apartment should be as isolated as are the same rooms in a private 
house. The seemingly necessary position of the kitchen in the rear 
of the apartment has hampered the development of this idea. Be- 
cause the kitchen was at the rear of the house seemed, probably, 
sufficient reason for placing it at the rear of the " flat," and besides, 
that is the position always given to the kitchen in the apartments of 
the French who, at least until recently, had been considered masters 
in the art of apartment planning. The American idea, which finds 
no prototype in the French or English, is that the dining room, serv- 
ing pantry, and kitchen shall be en suite. This has led to the develop- 
ment of a type shown in Fig. 9, a type which, in greater or lesser 
degree of perfection, rules in our cities to-day. The long intervening 
corridor between dining room and living room or parlor, as it gener- 
ally is called, which necessitates passing all chambers in the tour 
from one of these rooms to the other, is held to be the objectionable 
feature of this arrangement, and objectionable it is if chambers open 
directly from it on one side, and toilet room directly from it on the 
other, as is too often the case ; but the majority of owners and 
designers balance over against this objectionable quality the great 
economy in space which is effected by 
this plan, and economy seems the more 
to be desired, and this type prevails. 
When the building lot is small and is 
completely utilized from front to rear, 
and rooms are curtailed in number and 
are of the least allowable dimensions, 
one need not argue against this plan ; 
but when there is offered an opportunity 
to expand, then the belief grows that 
economy may overreach itself, and that 
added convenience and desirability will 
force a more than proportionate return 
on the small added investment. This 
added convenience and desirability is 
coming to be considered a necessity, 
and consists partly in having the dining 
room and parlor en suite, or, at least, 
separated by no more than the recep- 
tion hall, as in the smaller city house. 
This has been the commonplace in 
European apartments, and seemingly no 
other scheme has been thought of. 
But Americans demand also, as has 
been noted, that the kitchen shall be 
very convenient to the dining room, and 
this, which American designers have 
accepted as part of the great necessity, 
and a large part at that, appears never to have occurred to their 
continental brethren, at least never to have troubled them. The 
Frenchman has dealt and continues to deal with the problem as in- 
dicated in Fig. 10, only that in the vast majority of instances the 
dining room lies across the antechamber or reception hall from the 
entrance to the long corridor; and it appears to present no drawback 
to a French apartment that servants, in preparing and clearing the 
board, are compelled to traverse the reception hall and the long cor- 
ridor to the kitchen and serving room beyond the region of the less 

riGVKE 10 



important chambers (for the principal chambers are grouped about 
the parlor or salon, generally). Without doubt it is fine in imagina- 
tion to behold the great retinue of servants and retainers bearing the 
steaming meat and the viands in procession along the corridors and 
through the halls of state, as in good old baronial I'.ngland ; but 
what food for imagination is there in a lorn maid bearing across the 
reception hall the lone codfish ball and the belated breakfast tea ? 
However it may be with republican (?) France, it would seem that 
democratic (?) America demanded that the commonplaces of service 
be as little as possible in evidence in the home life. That misguided 
sentiment which made every man's house, not in real spirit, but only 
in seeming reality, his castle was responsible for much vulgar dis- 
play of shingled towers, and tin turrets, and brutal, rock-faced walls 
in the domestic architecture of this 
country, and a fevered imagination feed- 
ing on the life in the medieval castle 
may well tend, if not restrained, to vul- 
garize the life of to-day. In the Amer- 
ican apartment no deep-seated precedent 
hampers, and there it is possible to 
make the setting of a family life which 
shall 1)6 direct and simple, and free 
from vulgar display and ostentation. 

The grouping together of the parlor 
(and library), reception hall, dining 
room, and kitchen is purposely to, and 
does, make possible the isolation of the 
chambers and toilet rooms from the re- 
maining portion of the apartment. That 
this separation is absolutely essential to 
the perfect enjoyment of life in an 
apartment need not be argued ; but 
when it is achieved at the expense indi- 
cated in Fig. 1 1 (A and B) the plan is 
worthless and lacking in desirability as 
compared with the earlier plan devel- 
oped along the lines indicated in Fig. 
9. Fig. 1 2 shows a development of the 
newer type, which has been found to be 
highly attractive. The one point, or 
rather line in all plans of this general 
type is the long corridor, which, from 
an esthetic point of view, is not so at- 
tractive as is the stairway of the house, 
but this must be offset against the con- 
venience of the general plan. .And the 
long corridor of course is necessary only 
in buildings on the long narrow lot, and it is away from this that 
designers are striving to get, by various ingenious combinations. 



GRiiAT importance attaches to the statement made by Mr. L. L. 
Buck at the last meeting of the A. S. C. E., that deep corrosion results 
from the contact of limestone in concrete with metal. This fact is said 
to have become apparent in the anchorage of the suspension bridge at 
Niagara, the main cables of which are imbedded in a concrete made 
of limestone. The discovery was recently made that at the points of 
contact between the spalls and the wires, the latter were badly corroded 
and in some instances entirely severed. — Architecture and Building. 

It is reported that one feature of the new building law for 
Chicago will be the architects' responsibility for their specifications 
and the strains and weights in building. In the matter of permits 
these will not be passed upon unless architects figure out their own 
weights. This regulation seems naturally to follow in the wake of 
the new law for licensing architects. They should welcome the 
responsibility proposed to be thrown on them by the new law. It is 
one that men skilled in their art can readily meet, and will do more 

to raise the standard of their profession than the lax, haphazard 
regulations that have prevailed so largely in the past. .Such a regu- 
lation will do much to prevent flimsy building. When the highest 
standard aimed at was to build just good enough to pass the build- 
ing department frequent accidents were inevitable. No architect 
will be likely to risk this responsibility, and the result will be that a 
large class of builders who have heretofore depended upon incom- 
petent draughtsmen for their designs will feel compelled to seek the 
aid of the architect. — Architecture and Building. 

Akchite(:t.s and owners of real estate should take to heart the 
discussions which have been going on for some days past among the 
officers of insurance companies, in relation to the proper rates of insur- 
ance for fire-proof buildings of the modern 
kind. It will be remembered that, a few 
months ago, reductions were made in the rates 
of premium on certain classes of buildings in 
New York. This reduction led to a demand 
for reductions on other classes of buildings, 
and to a certain demoralization in rates gener- 
ally, which, as usual in such cases, resulted in 
competition among the companies for policies 
on the best sort of risks. Such risks, appar- 
ently, they consider to be presented by the 
great fire-])roof office buildings, and premium 
rates on these have fallen to a point almost un- 
heard of in this country. One company is said 
to have offered to write a policy for a million 
dollars on the Clearing-House Building for 
five years, for five hundred dollars. This is 
one cent per year on each one hundred 
dollars of insurance, and the Clearing House 
is situated in the middle of a block, on a 
narrow street, and surrounded by old build- 
ings, so that it is by no means the best risk 
of its kind. The manager of another insur- 
ance company is reported to have said that, 
" If we wrote fire-proof buildings for nothing 
we should lose but little. Total destruction 
of the steel-constructed office buildings of 
this city is practically an impossibility." Con- 
sidering how short a time has elapsed since 
the insurance companies found little or noth- 
ing to commend in steel-constructed office 
buildings, professing to regard them as ex- 
posed to frightful but mysterious hazards, 
from which ordinary structures were exempt, 
it is with a certain astonishment that we read these new deliverances ; 
but the fact appears to remain that steel-constructed buildings of the 
sort that American architects have learned to design and carry out can 
now be insured, with their contents, at a rate which makes it for the 
interest of owners to erect them. The tendency in all our cities is 
toward the concentration of masses of goods in warehouses, so that a 
building costing a hundred thousand dollars may contain a million 
dollars' worth of merchandise. Supposing the insurance on the mer- 
chandise, if stored in an ordinary building, to be I percent, a year, and 
if stored in a fire-proof building, to be one tenth of I per cent., which 
would still be ten times as great as the clearing-house rate, the saving 
to the owner of the goods, by having them placed in the fire-proof 
building, would be nine thousand dollars a year. If the owner of the 
goods were also the owner of the building, this saving, added to that on 
the insurance on the building itself, would pay the interest on the extra 
cost of fire-proof construction over that of the ordinary kind about 
ten times over; while, even if the owner of the building had no in- 
terest in the goods, the owner of the latter would Ije glad to pay a 
part of the saving in his insurance in the shape of an extra rent, 
which would abundantly compensate the proprietor of the building 
for his extra outlay. — American Architect. 

novR.E 12 



Notes on Terra-Cotta for Exterior 
Polychrome Decoration. 


THE practise of modern architecture involves the solving of the 
most complicated problems of design and construction ; and 
one has but to visit any large American city to be impressed by the 
masterly way in which our engineers, architects, and builders have 
met and battled with these intricate questions. 

There is an inspiration in the sight of the huge buildings which 
tower a score of stories along either side these canons we call our 
city streets, and the imagination is stimulated when we contemplate 
the possibilities of urban architecture in the years which are to 

It is a new method of construction, rather than a new school of 
architecture, which has so rapidly developed at our end of the nine- 
teenth century, and it may be said that more triumphs of construc- 
tion and engineering than of pure architecture have been achieved. 
But as the utilitarian has always preceded the esthetic, it cannot be 
doubted that the genius which has already conquered the laws of 
matter will, in time, bring under equal subjection the more pliant 
sympathies of art. 

No (ireek or Renaissance architect was ever confronted with 
such recurring proljlems of space and utility, of cost and time ; and 
some of our critics apparently lose sight of this fact ; and it may be 
held a truism in these days that great works of art require both 
deliberation in conception and despatch in execution, and that these 
are not to be had at slight expense. 

The modern tall building has come to stay, and it must be ac- 
cepted henceforth as a ruling factor in city architecture. 

The area of its base is fairly fixed by the comparative smallness 
of city plots, and its skyward tendency is scaled by the value of the 
land in which its foundations are planted. Structural steel and 
express elevators, those swift Jin-de-sil'cle mercuries, make possible 
the heights attained, and the question of a beautiful city has been 
reduced in great measure to the solving of the problem of the ex- 
terior design and enrichment of these great structures, the clothing 
of gaunt steel skeletons with coverings of beautiful texture and 

The ancients had no constructions of steel demanding marble, 
terra-cotta, stucco, or other veneers, but they applied these incrusta- 
tions to structures of brick and stone with marvelous effect and 

At Girgenti, in Sicily, the stucco still remains on many drums 
and capitals of columns which have been thrown about by earth- 
quakes and received the buffeting of storms for more than twenty 

In the museum at Palermo are terra-cotta friezes and cornices 
from Selinunto and other Greek ruins in Sicily, retaining their colors 
and patterns, which have withstood the ravages of time and the ele- 
ments for even a longer period ; and at Pompeii are found great 
quantities of terra-cotta antefixes, cornices, water-spouts, and almost 
every sort of architectonic enrichment, which have undergone the 
trial by fire as well. 

Marbles have crumbled and bronzes have lost their original per- 
fection of surface, while the baser clay still shows the touch of hand 
and tool impressed in its yielding surface before the dawn of the 
Christian era. 

From the practical point of view, therefore, burnt clay may well 
be classed among the most valuable materials for exterior veneer, 
while it is not to be despised as the vehicle for more refined treat- 
ment for interior work, and even figure sculpture. 

It retains the personal touch of the artist or artisan, and is not 
a translation by the chisel from an original model in a different 

But above all other considerations, the value of terra-cotta as an 

exterior covering or enrichment on modern large buildings lies in its 
adaptability for color treatment, the absence of which is no less 
remarkable than regrettable in contemporaneous architecture. 

The artistic eye does not seriously resent the typical red brick 
front with white marble trimmings along the streets of Philadelphia, 
because the houses are small and do not insist on occupying the 
entire field of vision; but multiply such planes by ten, placing them 
one above the other, and what a monstrosity we should behold ! 

The paler, almost colorless brick, which has had such vogue in 
recent years, is hardly more agreeable when used in huge unbroken 
masses, save in a negative way: and architectural color blindness, as 
exemplified in exterior construction, seems to consist of an absolute 
inability to conceive of other color harmonies than those of simi- 

To no other source can be traced the conception of these great 
facades of pallid gray or opaque yellowish white, without a trace of 
color from the topmost cyma down to the lowest base course, while 
even the window frames, sash moldings, and often iron grilles as well, 
are painted "to match." 

It would seem reasonable that while the mass of the building 
might be best expressed in one general solid color, that the decora- 
tions of surface and details of ornament would be much more 
effective, especially at considerable heights, if rendered in contrast- 
ing and more positive colors, whether these details are rendered in 
relief or not. 

The diffusion of light and reflections thrown up from below 
rob shadows and moldings of their true value and reason for being, 
and the loftier stories of tall buildings seldom appear to have due 
definition ; therefore, if the grounds of entablatures, friezes, capitals, 
and possibly flutings of columns, decorated moldings, dentil courses, 
etc., were treated in polychrome, these would all gain in definition 
as well as in effect, without losing an iota of their intimate relation 
to the whole structure, while they would bring into the scheme a 
charming play and sparkle of color. 

It would be most interesting to introduce more richly colored 
terra-cotta in the fagades of our large buildings, and the time seems 
to have arrived when our architects themselves should show a livelier 
interest in the matter. 

Most of these men have always studied architectural problems 
in black and white, save when perspective drawings were demanded, 
and they seem to dread to risk their "splendidly null" line or wash 
drawings to too close acquaintance with the color-box. 

In view of this tendency, would it not be worth while to insist 
that students of architecture should be obliged to study at least a 
large proportion of their drawings in color.'' for in no other way is 
it possible for them to understand the value of color, or to grow 
into the habit of thinking in color, which must be acquired before 
its perfect fruits may be brought forth. 

The employment of incrustations and insertions of colored mar- 
bles in Venetian palaces are too well known to be described here ; 
and the splendid fa(;ades of Italian churches, enriched by color in 
stone and marble, in mosaic, graffito, fresco, majolica, and terra- 
cotta, are known and admired by all our students and architects 
who travel abroad: yet when we look about our American cities, 
where these gentlemen have designed miles of buildings, costing 
enormous sums of money, how often do we look in vain for the 
evidences of the influence of that color sense which imparts so 
much beauty and character to architecture, especially in the classic 
and Italian Renaissance styles ! 

It has often been said that the climatic and atmospheric condi- 
tions of the north temperate zone are unfavorable for the employ- 
ment of exterior color, and that while Greek polychrome m,iy have 
been effective and harmonious beneath the skies of Attica, the 
same sort of thing would be quite out of place along our northern 
Atlantic coast. 

It is true that our climate differs from that of Greece, but the 
difference is greater in degree than in kind ; for snow is not at all 
unknown in Greece, neither is our summer sunlight less brilliant 



than that which gilds the shores of the Mediterranean; and for a 
large portion of the year our climate may be fairly compared with 
that of Naples during early summer and late autumn. 

Besides, what could be more grateful to our Northern eyes than 
the warmth and richness of real color on our buildings during that 
season when leaden skies and snow-covered streets bound our vision, 
and nuke us long for sunnier climes and cheerier prospects? 

DitTiculties in the way shrink into insignificance beside the in- 
viting possibilities of success; and it seems to have been rather a 
question of willingness on the part of architects, than the public, 
that has thus far deferred an intelligent consideration of this sub- 

Our manufacturers of burnt clay are more competent to produce 
beautiful effects in form and color than any of their predecessors; 
for, heirs of the ages which have gone before, they have profited by 
the experience of fellow-craftsmen of the Middle Ages, as well as 
by the scientific skill which is at their service to-day. 

These men are constantly experimenting with new clays, new 
furnaces, new colors and processes ; and nothing short of a personal 
visit to the kilns themselves will give one any just appreciation of 
their achievements and the inherent possibilities of a lump of clay. 

For exterior work the colors should naturally be fired in the 
glaze, as applied pigment of any sort is bound to deteriorate in the 
course of time ; and the range of colors for terra-cotta glazes, 
already known and proven, is astonishingly wide, and embraces 
practically all those which would be desirable for either interior or 
exterior work. Reds, ranging from the palest pinks to the deepest 
madder tints; blues, from faint cerulean to dark indigo; greens, from 
delicate malachite to olive ; yellows, from primrose to stone ochre ; 
exquisite pale mauves, royal purple and velvety black, — a palette 
fit for a Titian. 

Then, as to quality of color, the American terra-cotta maker 
does not confine his color effects to highly glazed surfaces, for, while 
these are useful in many cases, they are not always desirable ; so, by 
certain processes, the brilliancy of the glaze may be reduced to a per- 
fectly matt surface, which in texture is more like the patina of fine 
old bronze than anything else ; and when the color also is bronze- 
like, the effect is very charming. 

It is on molded or modeled surfaces, such as capitals, car- 
touches, friezes, etc., that this treatment is seen at its best, for in the 
process of reducing the glaze a slight modification of the relief oc- 
curs, so that instead of a sort of wire edge being left on the burnt 
clay, it is softened in a very subtle manner, appearing to have re- 
ceived the faintest " touch of time ' ; and as the glaze color is prac- 
tically left untouched in the depressed portions of the work, a charm- 
ing gradation of tone results, and a texture as of satin renders such 
a piece as unique as a piece of old Chinese porcelain. 

Thus terra-cotta seems to possess more artistic possibilities, and 
to admit of more variations of form, color, and texture, than any 
other equally appropriate exterior veneer; and once it is brought into 
general and rational use, these possibilities will be increased and 
multiplied through experience and invention. 

As to the planning of an exterior color scheme which shall be 
.satisfactory when executed in polychrome terra-cotta, and built up 
against the sky, much depends upon the architectural character of 
the building and its environment. 

Anything in the way of exuberant color spread over a great sur- 
face would hardly be desirable or admissible; and, on the contrary, 
very diluted tones would be inefficient at a little distance. 

It would seem that as horizontal lines are so valuable in a tall 
faqade, that these might best be emphasized by rich colors; and, to 
carry this point still farther, why should not an entire story or stories 
be made of a different color or shade of a color from those above or 
below? Watch a tall gray or white building or tower at sunset, and 
note how exquisite are the gradations of tint from the rich, rosy glow 
at the top to the pearly tones at the base ; and why is this not a 
suggestion for possible color treatment ? 

The walls of certain northern Italian cathedrals and churches 

are laid up in alternating courses of black and white, or red and 
white marble and stone; but as this arrangement lacks variety and 
gives a distinctly " stripy " effect, it has little to commend it to our 

The Doge's Palace at Venice has a very beautiful checker 
pattern in pearl and rose carried over its exterior color walls, which has 
been imitated at various times with conspicuous failure to reproduce 
the effect of the original; and taking into consideration the probable 
softening and improvement of the original through atmospheric 
exposure for centuries, it is not altogether remarkable that the experi- 
ments have not been successful. 

An English architect, .Mr. Butterfield, tried a checker in red 
and yellowish brick some years ago, at Keble College, Oxford, in a 
well-meant endeavor to gain richness of exterior color, but the result 
was anything but happy, as it is entirely out of keeping with its sur- 
roundings, — a sufficient reason for its failure; moreover, the colors 
employed were too strong, and their contrast with each other is too 
great for harmony. 

The Albert Memorial and Natural History Museum at South 
Kensington, London, are conspicuous British examples of the use of 
terra-cotta as a constructive material, but may hardly be considered 
successful from the point of view of color; and in many cities, both 
at home and abroad, may be seen other examples of the utilitarian 
value of this material ; but its possibilities as a vehicle of architec- 
tural and artistic expression, in form and color, have neither been 
exemplified nor appreciated. 

As tall buildings are more often .seen in contrast with the sky 
than with their immediate neighbors, their relation to the sky color 
is to be considered rather than to that of adjoining and lower struc- 
tures ; and as to what colors shall look best against the sky, we are 
not without precedent in the successful coloring of certain domes 
and spires for suggestions. 

The green with which old copper roofs so often clothe them- 
selves is always agreeable against the blue sky, and the color of the 
light yellowish-red Spanish tiles, quite on the opposite side of the 
color scale, seems to have been invented especially for its value as a 
foil to the unclouded heavens. 

Again, the colors used by the Delia Robbias — deep blues, a sort 
of emerald green, tawny yellow, and a brownish purple with a paler 
golden yellow — seem to form a complete scale for architectural color 
composition. In fact all colors may be used in association, provided 
their values as lights and darks, and the relative surface which they 
cover, be taken into consideration. 

Given the desire for exterior color, or polychrome decoration of 
large buildings, which undoubtedly exists to-day, there are but two 
questions to be argued ; namely, how much and what colors, and the 
vehicle or material which is to be colored. 

The answer to the first is to be found in the artistic perceptions 
of those who ask it: as much color and as many colors as may be 
required to produce a rich and dignified effect. 

A description of the walls of the ancient city of Ecbatana, in 
Persia (from Enc. Brit., 9th Ed., Vol. II., p. 399), which deserve 
particular mention on account of their being among the earliest 
examples of constructive coloring on a grand scale, does not seem 
out of place here, although we are hardly ready for such a gorgeous 
scheme in ,\merica. 

" The walls are said to have been 75 ft. broad and 105 ft. high. 
They were seven in number, one above the other, on the sides of a 
conical hill, and colored in succession, white, black, scarlet, blue, 
orange, silver, and the innermost gilt." 

Restorations of the great Hall of Xerxes, by Chipiez, show a 
high cornice with many decorated members, the grounds of these 
colored in pale yellow, mauve, and blue, with the reliefs accented by 
touches of stronger value, vermilion, yellow, and rich blue, the whole 
effect resembling the bloom of an old rug. The frieze of arches 
from Susa, a full-size reproduction of which may be seen in the 
Louvre in Paris, shows the figures of men modeled in relief, on a 
large scale, with the costumes in different tones of yellow, blue, and 



mauve against a background of broken blues, the whole having been 
modeled in clay, colored, and then cut into bricks before firing, 
after which they were laid up into the wall in accordance with their 
original positions. 

These examples show that the palette is practically unlimited, 
and that almost any scheme of richness or simplicity may be executed 
in permanent form. 

For interior or protected work the colors need not be " fired in"; 
but tempera, water-colors, or oil-colors, with gilding, may be used, and 
thus terra-cotta may receive as elaborate and finished decoration as 
any other substance. 

As to what material is best adapted for polychrome architectural 
decoration, either external or internal, terra-cotta possesses so many 
obvious advantages, both utilitarian and artistic, that no other may 
be favorably compared with it. 

One way to go about the study of exterior color is first to visit 
the kilns where terra-cotta is made, there to study the material 
itself in its various forms and developments, that its possibilities or 
restrictions may be properly understood ; for there is no more potent 
influence than that of material on art expression. Observe what has 
been done, and then make suggestions as to what is desirable in a 
particular instance. 



I NOW pass to the part of my subject which is concerned with 
the avoidance of efflorescences, and for the sake of clear- 
ness I shall briefly recapitulate the modes of origin, taking up the 
means of avoidance in connection with each separately. 


Sources. — I. The Green Clay. 

1. Caused by the antecedent presence of sulphates in the 


2. Caused by the formation of sulphates during the stor- 

age of the clay. 
Sources. — II. The ManiifactKrino. 

1. During molding. 

a. Caused by the presence of sulphates in the 

water or coloring matter. 

b. Caused by the formation of sulphates during 


2. During burning. 

a. Caused by the water-smoking. 

b. Caused during burning. 

Sources. — -III. Environment of the Bricks and Buildings. 

1. Caused by the absorption of saline solutions from the 

soil of the place of storage. 

2. Caused by the absorption of soluble salts from the 

soil on which the building stands. 


I. Organic in character — caused by the action of vege- 
table micro-organisms. 
2. Inorganic in character — caused by soluble vanadiate 

Source I. The Green Clay. The quantity of sulphates antece- 
dently present in the clay is usually not very large, but o.i to 0.05 
per cent, is quite sufificient to impart to the product an annoying 
white incrustation. To prevent this efflorescence, the soluble salts 
must be converted into insoluble by the addition of appropriate 
chemicals. The most effective and the most economical are the 
barium compounds, and particularly carbonate of barium and chlo- 
ride of barium. Barium salts possess a strong aflnnity for sulphuric 
acid. When barium salts come into contact with sulphates, an im- 

mediate transformation takes place, the sulphuric acid combining 
with the barytes to form sulphate of barium — a combination abso- 
lutely insoluble in water. Expressed in chemical formuhv, the trans- 
formation of the calcium sulphate with the barium compound above 
mentioned is as follows: — 

of Calcium 

of Barium 

of Calcium 




= CaCO, 

of Calcium 

of Barium 

of Calcium 



Bad, = 




of Barium 


of Barium 


In both cases the sulphuric acid is transferred to compounds 
that are insoluble in water, and so is absolutely incapacitated from 
producing the injurious incrustations. If these salts are easily and 
cheaply had, it is indifferent which of them the manufacturer em- 
ploys; but if they have to be brought from a distance, it is more 
economical to employ the chloride of barium. The reason of this 
is plain, from the chemical nature of the salts. 


We shall first take up the carbonate. Carbonate of barium is 
insoluble in water. To procure a uniform effect, therefore, the salt 
must be mixed with the clay very thoroughly and in as finely pow- 
dered a form as possible, because thd transformation of the soluble 
sulphates takes place only where the two salts come into immediate 
contact with each other. The amount required is relatively very 
small. But since it is difficult to mix small quantities with the 
requisite thoroughness, a large excess of carbonate of barium should 
be employed, say from ten to twenty times the amount which is theo- 
retically sufficient, in order to ensure the conversion of all the soluble 
sulphates into insoluble salts of barium. The excess of carbonate 
of barium is not injurious, since it is absolutely insoluble in water. 

I will now give examples of how the matter is to be carried out 
in practice. 

First, the clay must be analyzed and the amount of sulphates 
in it determined. Analyses of the kind in question are best made 
in a special laboratory. Let us suppose the clay contains o.i per 
cent, of calcium sulphate (CaSO,). One kilogram of dry clay con- 
tains I gram of calcium sulphate. One English pound contains 0.455 
gram. One gram calcium sulphate requires, according to the formula, 
for perfect conversion into barium sulphate, 1.45 grams of carbonate 
of barium. Hence, theoretically, for i kilogram of clay, 1.45 
grams of barium carbonate, or for one English pound of clay, 0.66 
gram of barium carbonate, must be used. Since, now, for the rea- 
sons stated above, ten times the amount theoretically required must 
be employed, therefore 6.6 grams barium carbonate must be used 
for every pound of clay. Supposing the green brick weighs 7 lbs., 
then for one brick 46.2 grams, or for a thousand bricks 46.2 kilo- 
grajns, or 101.6 English pounds, would be required. A pound 
of barium carbonate costs 2>^ cents. Therefore, for a thousand 
bricks an extra outlay of $2.50 would be necessary. 

Much cheaper is the process if chloride of barium be employed, 
for here the transformation takes place instantly and more energeti- 
cally. This salt is readily soluble in water, and in its dissolved 
condition is uniformly absorbed by the clay particles, so producing 
an immediate transformation of the soluble sulphates into insoluble. 
Whilst the carbonate of barium must be used in considerable ex- 
cess, in employing the chloride of barium it is advisable to. keep as 
closely as possible to the theoretical limit, because too great an ex- 
cess is quite apt to cause a re-crystallization of the chloride of 
barium on the surface of the brick, and so to give rise to other in- 


We use the same clay as before ; namely, a clay containing 
O.I per cent, sulphate of calcium. One gram of calcium sulphate 
requires theoretically 1.8 grams of crystallized chloride of barium 
(BaClj + 2 HjO). One kilogram of clay containing 0.1 percent, sul- 



phate of calcium requires, therefore, i.S grains chloride of barium, 
one English pound requires 0.S2 gram chloride of barium. 

Supposing, now, the green brick weighs seven English pounds, 
then one brick would take 5.74 grams, and a thousand bricks would 
take 5.74 kilograms barium chloride. If barium chloride costs 2^ 
cents a pound, a thousand bricks, therefore, would require an e.xtra 
outlay of only 32 cents. 

In using barium chloride, chloride of calcium is produced as a 
collateral product; but this has no injurious effect, since it is readily 
decomposed at red heat into oxide of calcium, and as such acts as a 

In like manner, the coloring matter and the water used should 
be analyzed for their sulphur, and treated accordingly with barium 

Source II. Manufacturing. If the clay, treated as above in- 
dicated with chloride of barium, be used at once, no coloring will be 
noticeable either on the surface of the unburnt or on the surface of 
the burnt brick : but if the clay as thus treated be allowed to lie for 
any length of time, new quantities of iron pyrites will be converted 
under the influences of weathering into sulphates, and so fresh addi- 
tions of the chloride will be necessary. If the clay has been made 
into green brick, the process of drying should be accomplished as 
quickly as possible, to prevent the subsequent accumulation of sul- 
phates on the surface. On the other hand, quick drying prevents 
the deposition of possible other salts which are present, on the sur- 
face of the products. In general the deposition takes place here 
preferably in the interior. 

It has often been observed that bricks manufactured from sul- 
phurous clays, which come absolutely uncolored from the kiln, after- 
wards show distinct colorations. This is largely due to the drying. 
The evaporation of the water takes place in most part on the sur- 
face, and most energetically at the places which are most exposed to 
the draught. And so the incrustations are first and most commonly 
found on the edges of the product, whilst the spots where the bricks 
rest upon one another, and where, consequently, no evaporation can 
take place outwardly, are quite free from colorings. The more 
quickly the evaporation of the water is effected the less will be the 
quantity of salts visible on the surface. This is explainable from the 
following consideration. 

The water in the interior of the bricks must ascend through the 
fine pores to the outer surfaces. If the water ascends slowly through 
the pores, occasion is given for its saturating itself thoroughly with 
the soluble salts and so carrying them to the surface. 

The phenomenon admits also of another explanation. As stated 
above, and owing to capillarity, — that property in virtue of which 
fluids rise by attraction on the walls of minute tubes, — the evapora- 
tion of the water takes place mostly on the outer surfaces of the 
bricks, which constitute a system of fine tubes. Now it is a familiar 
fact of physical chemistry that very many saline solutions do not rise 
uniformly and unaltered through such systems, but that they are 
separated in such a process into pure water and a concentrated solu- 
tion of the sail. The water hastens in advance of the salt, — and the 
more quickly, according as the ascent is rapid, or according as the 
brick is more porous, or according as the evaporation of the water is 
accelerated at the surface. The pure water will thus first reach the 
surface and be evaporated there, while the saline solution will be 
kept back in the interior of the brick, where it will gradually be 
deposited if no more water is present to dissolve it; but if the 
progress of the water be slow, the saline solution will reach the sur- 
face with it and be deposited there. 

The incrustations, therefore, which appear during drying are 
found more frequently on bricks which are made from oily (plastic.) 
clays than on bricks made from relatively non-plastic or sandy clays. 
In the former the porous system is considerably restricted, the orifices 
are smaller, and the water has more obstacles to encounter in reach- 
ing the surface. In the latter, — in bricks made from sandy clays, — 
owing to the greater porosity, the evaporation takes place more 
energetically, and not only at the surface, but also partly in the inte- 

rior: first, because the interstices are here much larger; and secondly, 
because the sand prevents the perfect closure of the pores. This is 
why the smooth surfaces of pressed brick show the saline efflores- 
cences more than the rough surfaces. By the action of the press the 
lateral surfaces of the brick acquire a denser structure than the 
upper and under surfaces. .And also in ejection from the press, 
owing to the friction between the plastic brick and the sides of the 
form, these same lateral surfaces are still more densely compressed. 
I5y this compression the escape of the water is obstructed ; conse- 
quently, because of its evaporating slowly and gradually, the water 
carries all the dissolved saline components to the smooth surface, 
where they are more readily rendered visible than on the rough 
surface, where, owing to the magnitude of the porous orifices, a 
partial evaporation of the water, and therefore also a deposition of 
the salts, occur in the interior. 

There is a kindred annoying phenomenon which makes its ap- 
pearance principally on the rough surfaces of the bricks, when the 
impressions of the workingmen's hands become visible. Frequently, 
after burning, certain spots are found colored white, while the re- 
mainder of the brick exhibits the normal, desired color. These are 
the spots at which the brick has been subjected to the pressure of 
the workingman's hand. 

From what has gone before, an explanation for this readily sug- 
gests itself. By the pressure of the workman's hand, which is always 
more or less moist, the pores of the brick are closed at these spots, 
and the spots themselves made smooth. In consequence of the slower 
evaporation of the water here, the salts will be deposited at these places 
first, and the deposition will be rapidly augmented by the constant 
crystallization at these points of the saline water of the environment. 

Another explanation is the following: During drying, salts 
come to the rough surface of the brick, but owing to the roughness 
of the same are not visible to the eye. If, now, by the pressure of 
the workingman's hand these places are flattened, and the minute 
saline particles crushed, the white coloration will be much more 
noticeable at these spots than at the remainder of the surface. An 
illustration will explain my meaning. 

Imagine a very large number of minute particles of chalk on a 
slate or blackboard, and about a millimeter apart from one another. 
The original color of the board will not be destroyed by the particles. 
.'\ short distance away, the dark coloring of the board alone will be 
noticeable ; but if we stroke the board lightly with our moist finger, 
the soft particles of chalk will be crushed and pressed into the granu- 
lar surface, so obliterating the dark coloring, and rendering the white 
path of the finger distinctly visible. 

ETERNAL vigilance is the price of safety. Wherever a build- 
ing, or any part thereof, has once come to grief under stress 
of attack by fire and water, there is proof of the existence of some- 
thing which demands remedy at the hands of those interested in the 
development of fire-resisting construction, whose constant aim should 
be to increase protection and to diminish exposure. The latter is as 
important as the former. There are too many whose professions of 
confidence in the efficiency of protective appliances are such as to 
lead to contempt of danger, and therefore to neglect of such simple 
measures as guarding against exposures from without by the appli- 
cation of shutters, as the subdivision of space by fire walls, as the 
use of automatic sprinklers, and whose confidence in the value of 
fire-protective coverings is so great as to encourage carelessness in 
their design and application. 

That branch of the fire-proofing industries will achieve the 
greatest success which is most suspicious of the efficiency of its own 
products, and, therefore, takes greatest pains to bring about improve- 
ment in their design, manufacture, and application. Whatever is 
pronounced by its makers to be " good enough " is sure to be 
crowded out of the market by those makers who never consider any- 
thing which they have done "good enough." If those interested in 
the manufacture and application of burnt-clay fire-proofing materials 
will work in this spirit their position will become impregnable. 









SUPPOSE that the architect of the Club House of the Chicago 
Athletic Association had given more thought to the fire pro- 
tection of its pillars and less to their ornate wooden enclosures ; 
suppose that the pillars, the girders, and the bottom flanges of the 
floor beams in the Western Union Building had had protective 
covering ; or suppose that the enormous glass exposures of the 
Home Building had had the protection of iron shutters; suppose 
its floor acreage had been divided by a good fire vv'all; suppose that 
a very little attention had been given to the support of its water 
tanks and to the fire-proofing of the supports. Even if all these 
things had been attended to as they should have been, even then 
there would have remained a certain defect inherent to the present 
methods of manufacture and application of clay fire-proofing ma- 

I refer to a tendency to break, under stress of exposure to alter- 
nations of intense heat with the cooling effect of the application of 
water, which has been observed at the lines of intersection of face 
and return members of hollow-tile l^locks. This tendency has shown 
its greatest development at exposed corners, such as are formed by 
the coverings of beams projecting below the general ceiling surfaces 
of hollow-tile floor arches, or by the angles of pilasters formed where 
column coverings project from the faces of hollow-tile partitions and 
walls, also at the jambs of doors and windows, and still more so at 
the corners of rectangular coverings of free-standing pillars, even 
where such corners are rounded. Then there is the tendency of the 
bottom flange of hollow-tile arches, under stress of alternating heating 
and cooling, to crack away from the web members, which, if the 
arches are of the side-web type, cause their destruction ; while in the 
case of end-web arches, while the arch generally maintains its 
integrity, the ceiling is apt to be lost. 

The writer has enjoyed opportunities, in buildings erected under 
his professional charge, for noting the behavior of burnt-clay fire- 
proofing materials. These observations have demonstrated quite 
clearly the great value of burnt clay as a fire-protection covering for 
the structural members of buildings, but also call attention to the 
necessity for eliminating the danger which lies in the existence of an 
inelastic and brittle connection between face and return members of 
hollow-tile blocks. There is enough difference in the behavior of 
the protective material, under exposure to fire and water under differ- 
ent conditions of varying methods of application, to point the way 
to the corrective and remedial measures, which, however, are not 
stated as being finalities. Further study of the subject may de- 
velop other and more valuable suggestions. It is hoped that every 
one who has made or applied burnt-clay fire-proofing material, or 
who is in any manner interested in any building in which the 
same has been used, will make a study of this subject and observe 
and report upon occurrences like the following at every possible 

Among the buildings under my observation, the Auditorium at 
Chicago is foremost. Its fire-proofing material is hollow tile made 
of porous terra-cotta, the webs being quite thick, to the best of my 
recollection fully i in. if not more. Ordinary brick clay was used, 
and the tiles were not burnt very hard. I remember five differ- 
ent fires in the building. The first, during construction, in a large 
unfinished room used for storing empty glass boxes, which, being 
filled with straw, made an exceedingly hot blaze, but caused no 
damage to the building other than breaking glass and burning 

window frames and sashes. In the completed building there were 
two similar fires, each of which burned up the combustible contents 
of a room, but caused no further damage. There were also two 
fires in the basement kitchen, where the accidental spilling of grease 
upon hot ranges set fire to the insulating covering of electric cables 
carried on the ceiling near by, and these in their turn caused ignition 
of wooden shelves, cupboards, etc. But no damage was done in 
either case to the structural members of the building. The writer 
ascribes the excellent behavior of the fire-proofing in this building to 
the fact that in the places where the fires occurred there were no 
angles exposed to irregular expansive and contractive action. The 
pillars were round and the coverings followed the curves of the 
metal ; the ceilings were flush, and, above all things, the tile was 
thick. It had been made before the day of the theory that good 
building is synonymous with approximation to the condition of the 
captive balloon. 

In the Schiller Building, at Chicago, there were two fires origi- 
nating in the restaurant kitchen, as in the Auditorium, from hot grease 
spilled into range fires, but which also, like the corresponding fires in 
the Auditorium, left the structural framework and its coverings unin- 
jured; and there was another fire which attacked the Schiller Building 
from without, beating upon the enclosing walls of the large court, 
which were formed of two thicknesses of 4 in. hollow burnt-clay tile 
blocks. A very fierce fire having arisen in a building about thirty feet 
away, the intensity of the heat was such as to break all the glass and 
burn the frames and sashes in the exposed court wall of the Schiller 
Building, and also to break the glass and burn the paint off the doors 
and windows in corridors and rooms inside of the building, and from 
sixteen to twenty-two feet distant from the exposed court wall. The 
floor and partition construction of the Schiller Building escaped injury, 
but the enclosing walls of the court were seriously damaged. The 
outer webs of most of the tiles fell off, particularly at the jambs 
of the Vvfindows, but enough remained intact that the structural 
steel members of the building escaped injury. The effect of the 
fire was the same as that observed at the Athletic Association 
Building, and was quite a vivid illustration of the chief, if not the 
only weakness of the hollow-clay tile as a fire-protective covering. 
There were breaks at the lines of junction with return webs in 
almost every hollow-tile surface exposed to the joint action of hot 
fire and cold water. 

A reasonable inference to be drawn from these observations is, 
that it is necessary to so form and apply the burnt-clay tiles as to allow 
for free movement in sympathy with the changes of dimension caused 
by the action of fire and water, and yet exclude the fire from access 
to pillars and beams. 

I shall cite two instances where this has apparently been accom- 
plished. Both the buildings referred to have wooden joists resting 
on steel girders, which in turn are supported by round, cast-iron 

In case of one of these, built for Mr. Martin Ryerson, at the 
northeast corner of Wabash Avenue and Adams Street, at Chicago, 
the protective material used consisted of solid blocks of porous (fire 
clay) terra-cotta applied to the pillars and girders and to the under 
side of joists, while the tops of the joists were protected by a mortar 
deafening 2 ins. thick. The upper story of this building was used as 
a manufactory of straw hats, and was filled over its entire surface and 
almost to its entire height with shelves and racks containing straw 
braid, and straw hats in various stages of manufacture. The dimen- 
sions of the place were 1 10 by 170 by 16 ft. The building was 
struck by lightning, and the shelving, racks, straw braid, and hats in 
the top story consumed by fire. The damage done the building con- 
sisted of breakage of glass, burning of window frames and sashes, the 
burning of a considerable area of floor boards, the partial burning of 
the 2 by 4 in. strips to which the floor boards had been nailed, the 
strips having been imbedded in mortar. The plastering was but 
slightly damaged, as its hold upon the porous terra-cotta was such as 
to prevent its falling off. This seems to me one of the most severe 
tests to which fire-proofing material was ever subjected in a building. 



It is my belief that the changes of dimension induced by the action 
of fire and water were tal<en up in the small air cells of the porous 
terra-cotta. It is also to be noted that the column covering was cir- 
cular, and therefore did not prevent any angles for breakage by 
reason of expansion and contraction. 

In another building of Mr. Ryerson's, in which also there were 
wooden joists, steel beams, and cast-iron columns, the fire-proofing 
for the joists was made of hard tile, "book tiles" s])Iit in half. 
There was quite a hot fire in this building, tlien used for storage of 
wall paper, which fire was also confined to the story in which it had 
originated, and which also did not feaze either the fire-proofing 
material or the structural members protected by it. Here the ceiling 
tiles, which were split book tiles, and practically without return webs, 
had been so applied as to allow a little lateral motion ; and although 
the fire was quite hot and the water was freely used, the tiles passed 
through the fire intact and free from cracks. Here, also, the column 
coverings were circular in plan. 

Summarizing the results of these observations of the action of 
fire upon various forms of fire-proofing material, and noting, also, the 
published accounts of the conduct of such materials in fires in other 
buildings, and giving due heed to the published reports of various 
special tests. I cannot escape the conclusion that the side-web tile 
arch should not be used at all, even if there is a special protection 
for its soffit. Such protective covering should, however, always be 
used, and may be designed upon lines similar to those adopted for 
the ceiling construction under concrete arches, as, for instance, used 
by me in the Wainwright Building, of St. Louis, where there is a 
suspended ceiling of burnt tile (book tile) below a system of concrete 
arches of large span. While where the end-pressure arch is used 
protection for the sofiit may not be essential to the safety of the arch, 
yet if it has an independently suspended ceiling that will not come 
to grief, but will yield to expansion and contraction, as was the case 
in the Ryerson Buildings quoted above, and therefore its use is 
advisable. Column coverings should always be made circular in 
plan. Jambs should be formed of solid blocks of porous terra-cotta, 
and not of hollow tile. 

These changes in current methods suggest themselves to me. 
Many others, perhaps more valuable, will occur to those more con- 
versant than I with processes of manufacture. Still, when all has 
been considered, it seems strange how little may have to be done to 
enable the burnt-clay tile to maintain the claim of its makers, that it 
is the best fire-proofing material available for ordinary building con- 
struction. The modifications of current practise need not be many, 
but whenever found necessary they must be made. Therefore, I 
repeat that the side-pressure arch must go, as must also the rectangu- 
lar column covering with and without lounded corners, unless it be 
made of solid blocks of porous terra-cotta. The hollow-tile jamb 
block must be abandoned and solid porous terra-cotta blocks used 
in its place. While some modification of the form of wall and parti- 
tion tiles is necessary in order to avoid the cracking away of face 
from return members, I am not sufficiently familiar with the processes 
and possibilities of tile manufacture to feel qualified to make any sug- 
gestion, but I hope that tile makers may find a simple and effective 
solution. In making these, as well as all other forms of tiles used in 
fire retardent construction, strength must be sought for in preference 
to lightness. 

Those interested in the manufacture of clay fire-proofing ma- 
terials owe it to themselves and to the community which they serve, 
that they abandon the claim that there is any protective covering 
which can make a building really fire-proof, or even reasonably fire 
retardent, unless it is used and applied with ordinary good judg- 
ment. It must always be remembered that the hollow-tile arch and 
the clay column and beam covering will not increase the fireresist- 
ing qualities of glass, and that to leave a single heavily loaded beam 
or pillar unprotected or inadequately protected may cause the col- 
lapse, not merely of this particular unprotected member, but also of 
large areas of floor and wall resting upon beams connected with it 
by means of bolts and rivets. 

Mortar and Concrete. 



THE best Portland cement is a light gray or neutral tint, with a 
tinge of yellow and green, and a specific gravity of about 3.15. 
If the color approaches too nearly white, or is too dark, or has too 
yellowish a tinge, the burning or composition is at fault. The best 
Portlands vary somewhat in .shade, depending on the amount of iron 
oxide present, but all have a similar color and one which is character- 
istic of good cements, and not at all like that of slag or hard-burned 
natural cement. 

If the burning is not satisfactorily carried out the specific 
gravity of the cement will vary from the normal, as will the volume 
weight or density, although the latter is also affected by the degree 
of fineness to which grinding has been carried and the length of time 
the cement has been stored. The most thoroughly burned Portland 
cement has a specific gravity of about 3.15, never below 3.10, and 
rarely above 3.18, at 60 degs. Fahr. At higher temperatures it is 
relatively less, and for a number of brands recently examined the 
following results were obtained : — 

Brand. Specific Gravity at 78 degs. Fahr. .Specific Gravity at 60 degs. Fahr. 

Germania 3.078 3-175 

Alsen 3.079 

Vulcanite 3-036 

Black Eagle .... 3.075 

Belgians 2.924-3.013 

Sand Cement .... 2.757 

The best Portland cement should be so fine that not more than 
25 per cent, will fail to pass a two hundred mesh sieve, 10 per cent, a 
hundred mesh, and none a fifty mesh sieve. Coarser cement should 
command a smaller price, as the amount of sand that can be safely 
mixed with it is largely dependent on its fineness. It has been found 
by Le Chatelier that particles larger than those which will pass an 
ordinary sieve of one hundred and twenty meshes to the linear inch 
are of little hydraulic value, being slowly decomposed and hydrated, 
and then not entirely even after a long time. Cement having a 
specific gravity of less than 3.10 should be looked upon with suspi- 
cion. When of normal character of fineness and gravity the volume 
weight per cubic foot is between 100 and loS lbs., as packed in bar- 
rels commercially, as compared to the 65 to .So lbs. which natural 
cement weighs. 


Portland cement, and in a similar way natural cement, when 
mixed with water to a paste, in the form of mortar, becomes hard on 
standing, or sets. This is the result of a chemical reaction in which 
water takes an essential part, as it will be found that cements will 
not harden or set with any liquid which does not contain it. Accord- 
ing to the most reasonable theory water plays two parts in the process : 
in one decomposing the original compounds of the cement and acting 
as a solvent for the products of their decomposition: in the other 
combining with these products to form new hydrated crystalline 
solids which, in their formation and crystallization from the watery 
solution, bind themselves and the mass together, bringing about the 
result called setting. The original substances of which cements are 
composed are, in Portland cements, very basic compounds of lime, 
with silica and alumina, or iron, which are easily decomposed by 
water with the liberation of lime and the formation of the hydrated 
compounds. On the decomposition of the aluminates of lime, when 
Portland cements are mixed with water, free lime is lil)erated, and, if 
the cement is not immersed in water, soon begins to crystallize out in 
the mass in the form of plates of calcium hydrate, which can be ob- 
served under the microscope. If the cement is then, or later, im- 



mersed in water, this free lime is gradually dissolved out, and may be 
detected by the soapy or alkaline feeling which a limited volume has 
in which the cement is placed. It is also noticed, where cement con- 
crete is placed in water, the volume of which is limited, as a pellicle 
of calcium carbonate which forms on the surface under these condi- 

This solvent action might go on indefinitely were it not for the 
density of Portland cement mortar, and unless, as is claimed, the 
action of carbonic acid of the air or water put an end to it and 
exercised an important influence in the hardening of cement. At 
the same time, if there are salts in the water which attack carbonates, 
no protection can be gained in this way. It is unlikely that there is 
any lime actually free in a high-grade Portland cement, this being 
distinctly characteristic of the natural cements, but rather that, in 
those containing a high percentage of lime, it is in such a state of 
combination with alumina as to be more rapidly liberated with the 
evolution of heat in the presence of water than would be the case if 
there were less of it, or if it were stably combined with silica by 
harder burning. In fact, it is found that the larger the percentage of 
lime a cement has the more care must be given to the burning, and 
the higher and longer the temperature must be in order to bring 
about the entire combination of the lime in forms which shall not be 
too rapidly hydrated by water. The calcium aluminate, which has 
been decomposed by the water with liberation of lime, is the cause 
of the first or initial set of Portland cement, the less basic aluminate 
becoming hydrated and crystalline. The nature of the set, whether 
quick or slow, depends on the amount and basicity of the aluminates ; 
and, as has been shown, when there is too large a portion of alumi- 
nates, or too basic ones, the set is fiery. The basic silicates of lime 
are decomposed more slowly than the aluminates, and contribute 
chiefly to the hardening of the cement or mortar, as shown by the 
Newberrys. Portland cement forcibly burned and ground usually 
sets very rapidly and often becomes heated on mixing with water. 
For example, lo ozs. of new cememt mixed with 20 per cent, of water 
at ordinary room temperature, balled up very much, heated, and on 
immersion of a thermometer in the mortar an elevation of 23 degs. 
P'ahr. was observed. Such cement is, of course, unsuitable for ordi- 
nary use, as it cannot be well mixed and put in place before setting. 

If the cement is left exposed to the air and in storage for some 
weeks it will i)e found to set slowly, having in the meantime become, 
to a certain degree, hydrated. It is customary, therefore, to store 
cement for some time before putting it on the market, but where this 
is not convenient, a similar result can be brought about in another 
way. It has been found that burned gypsum or plaster, when added 
in small amount to very rapid setting cement, has the effect of re- 
ducing the set to normal. No more than i or 2 per cent, is required 
for this purpose. Its use is not considered out of the way, and it is 
a common practise with most manufacturers both abroad and at 
home. Its action is supposed to be due to the fact that it combines 
with the basic aluminate of lime and prevents its too rapid decom- 
position and hydration. If plaster is used in excess, however, it is 
claimed that it has an injurious effect, especially in the presence of 
sea water. Portland cement should not set, at ordinary temperatures, 
in less than an hour, except in particular cases where it may be 
necessary to use it in presence of water. This slow set is one of 
the features which distinguishes it from the quick-setting natural 

When subjected to cold it will be found that the setting of both 
kinds of cements is much delayed, and at a freezing temperature will 
be prevented under any conditions, whereas heat may be made to 
produce as much effect in a short time as would require weeks at or- 
dinary temperatures. Portland cement will, however, act much more 
satisfactorily in cold weather than natural, and will eventually attain 
a satisfactory strength very often where the latter crumbles, espe- 
cially if once it has attained its natural strength. 

Hardcitiiiir of Cement. Beyond the mere preliminary act of set- 
ting or becoming firm there is a change in cement which goes on for 
a long time, accompanied usually by a continued increase of strength. 

It may be described as hardening. It involves chemical changes 
and the rearrangement of the elements of the cement, depending on 
the action of water and carbonic acid on its constituents. Much 
water and some carbonic acid enter into Combination with the sili- 
cates and aluminates. For example, at different ages after being 
made up and kept in water neat briquettes of an American Portland 
cement, after being taken from the water and dried at 2 1 2 degs. Fahr., 
contained the following amounts of water and carbonic acid : — 

I day test 
7 „ „ 
28 „ „ 







HjO Free. 



It appears that with Portland cement a relatively small amount 
of water is present and necessary for the set of the cement, but that 
with age water plays a prominent part in the real hardening process, 
while carbonic acid is of minor importance. 


The process of setting with natural cements is somewhat differ- 
ent from the comparatively simple one with Portland cements be- 
cause of the presence of the caustic alkaline earths, lime and 
magnesia, their carbonates and undecomposed silicates, all of which 
enter more or less into the reaction. The aluminates, here as with 
Portland cements, probably produce the principal phenomena con- 
nected with the initial set, but the presence of free lime has generally 
a tendency to make all natural cements heat on mixing with water. 
Few natural cements are burned to such a degree as to remove all 
carbonates, and what are left seem to be capable of developing some 
very decided hydraulic properties with the free alkaline earths. 
Utica and Akron cements, which are but lightly burned, illustrate 
this fact. 

In the final hardening, also, the undecomposed silicates very 
likely play the part of a puzzolana, while it is questionable whether 
any tricalcic silicates exist in natural cements, although a large por- 
tion of the silicates have been decomposed in burning with the forma- 
tion of aluminates. We are, unfortunately, not in a position to 
explain the setting of natural cement as well as that of Portlands. 

Further Coiiiparison 0/ Portland and Natural Cements. The 
relative proportions of water and carbonic acid present in Portland 
cement mortar of different ages when immersed in water has been 
commented on. 

In the case of natural cements at early stages the amount of 
carbonic acid, derived largely from that not driven out of the origi- 
nal carbonates in burning, may exceed that of the combined water, 
a Cumberland briquette at the age of seven days having y.23 
C02-6.07 H2O, but the relative changes with age and the acquisition 
of water of hydration is much more rapid than that of carbonic acid. 
After very long periods of time, and especially with exposure to the 
air, the amount of carbonic acid may increase relatively, although the 
increase is slow, as in the case of ordinary lime mortar. The impor- 
tance of any carbonic acid found in a natural cement some time after 
use is, therefore, to be attributed quite as much to its origjnal origin 
in the carbonates of the cement stone as to its gain in setting. 

IN the United -States there are now thirty factories making cement, 
the output being 2,250,000 barrels annually. This industry has 
been almost entirely developed within the last ten years, and the 
greatest development has been in Pennsylvania, where the limestone 
is almost free from magnesia and makes a cement equal in every 
respect to the imported article. The country is now producing 
nearly as many barrels of cement a year as were imported in 1895. 
While the imports have not greatly increased, the home product of 
Portland cement has steadily grown from 454,813 barrels in 1891, 
547,440 barrels in 1892, 590,652 barrels in 1893, 798,757 barrels in 
1894, to 990,324 barrels in 1S95, and of this quantity Pennsylvania 
produced more than one half. — Pliiladelphia Enquirer. 



Masons' Department. 




ONE of the great problems, if not the greatest problem that 
confronts brick contractors in many localities to-day, is to 
provide some lawful means of regulating competition so that there 
shall not be such a variation in the " brick bids " as now prevails, 
and so that when bids are opened one or more shall seldom be found 
to be so low as to preclude any possibility of a fair profit, or of do- 
ing the work as it should be done, without the contractor " going 
into his pocket " to pay for a part of it. 

In some of the older and larger cities contractors have arrived 
at an understanding or agreement whereby work that is let from 
architects' offices goes at a figure that will give some profit if the 
job is wisely managed ; but in many cities no such agreement exists, 
or if there' is one, it is not kept, and the large number of would-be 
contractors constantly importuning architects and owners for an op- 
portunity to figure, to say nothing of the peddling of bids by general 
contractors, makes the difficulty of getting a fair price still greater. 

In Denver, and probably in many other Western cities, compe- 
tition has been so close during the last five years that nine tenths 
of the building contracts have been made at figures which, after all 
bills were paid, barely left journeyman's wages for the contractor, 
and too often nothing at all. If low bidding only injured the party 
directly involved, it would not be a matter of general interest ; but 
so long as it is a common custom to let the work to the lowest re- 
sponsible bidder, this evil prevents those who make fair and reason- 
able bids from securing a contract. If a contractor wished to do 
good, honest work, and make, say, 5 per cent, on the contract, it 
has been in many cases hardly worth while to put in a bid. 

Now, how can this bidding below a living profit be prevented ? 
One method is by means of a close association having an ar- 
rangement with the material dealers by which "outsiders" cannot 
procure material, and an understanding amongst its members that 
work shall be figured on a certain basis. This method has been 
made to work fairly well in some localities, but it involves some in- 
justice, and has the nature of a " combine '' which prejudices the 
building public against it. 

The brick contractors of Denver undertook, at the beginning of 
the present year, to have all brick bids opened in the rooms of their 
association before they were handed to the architect. Extreme low 
or high bids were thrown out, and an average taken of the others, 
and 3 per cent, added to defray the association expenses. This 
final sum was then to be the lowest bid submitted, and the party 
whose original bid was nearest to this average bid was chosen to 
put in the low bid fixed upon. Those whose bids were above the 
average handed to the architect their original bid, while those 
whose bids were below made out new ones, so that when the bids 
were opened by the architect, they had all of the appearance of an 
open competition. A method of taking the average of the bids 
within certain limits would perhaps not be unjust, as the average 
bid is probably, in most cases, about what should be received for 
the work ; but the particular method pursued in Denver seemed to 
the architects there false and unfair, and they denounced it publicly, 
so that it has been abolished, after having been in force for about 
three months. 

There are other methods, looking to limiting the number of com- 
petitors, which have been tried and advocated with more or less suc- 
cess, but so long as there are more contractors than there are contracts 
to be let, it will always be more or less difficult for contractors to get 
a fair price for their work. The writer believes that one reason why 
bids are often much too low is, that the contractor does not take off 
the quantities correctly, or does not know, within reasonable limits, 

what the work will cost him. An honest contractor is not very 
likely to put in a bid that he knows will allow him no profit, and 
bids from dishonest contractors should not be accepted. In the 
opinion of the writer, therefore, a correct system of taking off the 
quantities whereby the exact cost of the labor and materials can be 
very closely computed is of the first importance, and if such a sys- 
tem were generally followed, the bids would run very close wherever 
a fixed standard of wages prevails. 

Another advantage of a general, system of estimating is that 
the architect can also ea.sily take off the quantities, and figure the 
cost with reasonable accuracy, thus enabling him to determine be- 
forehand about what the cost will be and what the work is worth. 

After all of these years of intelligent building, contractors' 
associations, conventions, etc., it would seem that so simple a matter 
as estimating plain l)rickwork would have been reduced to a fixed 
and accurate system, or rule, long ago, but it has not, and perhaps 
may never be. 

It is true that individual contractors can and do estimate very 
closely the probable cost of labor and materials, but a great many 
follow a very simple rule which gives neither the exact quantity of 
brick nor takes into account the character of the building, so that 
the price based upon it is largely, after all, a matter of guess work, 
and it is not to be wondered at that some needy contractors guess 
as low as they dare. In a succeeding paper a comparison will be 
made of different systems of estimating, with a view of showing the 
most accurate. 


THE composition of mortar which can be used to lay bricks in 
freezing weather without risk of destruction of the set of the 
mortar is a subject which affords a fertile opportunity for space 
fillers and technical journals. — we know, for we have tried it our- 
selves, — and yet there is a common-sense view of looking at it which 
ought to settle it at once, namely, that if first-class work is expected, 
we ought no more to expect to be able to lay bricks in freezing weather 
than we would to wear pajamas at Christmas. One of the curses of 
modern construction is the assumed necessity for haste. Our archi- 
tects and constructors ought to be willing to look at it in the light of 
common sense, and admit that it is impossible to successfully lay any 
kind of masonry in freezing weather without running so great a risk 
of a poor resulting construction that they had a great deal better 
wait until the mercury goes up. This would solve once and for all 
the question of how the mortar should be composed. If we want 
first-class work we must have first-class conditions, and these simply 
do not exist when the thermometer is below 32 degs. 


THE economic advantages of using enameled brick for elevator 
wells, engine and boiler rooms, and cellars is thoroughly ap- 
preciated by all who have had the management and care of a large 
commercial building, but is not always patent to those who are hav- 
ing their first experience with such investments. The extra cost of 
enameled brick is considerable, if good brick is used, and we should 
be sorry to recommend anything but the best. The advantages, 
however, more than offset the extra cost in the long run. Enameled 
brick is a nonconductor of heat and moisture, the surface is not 
easily abraded, and consequently preserves its appearance intact in- 
definitely, it is a light reflector, and all these qualities combine to dis- 
courage dirt, which is the most expensive and troublesome factor of 
a large building. If the byways of a big office building can be kept 
immaculate, the machinery will last longer, the character of the build- 
ing be higher, it will be easier to rent rooms, and the temper of the 
attendants will be much more livable. Now, enameled brick does 
not directly do all this; but on the same principle that an electric arc 
light on the street is the best kind of policeman, so the bright, light 
appearance of an enameled surface is a discourager of shiftlessness, 
carelessness, and dirt, and to that extent warrants all the extra cost 
of even the best manufacture. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities^ and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — No doubt readers of The Brickbuilder 
who follow closely the reports of building operations in New 
York will be interested in comparing the report of this month's do- 
ings with that of the corresponding month of 1897. The greatest 
and most noticeable difference is in the falling off of the number of 
projected new office buildings in the business section of the city, 
and as these buildings are of great importance, involving a great ex- 
penditure of money, and affecting largely brick and terra-cotta inter- 
ests, an inquiry into the cause of this falling will be of interest. 

First, the continuance of our war with Spain is partly responsi- 
ble, but not as largely as might be imagined, as reports from Wall 
Street show a healthy and confident condition, and money to loan on 
easy terms. 

Last year at this time lower New York looked as though it had 
suffered from the effects of a bombardment (not from a Spanish 
source, however, for they would not have struck anything), and to 
visitors must have presented an odd appearance. This was on ac- 
count of the unusually large number of buildings on prominent cor- 
ners that were being torn down to make room for new and more 
ambitious structures. In place of these old buildings we now have 

the new Empire 
Building, Ex- 
change Court, 
Hudson Building, 
Washington Life, 
Singer Building, 
and the still un- 
finished Park Row 
Building, the tall- 
est office building 
in the world. The 
only large office 
building in process 
of construction on 
Broadway now is 
the Cheseborough 
Building, Clinton 
& Russell, archi- 

Investors have 
continually been 
warned by conserv- 
ative people that 
they were supply- 
ing offices far in 
excess of the de- 
mand, but few 
thought that the 
excess would be 
great enough to 
make any serious 
break in rentals. 
The craze for sky- 
scrapers has been 
at its height for the 
past three years, 
gradually diminish- 
ing as the truth was 
enforced that, 
under modern 

Louis H. Sullivan, 
Lyndon P. Smith, 
The front of building is of terra-cotta, executed by the Perth 
Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 

; Associated Architects. 


methods of construction and with the enormous capital available for 
the purpose, offices could be created, and were created, at twice the 
speed that the need of them actually grew, even in good times. 

Speculators are realizing .that sky-scrapers are not the good 
speculative operations of which they had dreamed. It may be 
expected, therefore, that the sky-sciapers of the future will be those 
that are erected not merely for profit, but from some other reasons; 
that they may be built by strong estates or by great corporations, the 
former looking for very small interest upon a moderate value for 
their land, and the latter seeking that unnamed but substantial ad- 
vantage which is derived from having an imposing home ; and thus, 
in course of time, will rentals right themselves as the business of the 
city grows up to the offices now at its disposal. 

The next monthly meeting and dinner of the Architectural 
League will be unusually interesting, as it will be held in Havemeyer 
Hall, Columbia University, and, through the courtesy of Professor 
Ware, the members will have an opportunity to inspect the new and 
interesting group of buildings designed by Messrs. McKim, Mead & 

Some of the more important items of new work are : — 

Jeremiah O'Rourke & Son, architects, of Newark, have planned 
a thirteen-story brick and limestone apartment hotel, to be erected 
at Fifth Avenue and 45th Street ; cost, $750,000. 

McKim, Mead & White, architects, are at work on plans for a 
residence to be built on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 72d Street, 
for Mr. James Stillmann. 

Messrs. Cable & Lucas are preparing plans for a store and 
apartment house to be erected on the north side of 42d Street, from 
Broadway to Seventh Avenue, for Mr. Charles Thorley. 

C. L. W. Eidlitz, architect, has filed plans for two three-story 
brick telephone exchanges, to be built on 79th and 89th Streets ; 
cost, $50,000. 

Clarence True, architect, has planned eight six-story brick dwell- 
ings, to be built on Riverside Drive, at a total cost of $266,000. 

De Lemos & Cordes, architects, have planned a four-story brick 
office building to be erected on the corner of Second Avenue and 
2 1 St Street; cost, $1 50,000. 

M. W. Morris, architect, has planned a brick and stone fire- 
proof extension to the Hotel St. George, Brooklyn, to cost $200,000. 

Herts & Tallant, architects, have won the competition for the 
Aguilar Free Library's new building. It will be a two-and-one-half- 
story building and cost $35,000. 

Schickel & Ditmars, architects, have planned a four-story brick 




dwelling, to be erected on Riverside Drive, for Mr. William 
garten ; cost, $25,000. 

McKim, Mead & White have planned a si.\-stor\- 
brick and stone fire-proof store and loft building, to be 
erected on Broadway, for J. C. Hoe's Sons. 

The Knickerbocker Realty Improvement Company 
will erect a new hotel on the site of the old Fourth 
Presbyterian Church, 34th Street, near Si.xth Avenue. 
It will be twelve stories in height, having a frontage of 
80 ft., and is estimated to cost about f 300,000. 

Charles C. Haight, architect, has prepared plans for 
a brick and stone warehouse eight stories in height, to 
occupy the block fronting on Hudson Street, from 
Vandam to Spring Streets, to be erected for the cor- 
poration of Trinity Church, at a cost of $450,000. 


A good season's business had been e.xpected. and even now, 
should there be indications of a cessation of hostilities soon, 
considerable work of importance may be undertaken. 

The trustees of the Barnes Hospital Fund are considering 
plans for a hospital which will cost over a million dollars. The 
money was left by the late Dr. Barnes for this purpose some 
years ago. 

The patriotism of our citizens has aroused sufficient inter- 
est in our citizen soldiery to start a movement which may event- 
ually give the militia much-needed homes. L. C. and W. M. 
IJulkley, architects, have prepared plans for an armory for Light 
Battery A, to be built on Grand Avenue and Rutger Street. 
The building will be 190 x 212 ft., the front being three stories 
high. The drill hall, which will be in the rear, will be i 79 x 180 
ft. Red brick and stone will be the materials used in the fronts. 

The proposition to build the armory for the First Regiment 
has not assumed definite shape, although prominent citizens 
made an offer to build the same if the city would donate the 
site of the old City Hall. As the charter of the city will not 
permit this some other locations are being considered. 

Another old landmark is about to disappear. The Dorris 
Block, on the northwest corner of Olive and nth .Streets, ex- 
tending nearly to 12th Street, is to be replaced by a six-story 
commercial building, for which .Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge have 
prepared plans. 

The same architects have prepared plans for a six-story 
warehouse for the Ely, Walker Dry Goods Company, which will 
cost Si 00,000. 

The committee in charge of the publishing of the new build- 
ing ordinance report that the book will be out of ])ress in a few 

The St. Louis Architectural Club held its regular monthly 

meeting on Saturday Evening, June 4. A large number were 

present, and were well entertained by the hosts, Messrs. Stock Dwyer, 

ST. LOUI.S. — The war lias very materially affected 
the building interests here. Nearly all prospec- 
tive schemes have been abandoned for the present, and in some in- 
stances operations have been suspended upon work under headway. 



Stiff, Draper, and Schmidt, who provided not only the customary 
refreshments, but good music, sketches, a lantern-slide talk, etc. 

A committee was appointed at the last meeting 
to inquire into the advisability of holding an exhibi- 
tion some lime during the fall or winter. The com- 
mittee recommend the same and suggested that it be 
an inter-club exhibition, and that an effort be made 
to procure drawings from all the clubs, and that an 
illustrated catalogue be issued. 

The report of the building commissioner for the 
month of May shows permits issued for buildings 
amounting to nearly double that for the previous 
month, but nearly all are for small residences, or un- 
important improvements, which would suggest that 
people are taking advantage of the extremely low 
prices of building materials and labor to build them- 
selves homes. 



CHICAGO.— Building reports do not 
seem to be any better than a month 
ago, when the figures showed a decrease 
of nearly 20 per cent, as compared with 
the work done in the corresponding month 
of the previous year. One of the most 
important announcements chronicled this 
month is that of a twelve-story 
commercial building for Schles- 
inger & Mayer, to cost #1,000,000, 
which is being designed by Louis 
H. Sullivan. The interior is de- 
scribed as "finish of mahogany 
and bronze," and the exterior 
" Georgia marble." It would not 
be surprising, however, to see the 
building executed in terra-cotta. 
That material has been largely the 
medium of Mr. Sullivan's designs, 
and with such appropriateness that 
the additional reason for such a 
guess is hardly needed, that an ex- 
isting stone-cutters' strike may lead 
to the substitution of terra-cotta. 
Chicago cutstone contractors say 
that the competition of terra-cotta 
has brought them to such low prices 
that they cannot accept the rule of 
the stone cutters that there must 
be eight men employed for every 
plani n g 



Kxecuted by tlie Conkling, Armstrong 

Terra-Cotta Coinpany. 

Frank R. Watson, Arcliitect. 

Executed in gray terra-cotta 
by the Excelsior Terra- 
Cotta Company. 
W. H. llume& Son, Arclii- 

in oper- 
ation. If 
they do 
acce pt 
the rule 
t h e 

cutters must accept the alternative of a 
reduction in wages from $4. to $3 per day. 
The workmen are not far sighted enough 
to see beyond the temporary injury done 
by the use of labor-saving machinery, and 
they have contributed at this writing some 
six continuous valuable weeks toward 
strengthening terra-cotta as a competitor 
of stone. 

In this connection it is of interest to 
note that School Architect Patton has 
made encouraging progress in inducing 
the board to adopt fire-proof construction. 
The contract for one school building just 
let is reported to have cost 12 '4 per cent, 
more than the wood construction pre- 
viously used. The fact that Chicago 
spends about a million dollars annually for 
new school buildings shows the impor- 
tance of this departure if it proves to be 
an indication of future policy. 

The license system for contractors 
has gone into effect. As the ordinance 
reads : "... Each and every person, 
agent, firm, company, or corporation en- 
gaged within the limits of the city of 
Chicago in the construction or repairing of 
the whole or any part of buildings and ap- 
purtenances, shall be and he or it is hereby 


required to obtain a license 
from the city of Chicago . " 
which license costs $2 per 
annum, and is obtained with, 
out examination. 

Among the most im- 
portant building items may 
be noted : A warehouse 170 
by 1 20 ft., seven stories, by 
John M. Van Osdel ; apart- 
ment buildings by architects 
Handy & Cady, Sidney 
Lovell, and H. C. Hoffman; 
a manufacturing building 
eight stories, 50 by 160 ft., 
by John H. Wagner ; a ten- 
story fire-proof commercial 
building by Holabird & 
Roche; alterations of Mar- 
shall Field retail store by 
D. H. Burnham & Co. ; and 
a fire-proof manufacturing 
building by S. A. Treat. 

The Stock Exchange 
Office Building, which is 

100 by iSo ft. and thirteen stories, was sold recently. The exterior 
is all terra-cotta, and one of the best of Adler & Sullivan's designs. 

The consideration for the building 
with the ground was placed at $2,- 
530,000. Another announcement of 
importance to Chicago real estate 
interests is a purchase of three 
hundred acres on the shore of Lake 
Michigan, seventeen miles from the 
City Hall. On this site, it is said 
that Mr. Frick, of Carnegie Steel 
Works, and associates, will establish 
one of the largest steel plants in the 
world, including in its equipment 
l)last furnaces and steel rail and 
structural steel rolling mills. 

The previously mentioned Ayer 
Building, designed by Holabird & 
Roche, which is to cost $200,000, 
will have a front entirely of plate 
"•lass and terra-cotta. 


Executed in terra-cotta by the Northwestern 

Terra-Cotta Company. 

Walker & Kimball, Architects. 


Executed by the Conkling, Armstrong 

Terra-Cotta Company. 
Frank Miles Day & Brother, Architects. 


IMAGINE, if you can, a row of 
business structures with fronts 
made entirely of enameled bricks. 
What a contrast to the ordinary dull 
and uninteresting city block ! The 
first feature to attract the attention 
would be the variety of design and 
of coloring, for each separate build- 
ing would have been the object of a 
distinct color scheme, according to 
the idea of the architect who planned 
it. But all would be alike in one 
important particular — the harmony 
of color. Instead of the glaring 
contrast which is now observable 
where pressed brick and the various 
dull stones are the only available 
materials, there would be a careful 



selection of such tints as, taken together, would create a beautiful 
and harmonious el^fect. The architect could give free rein to his 


ideas in devising ornamental color schemes suited to the particular 
construction in hand. 

This desirable condition is now quite possible by the use of 
enameled brick. These brick, the best of which are of American 
manufacture, were originally made in a brilliant glazed white for 
use in alleys and light courts, but are now made also in any color 
desired, and either glazed or unglazed. The latter, known as the 
dull finish, are particularly desirable for fronts, because they 
preserve, under all conditions of light, the beautiful color 
effects which the glaze (the glare from which is so objection- 
able to architects) not infrequently would hide or detract from. 
At the same time, the unglazed brick are just as impervious to 
moisture and dirt and as readily cleaned. The durability of 
both the glazed and unglazed brick has been so well demon- 
strated to architects as to need no extended comment in this 
connection. They have been repeatedly frozen and boiled 
alternately — also heated to a red heat and then plunged into 
cold water, without injury, the important point being that the 
enamel has been demonstrated by these tests to be part of the 
brick itself and not a mere cleavage. Thus they are seen to 
be not only fireproof, but absolutely indestructible by any 
combined force of fire and water. 

As to the comparative cost. Enameled brick laid in the 
wall cost less than 60 cents per superficial foot, being a little 
cheaper than good Bedford stone, while their advantage over 
this material is that they are fire-proof and can be easily and 
cheaply cleaned. Where it may be desired to put an addition 
either on top of a building or adjacent to it, any colors^can be 

duplicated, and after the entire wall is washed down, the building 
will be uniform in appearance, the new and the old alike, which 
would be impossible with materials which absorb dirt or have to be 
painted. The advantages of cleanliness are not of least considera- 
tion in alleys, light courts, and basements, where they are especially 
valuable for sanitary reasons. They can be washed down as fre- 
quently as desired, and dark places made light and healthful. In 
England, the home of the enameled brick industry, the municipal 
laws require their use in alleys and courts on account of their sanitary 

The foregoing statements as to the perfection arrived at in the 
production of American enameled brick, including their durability, 
beauty, and variety of color and shape, their bright and dull finish, 
as well as the severe tests mentioned, are based on facts obtained 
from an investigation of tlie attainments of the Tiffany Enameled 
Brick Company, of this city. Their brick are made in all sizes and 
shapes usually desired by architects, and may be ground perfectly 
for high-grade archwork. English, American, and Roman sizes are 
made in stretchers, quoins, octagon, round end, etc., and can be 
enameled on both faces, when required, for thin partition walls. Any 
color can be produced to order, with certainty as to uniformity of 
shade. — Inland A nhitcct. 


At St. Louis the price of common brick dropped during the 
month of May from $5.50 to $4.25 per thousand. 

Atlas Portland Cement is being used in erection of Gar- 
bage Plant at Boston. 

The Union Akron Cement Company are supplying their 
cement for a large sewer now being constructed at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Meier's Puzzolan Cement is being used by Norcross Brothers 
on a church at Whitinsville, Mass., Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, 

Waldo Brothers have sold a considerable quantity of Hoff- 
man and Atlas Cement for use on Metropolitan Water Board Work 
at Maiden, Mass. 

D. D. Cassidv, Jr., architect, Amsterdam, N. Y., is making 
plans for a four-story store and flat building, which will be con- 
structed of brick and terra-cotta. 

Several thousand barrels of Atlas Portland and Hoffman 

Alden & Harlow, Architects. 



Rosendale Cement will be used on three sewer contracts at Somer- 
ville, Mass. 

The Bolles Revolving Sash Company has arranged for the 
exclusive manufacture and sale of the Queen Overhead Pulley and 
Window Stop Adjuster. These devices were formerly manufactured 
and sold by the Queen Sash Balance Company. 

W. L. Miller has bought Atlas Portland Cement of Waldo 
Brothers for contract for piers on Summer Street, South Boston. 
Atlas Cement is to be used on all the masonry connected with this 
new street and bridge. 

The Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, through their Bos- 
ton agent, Charles Bacon, has se- 
cured the contract to furnish the 
terra-cotta for a new hotel at 
Albany, N. Y., H. Neil Wilson, 
Pittsfield, Mass., architect; J. 
Clark & Co., Chicago, 111., con- 

Waldo Brothers have 
closed with Horton & Hemenway 
for the supply of Hoffman Cement 
for the new Back Bay Station, 
Boston. 'Hoffman Cement will 
also be used on approaches and 
track-widening changes connected 
with the new stations of New 
York, New Haven and Hartford 

The Bolles Revolving 
Sash Company have had their 
sash specified in the following 
projected buildings: Public 
schools, Rivington and Eldredge 
Streets, Houston and Essex 
Streets, Rivington and Forsyth 
Streets, New York City ; also for 
the New York Hospital, Cady, 
Berg & See, architects ; and the 
Hebrew Charities Building, New 
York City, De Lemos & Cordes, 

commemorative panel, belo 

Executed in terra-cotta by the American 

Patton & Fislier, Arciiitects 

The plant of the Illinois 
Supply and Construction Com- 
pany, at Collinsville, 111., suffered 

loss by fire. May 29, amounting to $25,000. The plant will be imme- 
diately rebuilt, but no loss will be occasioned by the delay, owing to 
the fact that they had a large stock of brick on hand. 

The Brick, Terra-Cotta and Supply Company, M. E. 
Gregory, proprietor, Corning, N. Y., has contracted to furnish the 
following buildings with terra-cotta : Masonic Temple, Geneva, 
N. Y., A. B. Camp, architect; Masonic Temple, Monticello, N. Y. ; 
Wilmerding School, Wilmerding, Pa., C. H. Bartelberger, architect ; 
Farrell Building, Buffalo, N. Y., E. R. Williams, architect. 

The Dagus Clay Manufacturing Company, Daguscahonda, 
Pa., are supplying through their Philadelphia agent, O. W. Ketcham, 
150,000 flashed Roman brick for a new factory at Kane, Pa.; 30,000 
pink brick for a new building in New York City, of which D. A. Calla- 
han is the owner; also 30,000 gray brick for the new City Hotel at 
St. Mary's, Pa. 

The Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 

through their New York agents, H. F. Mayland & Co., are supply- 
ing the terra-cotta for the new buildings 155, 157, 159 West 34th 
Street, New York City, George H. Van Auken, architect ; also the 
new building at 80 and 82 Fourth Avenue, William J. Dilthy, archi- 

Charles E. Willard, Boston, removed his office on June i 
from 171 Devonshire Street to a more convenient location on the 
street floor, at 192 Devonshire Street. Mr. Willard will continue to 
handle a full line of clay products, and invites inspection of his new 
exhibit of a large variety of sample brick, of both mud and dry 
pressed process. 

James A. Davis & Co., Boston, are furnishing Alpha Portland 

Cement in the construction of the 
new Southern Terminal Station, 
Boston ; also for the Back Bay 
Station seawall and bridge foun- 
dations. The United States Gov- 
ernment is using large quantities 
of Alpha Portland Cement in 
their engineering works along the 
Atlantic coast. 

The Union Akron Cement 
Company, Buffalo, N. Y., have 
closed a contract for 3,000 barrels 
of Akron Cement with the Al- 
catraz Paving Co., Philadelphia ; 
and also for 15,000 barrels with 
E. D. Smith & Co. for the Phila- 
delphia and Reading .Subway tun- 
nels which are to be built in the 
city of Philadelphia. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge 
Company, Berlin, Conn., are sup- 
plying the steel framework on the 
following new buildings : New 
station and car house for the 
Spencer, Warren, and Brookfield 
Street Railway Company, at 
Brookfield, Mass. ; new building 
for the Waterville Cutlery Com- 
pany, at Waterville, Conn. ; new 
power house for the Bryant 
Electric Company, at Bridgeport, 
Conn.; addition to the Wilmot 
& Hobbs Manufacturing Com- 
pany's plant, at Bridgeport, 
Conn. ; and new power house for the Port Chester Railway Com- 
pany, at Port Chester, N. Y. 

Sayre & Fisher Company, through their Boston agent, Charles 
Bacon, are supplying the gray brick being used in a mercantile build- 
ing now under process of construction at the corner of Beach and 
Utica Streets, Boston, Winslow & Wetherell, architects ; C. Everett 
Clark, contractor. 

The same company has recently taken their third order for 
enameled brick for the new Terminal Station, Boston, Shepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge, architects ; Norcross Brothers, contractors. They have 
also secured a large order for enameled brick for the Back Bay 
Station of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railway, at Bos- 
ton, Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects; Horton & Heminway, 

The Mason Safety Tread is growing in favor with conserv- 
ative architects and real-estate owners as a protective appliance for 

it college, beloit, wis 

Terra-Cotta & Ceramic Company. 



stairways. Among work recently specified are the following-named 
buildings: Cambridge City Hospital and Randall Dining Hall, Cam- 
bridge, Wheelwright & Haven, architects; New England Telephone 
& Telegraph Company's building, Oxford Street, Clarence A. Per- 
kins, chief engineer for the company; Subway station at Haymar- 
ket Square, Howard Carson, chief engineer: Subway stations at 
Scollay and Adams Squares, and ofilice building of Transit Com- 
mission at Brattle and Court Streets, Charles Brigham, architect; 
First Corps Cadets Armory, Columbus Avenue, William Gibbons 
Preston, architect; Dorchester schoolhouse, Hartwell, Richardson 
& Driver, architects; South Boston schoolhouse, Herbert D. Hale, 
architect; fire-engine house, Haymarket Square. Perkins and Betton, 

Draughtsman Wanted. 


For Sale — By Order ot Court. 


architects ; ferry house. South Ferry, city of Boston, Maginnis, 
Walsh & Sullivan, architects; Worcester County Court House, 
Andrews. Jaques & Rantoul, architects ; State Hospital for the In- 
sane, Westboro, Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, architects : Cambridge 
Savings Bank, C. H. Blackall, architect ; Brookline Savings Bank. 
F. Joseph Untersee. architect: town hall, Revere, Greenleaf & 
Cobb, architects; police headquarters and court, Newton, 
Lewis H. Bacon, architect ; Union Station, Omaha, Walker & Kim- 
ball, architects : Alice Building, Providence, R. L, Martin & Hall, 
architects; Besse Building, Springfield, Mass., B. H. Seabury, archi- 
tect; Meier & Frank Building, Portland, Ore.. Whidden & Lewis, 

Fine Clay Property and F'actorv Sites. 

Twenty-five hundred acres, within six miles of Baltimore, 
Md. A large part is underlaid with clays of fine quality and 
great variety, suitable for making red, buff, and other kinds of 
Bricks, Tiles, and Terra-Cotta. A railroad, running through the 
property, connects it with Baltimore and Washington. Water 
connection with Baltimore and Chesapeake Bay by channel 
fifteen feet deep. Good water power on property. Fine sites 
for Factories. Parts of property are suited for suburban devel- 
opment and parts for truck farming. For sale, as a whole or in 
lots to suit, on reasonable terms. 

Also a small FACTORY, equipped for making roofing tiles 
and bricks. 

Apply to Curtis Creek M. F. & M. Co., 12 St. Paul Street, 
Baltimore. Md. 

Fireplace Mantels. 

The best ones to buy are those we make of 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as good or 
as durable. Our mantels don't cost any more than 
other kinds, and are far better in every way — our 
customers say so. Don't order a mantel before you 
have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch Book 
showing 53 designs of mantels costing from $J2 

Phila, & Boston Face Brick Co.^